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prateekporwal
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this is the ppt on linux...a FOSS...

this is the ppt on linux...a FOSS...

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  • 1. Network Management with Linux<br />Prateek Porwal<br /> Computer Science &amp; Engg. Deptt.<br /> Mail ID: prateek.porwal@yahoo.in<br />
  • 2. Red Hat Linux….<br />
  • 3. Open Source Software<br /><ul><li>When programmers on the Internet can read, redistribute, and modify the source for a piece of software, it evolves.
  • 4. People improve it, people adapt it, people fix bugs. And this can happen at a speed that, compared to conventional software development, seems astonishing.</li></li></ul><li>Why is it significant ??<br /><ul><li>Growing popularity
  • 5. Powerful
  • 6. Runs on multiple hardware platforms
  • 7. Users like its speed and stability
  • 8. No requirement for latest hardware
  • 9. It’s “free”
  • 10. Licensed under GPL
  • 11. Vendors are distributors who package Linux</li></li></ul><li>The Linux System<br />User commands includes executable programs and scripts<br />The shell interprets user commands. It is responsible for finding the commands and starting their execution. Several different shells are available. Bash is popular.<br />The kernel manages the hardware resources for the rest of the system.<br />
  • 12. Shells<br /><ul><li>An interface between the Linux system and the user
  • 13. Used to call commands and programs
  • 14. An interpreter
  • 15. Powerful programming language
  • 16. “Shell scripts” = .bat .cmd EXEC REXX
  • 17. Many available (bsh; ksh; csh; bash; tcsh)</li></li></ul><li>root<br />/<br />Directories<br />etc<br />home<br />usr<br />passwd<br />inittab<br />User home directories<br />apple<br />mango<br />banana<br />a<br />b<br />Data files<br />Linux File System Basics<br /><ul><li>Linux files are stored in a single rooted, hierarchical file system
  • 18. Data files are stored in directories (folders)
  • 19. Directories may be nested as deep as needed</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Files are named by
  • 20. naming each containing directory
  • 21. starting at the root
  • 22. This is known as the pathname</li></ul>/<br />etc<br />home<br />usr<br />passwd<br />inittab<br />/etc/passwd<br />apple<br />mango<br />banana<br />a<br />b<br />/home/apple/b<br />Naming Files<br />
  • 23. Some Special File Names<br /><ul><li>Some file names are special:
  • 24. / The root directory (not to be confused with the root user)
  • 25. . The current directory
  • 26. .. The parent (previous) directory
  • 27. ~ My home directory
  • 28. Examples:
  • 29. ./a same as a
  • 30. ../mango/xgo up one level then look in directory mangofor x</li></li></ul><li>File Permissions <br /><ul><li>Every user:
  • 31. Has a uid (login name), gid (login group) and membership of a &quot;groups&quot; list:
  • 32. The uid is who you are (name and number)
  • 33. The gid is your initial “login group” you normally belong to
  • 34. The groups list is the file groups you can access via group permissions</li></li></ul><li>File Permissions<br /><ul><li>Linux provides three kinds of permissions:
  • 35. Read - users with read permission may read the file or list the directory
  • 36. Write - users with write permission may write to the file or new files to the directory
  • 37. Execute - users with execute permission may execute the file or lookup a specific file within a directory</li></li></ul><li>File Permissions<br /><ul><li>The long version of file listing (ls -ld) will display the file permissions:</li></ul>-rwxrwxr-x 1 rvdheij rvdheij 5224 Dec 30 03:22 hello<br />-rw-rw-r-- 1 rvdheij rvdheij 221 Dec 30 03:59 hello.c<br />-rw-rw-r-- 1 rvdheij rvdheij 1514 Dec 30 03:59 hello.s<br />drwxrwxr-x 7 rvdheij rvdheij 1024 Dec 31 14:52 posixuft<br />Group<br />Permissions<br />Owner<br />
