Digital Watermarking by Chaelynne M. Wolak firstname.lastname@example.orgA paper submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for DISS 880 – Preliminary Proposal School of Computer and Information Sciences Nova Southeastern University October 2000
AbstractCopyright abuse is the motivating factor in developing new encryption technologies. One suchtechnology is digital watermarking. The focus of this proposed PowerPoint presentation willdetail digital watermarking for multimedia applications. Areas that will be covered are definitionof digital watermarking, purpose, techniques, and types of watermarking attacks. Lastly, thecurrent laws in place for digital copyright and the future of digital watermarking technology willbe briefly detailed.
Table of ContentsAbstract iiChapters1. Introduction 1 Problem Statement and Goal 1 Relevance and Significance 2 Barriers and Issues 2 Approach 3 Milestones 52. Review of Literature Definition of Digital Watermarking 5 Purpose of Digital Watermarking 5 Digital Watermarking Techniques 6 Types of Attacks 8 Current Laws 9 Future of Digital Watermarking 113. Methodology 12 Product Criteria 12 Marketing Plan 13 Expectations 13References 15
Chapter 1 Introduction This project will consist of one deliverable. A ten-minute PowerPoint presentation will bedeveloped and distributed for those that prefer to have an interactive approach to learning aboutdigital watermarking. The following introductory sections describe the problem statement andgoal, relevance and significance, barriers and issues, approach, and a timeline of the milestones.Problem Statement and Goal The desire for the availability of information and quick distribution has been a majorfactor in the development of new technology in the last decade (Zhao, Koch, & Luo, 1998).There is the increased use of multimedia across the Internet. Multimedia distribution has becomean important way to deliver services to people around the world (Arn, Gatlin, & Kordsmeier,1998). It is commonly applied in Internet marketing campaigns and electronic commerce websites. Due to the growing usage of multimedia content on the Internet, serious issues haveemerged. Counterfeiting, forgery, fraud, and pirating of this content are rising (Lan & Tewfik,1999). Virtually anyone with a sound card, scanner, video frame grabbers, or multimediaauthoring systems allow them to incorporate copyrighted material into presentations, webdesigns, and Internet marketing campaigns. Consequently, copyright abuse is rampant amongmultimedia users who are rarely caught (Gatlin, Arn, & Kordsmeier, 1999). This copyright abuse is the motivating factor in developing new encryptiontechnologies (Zhao et al., 1998). One such technology is digital watermarking. The focus of thisproposed PowerPoint presentation will detail digital watermarking for multimedia applications.Areas that will be covered are definition of digital watermarking, purpose, techniques, and typesof watermarking attacks. Lastly, the current laws in place for digital copyright and the future ofdigital watermarking technology will be briefly detailed. This PowerPoint presentation could beused to further one’s understanding of one type of multimedia encryption techniques.Relevance and Significance Multimedia usage has developed from the need in satisfying human desires in societies. Itis this desire that relies on communication, personal interaction, and entertainment (Lan &Tewfik, 1999). Thus, the emphasis has mostly been placed on making information available and
on transmitting and manipulating that information. Protecting information and content has notreceived the attention that it deserves (Zhao et al., 1998). It has only been recently that copyright laws regarding multimedia usage have beenestablished. Any extensive research in this area is non-existent (Arn et al., 1998, December).However, even the current copyright laws are inadequate for dealing with all this digitaldata (Memon & Wong, 1998). Digital watermarking seems to be the only potential encryptiontechnology to provide protection even after data is decrypted (Zhao et al., 1998).Barriers and Issues Several barriers prevent digital watermarking from being effective and widespread. First,there is not a foolproof protection scheme while making the watermarks imperceptible. Thus,absolute robustness is impossible (Zhao et al., 1998). Second, it is difficult to offer an “off-the-shelf” solution to the mass market. Although,there is significant interest in this technology from OEMs and system integrators, there is noinfrastructure or protocols. Besides, the legal status of watermarks used as evidence in lawsuitsinvolving intellectual property has not been tested (Zhao et al., 1998). Lastly, out of fear of piracy, many professional photographers, artists, and other contentcreators still do not put their work out in digital format. Thus, the market for this new encryptiontechnology is not widespread. Usually a new technology goes through a dormancy period beforewidespread adoption (Zhao et al., 1998).Approach The goal of this project will enhance an individual’s understanding of digitalwatermarking for multimedia applications. Areas that will be covered are definition of digitalwatermarking, purpose, techniques, and types of watermarking attacks. Lastly, the current lawsin place for digital copyright and the future of digital watermarking technology will be brieflydetailed. The first step in accomplishing this will be to perform a thorough search into digitalwatermarking. Next, the preliminary proposal will be written. It will include the following threechapters. Chapter one will describe the deliverable, problem statement, relevance, barriers andissues, and milestones. The review of literature of digital watermarking will be chapter two.Chapter three will consist of the product criteria, marketing plan, and expectations. To complete the project, the full development process of the PowerPoint presentation willbe detailed. During the development of the PowerPoint presentation, two individuals will be
asked for their input. Comments and observations will be incorporated into the final PowerPointpresentation. These same individuals will be asked for their comments on the final design. Thedevelopment process and results from these evaluations will be presented in chapter four.Chapter five will conclude with recommendations for further enhancements.Milestones The following is a summary of the milestones for this project. The idea for the DigitalWatermarking PowerPoint presentation was decided in July 2000. Refinements to chapter onewas done on Sunday, October 8, 2000. Chapters two and three were completed on Sunday,October 15, 2000. The preliminary proposal was submitted before Friday, October 20, 2000. The development of the PowerPoint presentation will start in November 2000 with theinitial design being complete on November 23, 2000. Evaluations of the initial design will bedone during the Thanksgiving holiday. Throughout December 2000, these evaluations will beincorporated into the final Digital Watermarking PowerPoint presentation. The final product willbe available at the end of January 2001.
