How google works and how it earns
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How google works and how it earns

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It helps you to learn about the working of GOOGLE

It helps you to learn about the working of GOOGLE

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How google works and how it earns Document Transcript

  • 1. INDEX CONTENT 1 – GOOGLE 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Google Design 1.3 Google Services and Tool 1.4 Google Products 1.5 Google Lab 1.6 Some Google Parameter 1.7 Future Inventions from Google CONTENT 2 - SEARCH ENGINE 2.1 About Search Engine 2.2 Search Engine Market Share CONTENT 3- HOW GOOGLE WORKS 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Working Process CONTENT 4- HOW GOOGLE EARN CONTENT 5 - CURRENT FINANCIAL STATEMENT CONTENT 6 -GOOGLE AND YAHOO SEARCH ENGINE TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON CONTENT 7 - BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • 2. “TO ORGANIZE THE WORLD'S INFORMATION AND MAKE IT UNIVERSALLY ACCESSIBLE AND USEFUL.” - GOOGLE INC
  • 3. CONTENT 1 1.1 GOOGLE A widely used search engine that uses text-matching techniques to find web pages that are important and relevant to a user's search. Google was founded by Larry page and Sergey brin while they were student at Stanford University, California. originally nicknamed "backrub" The domain google.com was registered on September 15, 1997. Google.inc is an American public corporation, earning revenue from advertising related to its internet search, e-mail, online mapping, office productivity, social networking and video sharing service as well as selling advertising-free versions of the same technologies. Google has developed an open source web browsers and a mobile operating system. The Google headquarters, the googolplex, is located in Mountain View, California. as of march31, 2009,
  • 4. FOUNDER ERIC EMERSON SCHMIDT ERIC EMERSON SCHMIDT was born in 1955 in Washington D.C. Chairman and ceo of Google inc. and a member of the board of directors of apple Inc.
  • 5. LAWRENCE EDWARD "LARRY" PAGE LAWRENCE EDWARD “LARRY” PAGE was born on March 26, 1973 in Lansing, Michigan He is currently the president of products at Google Inc.
  • 6. SERGEY BRIN SERGEY BRIN was born on august 21, 1973 Co-founder and president of technology of Google
  • 7. 1.2 GOOGLE AND DESIGN EXPERIENCE (Fig 1.2) Google is a play on the word googol, which refers to the number represented by the numerical 1 followed by 100 zeroes. Google’s use of the term reflects the company's mission to organize the immense, seemingly. Infinite amount of information available on the web.
  • 8. 1.3 GOOGLE SERVICES AND TOOLS (Fig 1.3)
  • 9. 1.4 PRODUCTS FROM GOOGLE (Fig 1.4) • Desktop products – Desktop extensions -These products created by Google are extensions to software created by other organizations. • Mobile products – Online mobile products – Downloadable mobile products • Web products • Development • Mapping • Search • Google Hardware
  • 10. 1. Desktop Products • Ad Words Editor – Desktop application to manage a Google Ad Words account. The application allows users to make changes to their account and advertising campaigns before synchronizing with the online service. • Chrome – Web browser. • Desktop – Desktop search application that indexes e-mails, documents, music, photos, chats, Web history and other files. It allows the installation of Google Gadgets. • Earth – Virtual 3D globe that uses satellite imagery, aerial photography and GIS from Google's repository. • Gmail/Google Notified – Alerts the user of new messages in their Gmail account. • Pack – Collection of computer applications -- some Google-created, some not -- including Google Earth, Google Desktop, Picasa, Google Talk, and Google Chrome. – Talk – Application for VoIP and instant messaging. It consists of both a service and a client used to connect to the service, which uses the XMPP protocol. • Photos Screensaver – Slideshow screensaver as part of Google Pack, which displays images sourced from a hard disk, or through RSS and Atom Web feeds.
  • 11. • Picasa – Photo organization and editing application, providing photo library options and simple effects. Also includes Facial Recognition and GeoTagging features. • Picasa Web Albums Up loader – An application to upload images to the "Picasa Web Albums" service. It consists of both an iPhoto plug-in and a stand-alone application.
