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  1. 1. Network Management with Linux<br />Prateek Porwal<br /> Computer Science & Engg. Deptt.<br /> Mail ID:<br />
  2. 2. Red Hat Linux….<br />
  3. 3. Open Source Software<br /><ul><li>When programmers on the Internet can read, redistribute, and modify the source for a piece of software, it evolves.
  4. 4. People improve it, people adapt it, people fix bugs. And this can happen at a speed that, compared to conventional software development, seems astonishing.</li></li></ul><li>Why is it significant ??<br /><ul><li>Growing popularity
  5. 5. Powerful
  6. 6. Runs on multiple hardware platforms
  7. 7. Users like its speed and stability
  8. 8. No requirement for latest hardware
  9. 9. It’s “free”
  10. 10. Licensed under GPL
  11. 11. Vendors are distributors who package Linux</li></li></ul><li>The Linux System<br />User commands includes executable programs and scripts<br />The shell interprets user commands. It is responsible for finding the commands and starting their execution. Several different shells are available. Bash is popular.<br />The kernel manages the hardware resources for the rest of the system.<br />
  12. 12. Shells<br /><ul><li>An interface between the Linux system and the user
  13. 13. Used to call commands and programs
  14. 14. An interpreter
  15. 15. Powerful programming language
  16. 16. “Shell scripts” = .bat .cmd EXEC REXX
  17. 17. Many available (bsh; ksh; csh; bash; tcsh)</li></li></ul><li>root<br />/<br />Directories<br />etc<br />home<br />usr<br />passwd<br />inittab<br />User home directories<br />apple<br />mango<br />banana<br />a<br />b<br />Data files<br />Linux File System Basics<br /><ul><li>Linux files are stored in a single rooted, hierarchical file system
  18. 18. Data files are stored in directories (folders)
  19. 19. Directories may be nested as deep as needed</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Files are named by
  20. 20. naming each containing directory
  21. 21. starting at the root
  22. 22. This is known as the pathname</li></ul>/<br />etc<br />home<br />usr<br />passwd<br />inittab<br />/etc/passwd<br />apple<br />mango<br />banana<br />a<br />b<br />/home/apple/b<br />Naming Files<br />
  23. 23. Some Special File Names<br /><ul><li>Some file names are special:
  24. 24. / The root directory (not to be confused with the root user)
  25. 25. . The current directory
  26. 26. .. The parent (previous) directory
  27. 27. ~ My home directory
  28. 28. Examples:
  29. 29. ./a same as a
  30. 30. ../mango/xgo up one level then look in directory mangofor x</li></li></ul><li>File Permissions <br /><ul><li>Every user:
  31. 31. Has a uid (login name), gid (login group) and membership of a "groups" list:
  32. 32. The uid is who you are (name and number)
  33. 33. The gid is your initial “login group” you normally belong to
  34. 34. The groups list is the file groups you can access via group permissions</li></li></ul><li>File Permissions<br /><ul><li>Linux provides three kinds of permissions:
  35. 35. Read - users with read permission may read the file or list the directory
  36. 36. Write - users with write permission may write to the file or new files to the directory
  37. 37. Execute - users with execute permission may execute the file or lookup a specific file within a directory</li></li></ul><li>File Permissions<br /><ul><li>The long version of file listing (ls -ld) will display the file permissions:</li></ul>-rwxrwxr-x 1 rvdheij rvdheij 5224 Dec 30 03:22 hello<br />-rw-rw-r-- 1 rvdheij rvdheij 221 Dec 30 03:59 hello.c<br />-rw-rw-r-- 1 rvdheij rvdheij 1514 Dec 30 03:59 hello.s<br />drwxrwxr-x 7 rvdheij rvdheij 1024 Dec 31 14:52 posixuft<br />Group<br />Permissions<br />Owner<br />
  38. 38. Interpreting File Permissions<br />-rwxrwxrwx<br />Other permissions<br />Group permissions<br />Owner permissions<br />Directory flag (d=directory; l=link)<br />
  39. 39. File Systems<br /><ul><li>Linux supports many different types
  40. 40. Most commonly, ext2fs
  41. 41. Filenames of 255 characters
  42. 42. File sizes up to 2GB
  43. 43. Theoretical limit 4TB
  44. 44. Derived from extfs
  45. 45. Highly reliable and high performer</li></li></ul><li>Virtual File System<br /><ul><li>VFS is designed to present a consistent view of data as stored on hardware.