Chapter 2 Review of Literature The idea of watermarking can be dated back to the late Middle Ages. The earliest use hasbeen to record the manufacture’s trademark on the product so that authenticity could be easilyestablished. The Government uses it for currencies, postage stamps, revenue stamps,etc (Berghel, 1998). Now due to the information and computer age, digital watermarking isbeing expanded.Definition of Digital Watermarking Digital watermarking is a process of embedding unobtrusive marks or labels into digitalcontent. These embedded marks are typically imperceptible (invisible) that can later be detectedor extracted (Yeung, Yeo, & Holliman, 1998). The concept of digital watermarking is associatedwith steganography. Steganography is defined as covered writing. It has a long history of being associatedwith methods of secret communication. Steganography does not immediately arise the suspicionof something secret or valuable. Instead, it hides an important message in an unimportant one.Therefore, digital watermarking is a way to hide a secret or personal message to protect aproduct’s copyright or to demonstrate data integrity (Voyatzis & Pitas, 1999).Purpose of Digital Watermarking Watermarks added to digital content serve a variety of purposes. The following listdetails six purposes of digital watermarking (Memon & Wong, 1998). Ownership Assertion – to establish ownership of the content (i.e. image) Fingerprinting – to avoid unauthorized duplication and distribution of publicly available multimedia content Authentication and integrity verification – the authenticator is inseparably bound to the content whereby the author has a unique key associated with the content and can verify integrity of that content by extracting the watermark Content labeling – bits embedded into the data that gives further information about the content such as a graphic image with time and place information Usage control – added to limit the number of copies created whereas the watermarks are modified by the hardware and at some point would not create any more copies (i.e. DVD)
Content protection – content stamped with a visible watermark that is very difficult to remove so that it can be publicly and freely distributedUnfortunately, there is not an universal watermarking technique to satisfy all of thesepurposes (Memon & Wong, 1998). The content in the environment that it will be useddetermines the digital watermarking technique. The following section describes some digitalwatermarking techniques.Digital Watermarking Techniques The most important properties of any digital watermarking techniques are robustness,security, imperceptibility, complexity, and verification. Robustness is defined as if thewatermark can be detected after media (normal) operations such as filtering, lossy compression,color correction, or geometric modifications. Security means the embedded watermark cannot beremoved beyond reliable detection by targeted attacks. Imperceptibility means the watermark isnot seen by the human visual system. Complexity is described as the effort and time required forwatermark embedding and retrieval. Lastly, verification is a procedure where by there is aprivate key or public key function (Dittmann, Mukherjee, & Steinebach, 2000). Each of these properties must be taken into consideration when applying a certain digitalwatermarking technique. The following sections describe a few of the most common digitalwatermarking techniques.Spatial and Frequency Domain Spatial and frequency domain watermarking are applied to graphic images and text.Spatial domain watermarking slightly modifies the pixels of one or two randomly selectedsubsets of an image. Modifications might include flipping the low-order bit of each pixel.However, this technique is not reliable when subjected to normal media operations such asfiltering or lossy compression (Berghel, 1998). Frequency domain watermarking technique is also called transform domain. Values ofcertain frequencies are altered from their original. Typically, these frequency alterations are donein the lower frequency levels, since alternations at the higher frequencies are lost duringcompression. The watermark is applied to the whole image so as not to be removed during acropping operation. However, there is a tradeoff with the frequency domain technique.Verification can be difficult since this watermark is applied indiscriminately across the wholeimage (Berghel, 1998).