  • 12. 2. Desktop extensions • Blogger Web Comments – Displays related comments from other Blogger users. • Dashboard Widgets for Mac – Collection of mini-applications including Gmail, Blogger and Search History. • Gears – A browser plug-in that enables development of off-line browser applications. • Send to Mobile – Allows users to send text messages to their mobile phone (US only) about web content. • Toolbar – Web browser toolbar with features such as a Google Search box, phishing protection, pop-up blocker as well as the ability for website owners to create buttons.
  • 13. 3. Mobile Products • Blogger Mobile – Only available on some US networks. Allows you to update your Blogger blog from a mobile device. • Buzz – Buzz is a social networking service built into Gmail. It was released on February 9th, 2010. • Calendar – Displays a list of all Google Calendar events on a mobile device. Users are able to quickly add events to your personal calendar. • Gmail – Access a Gmail account from a mobile device using a standard mobile web browser. Alternatively, Google provides a specific mobile application to access and download Gmail messages quicker. • News – Allows the user to access Google News in a mobile-optimized view. • Google Mobilizer – Optimizes web pages for mobile web browsers. – Information about a product. • Reader – Displays Google Reader on a mobile device. • Mobile search – Search web pages, images, local listings and mobile-specific web pages through the Google search engine. Mobile view is enabled by default.
  • 14. Picasa Web Albums – Lets you view and share photo albums that you have stored online on Picasa. • Google Latitude – Google Latitude is a mobile relocation tool that lets your friends know where you are via Google Maps. • Google Maps Navigation – An Android navigation application for GPS-enabled mobile devices (such as the Google Nexus One) with 3D views, turn-by-turn voice guidance and automatic rerouting. It is currently available only in the United States.
  • 15. 4. Web Products • Dashboard – Dashboard is an online tool that allows Google Account holders to view all their personal information Google is storing on their servers. • Ad Planner – An online tool that allows users to view traffic estimates for popular web sites and create media plans. • Ad Manager – A hosted ad management solution • Ad Sense – Advertisement program for Website owners. Adverts generate revenue on either a per-click or per-thousand-ads-displayed basis, and adverts shown are from Ad Words users, depending on which adverts are relevant. • Ad Words – Google's flagship advertising product and main source of revenue. Ad Words offers pay-per-click (PPC) advertising, and site-targeted advertising for both text and banner ads. • Google Advertising Professionals – Google's Ad Words partner certification program, providing Ad Words qualifications to agencies that pass exams and other criteria • Ad Words Website Optimizer – Integrated Ad Words tool for testing different website content, in order to gain to the most successful advertising campaigns.
  • 16. • Click-to-Call – Calling system so users can call advertisers for free at Google's expense from search results pages. This service was discontinued. • Double-click – Internet ad serving provider. • Grants – Scheme for non-profit organizations to benefit from free Cost-Per-Click advertising on the Ad Words network. • TV Ads – CPM-driven television advertising scheme available on a trial basis, currently aimed towards professional advertisers, agencies and partners • Apps – Custom domain and service integration service for businesses, enterprise and education, featuring Gmail and other Google products. • Blogger – Weblog publishing tool. Users can create custom, hosted blogs with features such as photo publishing, comments, group blogs, blogger profiles and mobile-based posting with little technical knowledge. • Buzz – Integrated with Gmail service allowing sharing updates, photos, videos and more at once. It lets the users make conversations about the things they find interesting. This looks as a transition to Google Wave. • Calendar – Free online calendar. It includes a unique "quick add" function which allows users to insert events using natural language input. Other features include Gmail integration and calendar sharing. It is similar to those offered by Yahoo! and MSN.
  • 17. • Docs – Document, spreadsheet and presentation application, with document collaboration and publishing capabilities. • Friend Connect – Friend Connect is an online service that empowers website and blog owners to add social features to their websites. It also allows users to connect with their friends on different websites that have implemented Google Friend Connect on their website. • Gadgets – Mini-applications designed to display information or provide a function in a succinct manner. Available in Universal or Desktop format. • Profiles – It is simply how you present yourself on Google products to other Google users. It allows you to control how you appear on Google and tells others a bit more about who you are. • Gmail (Also known as Google Mail) – Free Webmail IMAP and POP e-mail service provided by Google, known for its abundant storage and advanced interface. It was first released in an invitation-only form on April 1, 2004. Mobile access and Google Talk integration is also featured. • iGoogle (Previously Google Personalized Homepage) – Customizable homepage, which can contain Web feeds and Google Gadgets, launched in May 2005. It was renamed to iGoogle on April 30, 2007 (previously used internally by Google).