  • 38. Interpreting File Permissions<br />-rwxrwxrwx<br />Other permissions<br />Group permissions<br />Owner permissions<br />Directory flag (d=directory; l=link)<br />
  • 39. File Systems<br /><ul><li>Linux supports many different types
  • 40. Most commonly, ext2fs
  • 41. Filenames of 255 characters
  • 42. File sizes up to 2GB
  • 43. Theoretical limit 4TB
  • 44. Derived from extfs
  • 45. Highly reliable and high performer</li></li></ul><li>Virtual File System<br /><ul><li>VFS is designed to present a consistent view of data as stored on hardware.
  • 46. Almost all hardware devices are represented using a generic interface.
  • 47. VFS goes further, allowing the sysadmin to mount any of a set of logical file systems on any physical device. </li></li></ul><li>Virtual File System<br /><ul><li>Logical file systems promote compatibility with other operating system standards permitting developers to implement file systems with different policies.
  • 48. VFS abstracts details of physical device and logical file system allowing processes to access files using a common interface, without knowing what physical or logical system the file resides on.</li></li></ul><li>User Management<br />
  • 49. User Management<br /><ul><li>Simple way to add user is useradd command.
  • 50. passwd will allow to change the password.
  • 51. Of course there are lot of GUI tools for all these user management.
  • 52. Group all common user to single group.
  • 53. Be careful while editing /etc/passwd
  • 54. /etc/shadow passwd file may also exist</li></li></ul><li>Telnet Protocol<br />
  • 55. TELNET Protocol<br /><ul><li>TELNET provides Remote Logging capability on TCP.
  • 56. TELNET is an old application &amp; has widespread interoperability.
  • 57. A TELNET connection is initiated when you enter the TELNET command and supply either a host name or an IP address. </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>The general format of the TELNET command is –</li></ul>TELNET [ IP_address | host_name] [ port]<br /><ul><li>After this password is required for the authentication.
  • 58. You can use any commands that are available on the remote system that you are attached to.
  • 59. In Linux, you can’t login as root user from TELNET for the sake of security, you can login as normal user to the server(by default).</li></li></ul><li>File Transfer Protocol (FTP)<br />
  • 60. File Transfer Protocol<br /><ul><li>FTP is a useful and powerful utility for the general user.
  • 61. FTP allows you to upload and download files between local and remote hosts.
  • 62. The general form of the FTP command is FTP [ IP_address | host_name].
  • 63. You initiate an FTP control connection to a host by supplying a host name with the FTP command; optionally, you could use the host&apos;s IP address in dotted decimal form.</li></li></ul><li>LINUX vs. WINDOWS<br />
  • 64. <ul><li>Financial Differences
  • 65. Technical Differences
  • 66. End-User Differences</li></li></ul><li>Financial Differences<br />
  • 67. Linux vs. Windows<br />
  • 68. Technical Differences <br />
  • 69. Linux vs. Windows<br /><ul><li>Keeping up to date</li></ul> By Upgrading<br />Linux upgrades faster than Windows<br /><ul><li>Compatibility</li></ul>Linux is Backward Compatible unlike Windows<br />
  • 70. End-User Differences<br />
  • 71. Proprietary vs. Open Source <br /><ul><li>Windows is a Proprietary Technology</li></ul> Applications will only work on Windows<br /><ul><li>Linux – Open Source</li></li></ul><li>Is Linux for you ??<br />Linux LinuxLinux Linux LinuxLinux Linux<br />Linux LinuxLinux Linux LinuxLinux Linux<br />Linux LinuxLinux Linux LinuxLinux Linux<br />Linux LinuxLinuxLinux Linux Linux Linux<br />Linux LinuxLinux Linux LinuxLinux Linux<br />Linux LinuxLinux Linux LinuxLinux Linux<br />Linux LinuxLinux Linux LinuxLinux Linux<br />Linux LinuxLinux Linux LinuxLinux Linux<br />Linux Linux Linux Linux Linux Linux Linux<br />
  • 72. Thanks….<br />

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