  46. 46. Almost all hardware devices are represented using a generic interface.
  47. 47. VFS goes further, allowing the sysadmin to mount any of a set of logical file systems on any physical device. </li></li></ul><li>Virtual File System<br /><ul><li>Logical file systems promote compatibility with other operating system standards permitting developers to implement file systems with different policies.
  48. 48. VFS abstracts details of physical device and logical file system allowing processes to access files using a common interface, without knowing what physical or logical system the file resides on.</li></li></ul><li>User Management<br />
  49. 49. User Management<br /><ul><li>Simple way to add user is useradd command.
  50. 50. passwd will allow to change the password.
  51. 51. Of course there are lot of GUI tools for all these user management.
  52. 52. Group all common user to single group.
  53. 53. Be careful while editing /etc/passwd
  54. 54. /etc/shadow passwd file may also exist</li></li></ul><li>Telnet Protocol<br />
  55. 55. TELNET Protocol<br /><ul><li>TELNET provides Remote Logging capability on TCP.
  56. 56. TELNET is an old application & has widespread interoperability.
  57. 57. A TELNET connection is initiated when you enter the TELNET command and supply either a host name or an IP address. </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>The general format of the TELNET command is –</li></ul>TELNET [ IP_address | host_name] [ port]<br /><ul><li>After this password is required for the authentication.
  58. 58. You can use any commands that are available on the remote system that you are attached to.
  59. 59. In Linux, you can’t login as root user from TELNET for the sake of security, you can login as normal user to the server(by default).</li></li></ul><li>File Transfer Protocol (FTP)<br />
  60. 60. File Transfer Protocol<br /><ul><li>FTP is a useful and powerful utility for the general user.
  61. 61. FTP allows you to upload and download files between local and remote hosts.
  62. 62. The general form of the FTP command is FTP [ IP_address | host_name].
  63. 63. You initiate an FTP control connection to a host by supplying a host name with the FTP command; optionally, you could use the host's IP address in dotted decimal form.</li></li></ul><li>LINUX vs. WINDOWS<br />
  64. 64. <ul><li>Financial Differences
  65. 65. Technical Differences
  66. 66. End-User Differences</li></li></ul><li>Financial Differences<br />
  67. 67. Linux vs. Windows<br />
  68. 68. Technical Differences <br />
  69. 69. Linux vs. Windows<br /><ul><li>Keeping up to date</li></ul> By Upgrading<br />Linux upgrades faster than Windows<br /><ul><li>Compatibility</li></ul>Linux is Backward Compatible unlike Windows<br />
  70. 70. End-User Differences<br />
  71. 71. Proprietary vs. Open Source <br /><ul><li>Windows is a Proprietary Technology</li></ul> Applications will only work on Windows<br /><ul><li>Linux – Open Source</li></li></ul><li>Is Linux for you ??<br />Linux LinuxLinux Linux LinuxLinux Linux<br />Linux LinuxLinux Linux LinuxLinux Linux<br />Linux LinuxLinux Linux LinuxLinux Linux<br />Linux LinuxLinuxLinux Linux Linux Linux<br />Linux LinuxLinux Linux LinuxLinux Linux<br />Linux LinuxLinux Linux LinuxLinux Linux<br />Linux LinuxLinux Linux LinuxLinux Linux<br />Linux LinuxLinux Linux LinuxLinux Linux<br />Linux Linux Linux Linux Linux Linux Linux<br />
  72. 72. Thanks….<br />