  • 18. • Notebook – Web clipping application for saving online research. The tool permits users to clip text, images, and links from pages while browsing, save them online, access them from any computer, and share them with others. Google recently stopped development on Notebook and no longer accepts sign-ups. While old users can still access their notebooks, newcomers are offered to try other services such as Google Docs and Google Bookmark • Orkut – Social networking services, where users can list their personal and professional information, create relationships amongst friends and join communities of mutual interest. In November 2006, Google opened Orkut registration to everyone, instead of being invitation only. • Panoramio – Photos of the world. • Picnik – Online photo editing service. • Reader – Web-based news aggregator, capable of reading Atom and RSS feeds. It allows the user to search, import and subscribe to feeds. The service also embeds audio enclosures in the page. Major revisions to Google Reader were made in October 2006. • Sites (Previously Jot spot) – Website creation tool for private or public groups, for both personal and corporate use. • SMS Channels (Google India Only) – Launched September 2008, allows users to create and subscribe to channels over SMS. Channels can be based on RSS feeds. • Questions and Answers (Chinese / Russian / Thai / Arabic Only) – Community-driven knowledge market website. Launched on June 26, 2007 that allows users to ask and answer questions posed by other users.
  • 19. • YouTube – Free video sharing Web site which lets users upload, view, and share video clips. In October 2006, Google, Inc. announced that it had reached a deal to acquire the company for $1.65 billion USD in Google's stock. The deal closed on 13 November 2006.
  • 20. 5. Development • App Engine – A tool that allows developers to write and run web applications. • Code – Google's site for developers interested in Google-related development. The site contains Open Source code and lists of their API services. Also provides project hosting for any free and open source software. • Mash up Editor – Web Mash up creation with publishing facilities, as well as syntax highlighting and debugging (Deprecated, since January 14, 2009). • Open Social – A set of common APIs for building social applications on many websites. • Subscribed Links – Allows developers to create custom search results that Google users can add to their search pages. • Webmaster Tools (Previously Google Sitemaps) – Sitemap submission and analysis for the Sitemaps protocol. Renamed from Google Sitemaps to cover broader features, including query statistics and robots.txt analysis. • Web Toolkit – An open source Java software development framework that allows web developers to create Ajax applications in Java. • Google Chrome OS – An Operating System utilizing the Linux kernel and a custom Window manager.
  • 21. 6. Mapping • City Tours – An overlay to Maps that shows interesting tours within a city • Maps – Mapping service that indexes streets and displays satellite and street-level imagery, providing driving directions and local business search. • Map Maker – Edit the map in more than a hundred countries and watch your edits go into Google Maps. Become a citizen cartographer and help map your world. • Building Maker – Web Based building and editing tool to create 3D buildings for Google Earth. • Mars – Imagery of Mars using the Google Maps interface. Elevation, visible imagery and infrared imagery can be shown. It was released on March 13, 2006, the anniversary of the birth of astronomer Percival Lowell. • Moon – NASA imagery of the moon through the Google Maps interface. It was launched on July 20, 2005, in honor of the first manned Moon landing on July 20, 1969. • Ride Finder – Taxi, limousine and shuttle search service, using real time position of vehicles in 14 US cities. Ride Finder uses the Google Maps interface and cooperates with any car service that wishes to participate (discontinued as of October 2009).
  • 22. 7. Search • Aardvark – Social search utility which allows people to ask and answer questions within their social networks. It uses people's claimed expertise to match askers with good answerers. • Accessible Search – Search engine for the blind and visually impaired. It prioritizes usable and accessible web sites in the search results, so the user incurs minimal distractions when browsing. • Alerts – E-mail notification service, which sends alerts based on chosen search terms, whenever there are new results. Alerts include web results, Groups results news, and video. • Book Search (Previously Google Print) – Search engine for the full text of printed books. Google scans and stores in its digital database. The content that is displayed depends on the arrangement with the publishers, ranging from short extracts to entire books. • Checkout – Online payment processing service provided by Google aimed at simplifying the process of paying for online purchases. Webmasters can choose to implement Google Checkout as a form of payment. • Code Search – Search engine for programming code found on the Internet. • Dictionary – Once part of Google Translate, it is now a standalone service that allows searching of words and phrases from over 22 languages.