The Zhao Koch Algorithm and The Fridrich Algorithm The Zhao Koch Algorithm and The Fridrich Algorithm watermark techniques are appliedto MPEG videos. The Zhao Koch Algorithm embeds a copyright label in the frequency domainof the video. The algorithm randomly selects three coefficients from the discrete cosinetransform encoded block and manipulates them to store a single bit of information using a secretkey. This single bit information can be the name or address of the owner. The watermark can beeasily embedded into the video with minimal operation. Thus, complexity is not an issue.However, the Zhao Koch Algorithm watermark technique is not robust against normal mediaoperations such as scaling or rotation (Dittmann, Stabenau, & Steinmetz, 1998). The Fridrich Algorithm watermark technique is where a pattern is overlaid in the lowfrequency domain. The pattern is created using a pseudo random number generator and a cellularautomation with voting rules. The pseudo random number generator creates a white and blackinitial pattern that is the same size as the image. A cellular automation with voting rules is thenapplied until there is a convergence to fixed points. The voting rule randomly patches the patterninto these connected points. Thus, the pattern is now overlaid into the image. This algorithm isresistant to normal media operations. However, verification using this algorithm is not reliable.This is because the watermark technique does not include detail information about the ownerwhen the pattern is created and overlaid (Dittmann et al., 1998).Attacks Digital watermarking does not have the same capability or level of security as dataencryption. It does not prevent the viewing or listening of content, nor does it prevent accessingthat content. Therefore, digital watermarking is not immune to hacker attacks (Yeung et al.,1998). The following are some intentional attacks on watermarks (Cox, Miller, & Bloom, 2000). Active Attacks – hacker tries to remove the watermark or make it undetectable. An example is to crop it out. Passive Attacks – hacker tries to determine whether there is a watermark and identify it. However, no damage or removal is done. Collusion Attacks – hacker uses several copies of one piece of media, each with a different watermark, to construct a copy with no watermark. Forgery Attacks – hacker tries to embed a valid watermark of their own rather than remove one.
Distortive Attacks – hacker applies some distortive transformation uniformly over the object in order to degrade the watermark so that it becomes undetectable/unreadable (Collberg & Thomborson, 1999).These intentional attacks are just one of the barriers of why authors do not put their works intodigital format. However, the government has stepped in to help these authors by establishing newlaws.Current Laws There are three main laws concerning digital copyright. They are the Digital MillenniumCopyright Act (DMCA), the Collections of Information Antipricay Act, and changes to Article2B of the Uniform Commercial Code. Each of these laws is briefly described below.
Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) The Clinton Administration established this policy by making online service providers(OSPs) responsible for guarding against copyright infringements. However, major OSPs andtelephone companies argued that it was technologically and economically infeasible to monitorall user activities. Therefore, a compromise has been established (Samuelson, 1999). Under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, OSPs can qualify for exemption of liabilityby taking the following steps. The following steps are termination of service to repeat offenders,accommodating standard technological measures adopted by copyright industries to protectworks, and abide by removing material from their system when notified of copyrightinfringement. This law was passed in September 1998 (Samuelson, 1999).Collections of Information Antipiracy Act This bill would protect the intellectual property in databases. Currently copyright doesnot protect all data compilations, but only those that exhibit sufficient creativity in the selectionand arrangement. For example, the white pages are not copyright protected. However, manyprivate companies feel that data complied should be. However, due to strong opposition from thescientific and educational communities in the United States, this law was neverpassed (Samuelson, 1999).Article 2B of the Uniform Commercial Code Article 2B regulates all information as it relates to computer information transactions.Thus, it would apply to multimedia products, software licensing, and interactive services.However, there is much controversy over this proposed law. This is why it is still notpassed (Samuelson, 1999).Future of Digital Watermarking Digital information can easily be disseminated and copied via global networks. Due tothis ease, challenges regarding digital information have created a need for more copyright laws.However, laws cannot be the only entity required to protect digital works. Digital watermarkingand its technological advancements should continue to be researched and developed. The futureof digital watermarking relies on setting standards and creating applications so that creators ofdigital content can easily implement it.