  • 23. • Directory – Collection of links arranged into hierarchical subcategories. The links and their categorization are from the Open Directory Project, but are sorted using Page Rank. • Directory (Google China) – Navigation directory, specifically for Chinese users. • Experimental Search – Options for testing new interfaces whilst searching with Google, including Timeline views and keyboard shortcuts. • Finance – Searchable US business news, opinion, and financial data. Features include company-specific pages, blog search, interactive charts, executive’s information, discussion groups and a portfolio. • Language Tools – Collection of linguistic applications, including one that allows users to translate text or web pages from one language to another, and another that allows searching in web pages located in a specific country or written in a specific language. • Life Search (Google China) – Search engine tailored towards everyday needs, such as train times, recipes and housing. • Movies – A specialized search engine that obtains Film showing times near a user-entered location as well as providing reviews of films compiled from several different websites.
  • 24. • Music (Google China) – A site containing links to a large archive of Chinese pop music (principally Canto pop and Mandopop), including audio streaming over Google's own player, legal lyric downloads, and in most cases legal MP3 downloads. The archive is provided by Top100.cn (i.e. this service does not search the whole Internet) and is only available in mainland China. It is intended to rival the similar, but potentially illegal service provided by Baidu. • News – Automated news compilation service and search engine for news. There are versions of the aggregator for more than 20 languages. While the selection of news stories is fully automated, the sites included are selected by human editors. • News Archive Search – Feature within Google News that allows users to browse articles from over 200 years ago. • Product Search (Previously Fro ogle) – Price engine that searches online stores, including auctions, for products. • Scholar – Search engine for the full text of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and scholarly fields. Today, the index includes virtually all peer-reviewed journals available online. • SMS – Mobile phone short message service offered by Google in several countries, including the USA, Japan, Canada, India and China and formerly the UK, Germany and Spain. It allows search queries to be sent as a text message. The results are sent as a reply, with no premium charge for the service. • Suggest – Auto-completion in search results while typing to give popular searches.
  • 25. 8. Google Hardware • Google Search Appliance – Hardware device that can be hooked to corporate intranets for indexing/searching of company files. • Google Mini – Reduced capacity and less expensive version of the Google Search Appliance. • Nexus One – Smartphone that runs the Android open source mobile operating system
  • 26. 1.5 Google labs Aardvark – Ask any question and Aardvark will discover the perfect person to answer in minutes! (Fig 1.5.1) Fast Flip – Blindingly fast overviews of headline pages of top newspapers. – City Tours (Fig 1.5.2) – Suggests multi-day walking tours of major cities given a starting address. Let Google find nearby points of interest for you or (new!) create your own tours from your own and others' "My Maps". Chrome Experiments (Fig 1.5.3) – A showcase of cool experiments for both JavaScript and web browsers created by designers around the world.
  • 27. Building Maker – Build 3D models for Google Earth. Browser Size – See which important parts of your web page can't be seen by users without scrolling. Similar Images – Search for images using pictures rather than words. Similar images help you narrow your search by finding images that are visually similar to an existing result. (Updated with image-specific related searches!) Shopper – Find product information quickly with your Android phone. (Fig 1.5.4) Script Converter – Converts text and web pages written in one script to its phonetic equivalent in another script. People Hopper – Want to see how distant your friend is from you or your other friends visually? Try People Hopper! Image Swirl – Google Image Swirl organizes image search results based on their visual and semantic similarity and presents them in an intuitive exploratory interface. Google Video – Search and browse videos from across the web.
  • 28. (Fig 1.5.5) Google Goggles – Google Goggles lets you search Google using pictures from your camera phones. We take an image as input, and using several image recognition backbends (object recognition, place matching, OCR, etc), we return relevant search results. (Fig 1.5.6) Google Transliteration – Use Google Transliteration to type phonetically using an English keyboard. Google Code Search – Google Code helps you find function definitions and sample code by giving you one place to search publicly accessible source code hosted on the Internet. Sputnik – Runner for the Sputnik JavaScript conformance tests. (Fig 1.5.7) Google Reader – Use Google's web-based feed reader to keep track of your favorite web sites.
  • 29. (Fig 1.5.8) Google Moderator – Collaborative Q&A for group events. Google Moderator will help keep discussions on track by allowing users to both suggest questions and vote on others' questions. Google Docs and Spreadsheets – Create, store and share documents and spreadsheets on the web. Google Desktop – Find all your information, whether it's on the web or stored on your computer, from one convenient location. (Fig 1.5.9)
  • 30. 1.6 SOME GOOGLE PARAMETERS Some of the parameters which we think Google use to decide the position in search engine results of particular keywords are as follow: Let’s take an example of "best free antivirus" 1. Page rank (weight age can be 40%) 2. Meta tags (5%) 3. Keywords density (10%) 4. Title tags (10%) 5. Heading tags and other punctuation on pages (5%) 6. Quality content and new content (10%) 7. Domain age (5%) 8. Quality back links (15%) This is some of the parameters which Google looks from a webpage to fit into there are more like webpage should meet Google guidelines and should have sitemap with no dead links and many many many other parameters.
  • 31. 1.7 Future Inventions from Google • The Google GoBot. The Google GoBot is a little walking piece of hardware with an unprecedented level of intelligence. Fifty-thousand beta versions have been produced in the year 2032, set loose on earth to crawl our cities. A GoBot has just one mission in its electronic mind: uncover fresh information where ever it may hide, whenever it may show. Details will be reported back to the Google headquarters in real time. • What went right: Google GoBots were designed to uncover secrets, and they were bound to legal laws, too. Spying on dark alleys with their night vision lenses they helped report several crimes. One rather important Las Vegas led drug syndicate had to give up its nationwide activities “due to those pestering Google bots alerting the police.” • What went wrong: Google GoBots had their own idea of human privacy. They started lurking in people’s backyards and gardens, peeking through windows into their bathrooms, questioning neighbors, and even handing out Google Candy to kids who reveal important information on their parents. • Google Satellite. In 2011, Google Inc acquires Satellite Empires’ network of floating eyes in outer space. Using their image processing technology Google will take a snapshot of everything once a week; plus whenever something moves, they record that too and update their servers. Now when you look to Google for information on John M. from Denver, Colorado, not only will you get whatever’s available on the web – you will also be able to get a crystal clear view on his roof and balcony. • What went right: Google Satellite with its seamless zooming into four Exabyte raw image data was a dream come true for city builders and architects alike. Never before would people have such complete grasp of what the world looks like from above. From complete understanding sprang completely new ideas. • What went wrong: Thanks to the ever-preying set of Google Satellite eyes, older people were too afraid to leave their homes to walk the streets of their neighborhood ever again. • Google Image Spy. Many big bosses around the world have a common problem: they don’t know how to monitor their employee’s internet usage in meaningful ways. One of the biggest causes of delayed projects since the invention of that world wide web (which will be completely lower-case by 2020) is a staff busy looking at videos of dogs wearing clothes, tripping housewives, drunk teenagers jumping off the balcony into trees, subservient Presidents, or scantily clad, mud wrestling ladies battling for no prize at all to the
  • 32. soundtrack of “I will survive”. In the near future, Google Image Spy will try to solve this disturbance by analyzing company web traffic and reporting dubious saucy & funny imagery straight to the CEO. • What went right: Large software projects suddenly got finished in half the time. Global internet traffic decreased by 40% and System Administrators didn’t need to remind co-workers to stop sending large attachments. • What went wrong: Some of the bosses were so busy looking at all the stuff Google Image Spy dug up, they forget to lead the company and steered right into even bigger chaos. • Google Ad Walls. Inspired by a scene in Truffaut’s “Fahrenheit 451,” a Google engineer in 2028 creates Google Ad Walls. Like a living poster on the wall, they display a variety of items to shop for. The spin here is that Ad Walls listen to what people in the room are talking about, managing to display context-relevant information only. If they hear a “Honey, where’s the toothpaste?” in the morning, they will instantly display the fitting spot advertising toothpaste and talk the viewer into buying it. • What went right: Lonely people realized they could talk to their walls to suppress boredom. While not exactly intelligent, the algorithm always managed to stay on topic. • What went wrong: Landlords installing Ad Walls could lower the rent because they’d get a commission for items bought. The idea was this way everybody would benefit. However after the first wave of suicide attempts caused by annoying, ever-talking Ad Walls, Google felt forced to shut down the program. • Google Body parts. It all started with the Google Brain chip, a mix between a backup memory and brain search engine. You’d plug it into your head and it would keep a record of your life, and also allow you to search your brain for things you thought you forgot. Google didn’t stop there and introduced all sorts of body extensions, like the Google Power arms. You could now ask yourself for directions, and your fingers would point the way. The Google Power arms would later be replaced by the Google Navilegs, which would completely take over your navigation. • What went right: The extra brain storage meant you could focus on important things in life, such as love, philosophy, or altruism. People in general started to be nicer to each other because with a perfect memory, disputes were easily settled (no more “I remember it differently”). The Google Babel fish add-on made sure understanding foreign languages was a breeze. • What went wrong: In one word, Ads. Of course Google displayed ads, and in their goal to make them as unobtrusive as possible, they only did so during rather inactive brain periods (aka sleep). At night-time, people would dream of the latest products – during day, their subconscious was convinced they’d need to track down and buy them. While highly effective, this scheme quickly came under fire by the American Psychological Association and other groups. The scandal that finally ended Google Body parts, however, was when an underpaid programmer hacked the Google Navilegs system and directed his boss towards outside the 9th floor window.