Chapter III MethodologyProduct Criteria (Test Plan) The main purpose of the Digital Watermarking PowerPoint presentation is to provide aninteractive learning experience. This presentation should accomplish the following items: Provide an enjoyable learning experience using multimedia content Make it easier to study in depth on digital watermarking by having all resources in one central area Provide a more clear overview of digital watermarking versus having the user read various sources Allow users to learn at their own speed about digital watermarkingThese objectives are complied based on various readings regarding multimedia learning. Theprocesses that will be used to validate these objectives are the following: Quantitative measure - the number of errors that occurred during the navigation of the PowerPoint presentation Two qualitative measures - think aloud (comments/observations) and post-test questionnaire The target audience is a vast resource. Many potential users would be very interested inthe Digital Watermarking PowerPoint presentation. They include content creators (i.e. artists,authors, movie studios), content providers (i.e. libraries, professional photographers), electroniccommerce and graphic software vendors, manufacturers of digital still images, video camera, anddigital video discs (DVDs) (Zhao et al., 1998). In essence, it is anyone who creates somethingand would like it copyright protected. The hardware requirements for the Digital Watermarking PowerPoint presentationinclude having a Pentium computer with at least 64 MB of RAM and a CD-ROM drive. Thesoftware requirements include Microsoft Windows 98, Microsoft PowerPoint 2000 and access tothe Internet.Marketing Plan In this digital age, information and/or created works can easily be found and disseminatedglobally. The Internet has opened the door where it is easy to download or use other individual’s
works. Therefore, in order to protect the digital works of these creators, a Digital WatermarkingPowerPoint presentation is available to inform these creators there are ways to protect theirworks from copyright abuse. Within the next three months, a PowerPoint 2000 presentation willbe available in two forms: downloadable from the Internet from various websites including thosecompanies who specialize in digital watermarking and CD-ROM.Expectations The creation of the multimedia PowerPoint presentation is a legitimate solution tohelping targeted users understand digital watermarking. The trend towards learning is one ofasynchronous, just-in-time, and instruction delivered for which a multimedia PowerPointpresentation is suited (Zemke, 1998). The PowerPoint presentation will be structured and provideadequate guidance, therefore it should provide an effective forum to learning about digitalwatermarking. However, there are some potential disadvantages to using a PowerPointpresentation to learn about digital watermarking. First, not all targeted users are familiar with computers or how to go about using theInternet. Second, some targeted users prefer to learn by having a professor teach or byexperimenting with an actual application. Lastly, the PowerPoint presentation may not addressthe target user needs, thus it could fall short of their expectations (Zemke, 1998).
ReferencesArn, J., Gatlin, R., & Kordsmeier, W. (1998, December). Multimedia copyright laws and guidelines: Take the test. Business Communication Quarterly, 32-39.Berghel, H. (1998). Digital watermarking makes it mark. netWorker: The craft of network computing, 2(4), 30-39.Collberg, C., & Thomborson, C. (1999, January 20 - 22). Software watermarking: Models and dynamic embeddings. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 26th ACM SIGPLAN- SIGACT on principles of programming languages, San Antonio, Texas.Cox, I., Miller, M., & Bloom, J. (2000, March 27 -29). Watermarking applications and their properties. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the international conference on information technology: Coding and computing, Las Vegas, Nevada.Dittmann, J., Mukherjee, A., & Steinebach, M. (2000, March 27 - 29). Media-independent watermarking classification and the need for combining digital video and audio watermarking for media authentication. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the international conference on information technology: Coding and computing, Las Vegas, Nevada.Dittmann, J., Stabenau, M., & Steinmetz, R. (1998, September 13 - 16). Robust MPEG video watermarking technologies. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 6th ACM international conference on multimedia, Bristol, United Kingdom.Gatlin, R., Arn, J., & Kordsmeier, W. (1999, July/August). AACSB deans understanding of multimedia copyright laws and guidelines. Journal of Education for Business, 74(6), 368- 371.Lan, T., & Tewfik, A. (1999, October 30 - November 5). Fraud detection and self embedding. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the seventh ACM international conference (part 2) on multimedia, Orlando, FL.Memon, N., & Wong, P. W. (1998). Protecting digital media content. Communications of the ACM, 41(7), 35-43.Samuelson, P. (1999). Good news and bad news on the intellectual property front. Communications of the ACM, 42(3), 19-24.Voyatzis, G., & Pitas, I. (1999, January/February). Protecting digital-image copyrights: A framework. IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications, 19(1), 18-24.Yeung, M., Yeo, B., & Holliman, M. (1998, November/December). Digital watermarks: Shedding light on the invisible. IEEE Micro, 18(6), 32-41.
Zemke, R. (1998, June). Wake up! Training, 35(6), 36-42.Zhao, J., Koch, E., & Luo, C. (1998). In business today and tomorrow. Communications of the ACM, 41(7), 67-71.