  • 33. CONTENT 2 2.1 SEARCH ENGINE SEARCH Computing to examine a computer file, disk, database, or network for particular information. ENGINE Something that supplies the driving force or energy to a movement, system, or trend. SEARCH ENGINE A computer program that searches for particular keywords and return a list of documents in which they were found, especially a commercial service that scan documents on the internet
  • 34. From a recent market research it has been proved that most of the popular websites and successful websites owner get around 80% of traffic from organic search results. But, the other 20% of non organic traffic is needed to build a good page rank in Google. As if for now consider page rank as prestige of the website. Also it should be noted that for particular keyword (the term used for searches) Google never charges for organic search results. However, you can pay to get the sponsored listing for those keywords. “The ultimate Search Engine would understand exactly what you mean and give back exactly what you want.” - LARRY PAGE
  • 35. 2.2 Search engine market share (Fig 2.2)
  • 36. CONTENT 3 3.1 HOW DOES GOOGLE WORKS Google works on web spider now called a googlebot. The spider consists of crawler and indexer. Crawler crawls the WebPages on the internet and also saves the links mentioned on the webpage and crawl them too. As crawler crawls a particular pages it gets indexed or cached in the Google database by indexer.
  • 37. Explanation in Steps 1. Google search engine use software called bots or spider to scour the web (Fig 3.1.1) 2. These bots and spider find new websites and web pages by following links on the web page.
  • 38. (Fig 3.1.2) 3. Once Google search engine find a web page, they "read" the text-based content and the search engine stores this data into a huge library called an index.
  • 39. (Fig 3.1.3) 4. When we search something on Google the search engine reaches into its gigantic index and before displaying a list if web pages it uses its Algorithm to calculate which ones best match your search query then it eventually presents you with search results that are related to your query which leads you to the website you were looking for! (Fig 3.1.4)
  • 40. (Fig 3.1.5)
  • 41. 3.2 HOW GOOGLE WORKS (PROCESS) (Fig 3.2)
  • 42. CONTENT 4 HOW GOOGLE EARNS (Fig 4) There are various possible ways through which Google generate its income. The following are: Google Search Engine Gmail YouTube Orkut Google Ad sense Google Ad words Blogger Google Maps Google Earth Google News Google Analytics Android (operating system)
  • 43. 4.1 Ad Words It is the Google main source of revenue. Ad words basically deals with advertising. Reach people when they are actively looking information about your products and services online, and send targeted visitors directly to what you are offering. With Ad words it cost-per-click pricing. It’s easy to control costs- and you only pay when people click on your ad 4.2 Ad Sense It is basically use for web publishers. Earn more revenue from your website, while provide visitors with a more rewarding online experience. Google Ad Sense automatically delivers text and image ads that are precisely targeted to site and site content -ads so well-matched. In fact, the readers will actually find them useful. And when you add Google web search to the site, ad sense delivers targeted ads to the search result pages too. With ad sense you earn more ad revenue with minimal efforts - and no additional cost. 4.3 Page Rank Developed by Larry page and Sergey brin at the University of Stanford in 1997 Link analysis algorithm, measuring the relative importance of a website "Page rank is a vote, by all the other web pages on the internet, about how important a web page is. A link to a web page counts as a vote of support. If there are no incoming links to a web page then there is no support." Academic citation literature is applied to calculate page rank PR(A)= (1-d) + d(PR(t1)/C(t1) + ... + PR(tn)/C(tn)) in this equation- 't1-tn' are pages linking to page A, 'c' is the number of outbund links that a page has and 'd' is a damping factor , usually set to 0.85.
  • 44. 4.4 Sponsored Results These are the results that appear on the right hand corner of our screens after we execute a search on Google. Websites that appear on the Sponsored Results tab have an agreement with Google where they pay Google for showing their website on searches for specific websites. For example, if we are searching for a Samsung mobile phone, we see websites selling Samsung mobile phones in the Sponsored links section. Google earns some money when we click on any of these links. The question is how much money does Google earn from this? Google Ad words allow all potential advertisers to put up their adverts, specifying the keywords. After assessing the advert, Google will quote a price for your advert. 4.5 Google mobile search this can be explain with the help of an example A) search the web - at the supermarket and need to find the ingredients for Thai curry? just query "Thai curry ingredients" on your phone's web browser to search through more than 8 billion pages for the recipe that will wow the taste buds. B) search images - is that an oak tree or an ash tree ? search more than 2 billion images and get the one you need on your phone with Google image search. C) search the mobile web - access the mobile web which s made up of site that are specifically designed to fit your phone screen. 4.6 Google Image search Google also shows sponsored results for images under Sponsored Links above the rest of the results. These are also a means to earn a lot of money for Google. 4.7 Gmail When we sign in to our mail accounts on Gmail which is probably the most popular at this point in time, we are shown sponsored links on our accounts. And these links are always relevant to the keywords of the mails that we receive.
  • 45. 4.8 Orkut Google displays text and banner ads (Google Ad sense) on Orkut profiles and pages. 4.9 Android Google makes money (and justifies giving away the OS) by licensing the Google Apps that come on most Android phones (but not all). Apps like Gmail, the Android Market, Google Search, and others come in something called GAPPS. The Market is really where Google is interested. Sure, the other GAPPS add value to the phone (hence why carriers license their inclusion on Android-powered phones), but Google is making money with every app sold through the Market. Even free apps make Google money. Developers have to pay to have an account to list their apps under. Even ad-sponsored apps are likely using Google Mobile Ads, so Google’s getting revenue from that source as well. 4.10 YouTube Google displays text and banner ads (Google Ad sense) on youtube videos and sidebar of YouTube pages.
  • 46. CONTENT 5 CURRENT FINANCIAL STATEMENT "Google had another great quarter with revenues up 24% years on year," said Larry Page, CEO of Google. Cash – As of March 31, 2012, cash, cash equivalents, and short-term marketable securities were $49.3 billion. Headcount – On a worldwide basis, Google employed 33,077 full-time employees as of March 31, 2012, up from 32,467 full-time employees as of December 31, 2011. Revenues – Google reported revenues of $10.65 billion in the first quarter of 2012, representing a 24% increase over first quarter 2011 revenues of $8.58 billion. Google Sites Revenues - Google-owned sites generated revenues of $7.31 billion, or 69% of total revenues, in the first quarter of 2012. This represents a 24% increase over first quarter 2011 revenues of $5.88 billion. Google Network Revenues - Google’s partner sites generated revenues of $2.91 billion, or 27% of total revenues, in the first quarter of 2012. This represents a 20% increase from first quarter 2011 network revenues of $2.43 billion.
  • 47. Operating Expenses - Operating expenses, other than cost of revenues, were $3.47 billion in the first quarter of 2012, or 33% of revenues, compared to $3.34 billion in the first quarter of 2011, or 39% of revenues. Operating Income – GAAP operating income in the first quarter of 2012 was $3.39 billion, or 32% of revenues. This compares to GAAP operating income of $2.30 billion, or 27% of revenues, in the first quarter of 2011. Non-GAAP operating income in the first quarter of 2012 was $3.94 billion, or 37% of revenues. This compares to non-GAAP operating income of $3.23 billion, or 38% of revenues, in the first quarter of 2011. Net Income – GAAP net income in the first quarter of 2012 was $2.89 billion, compared to $1.80 billion in the first quarter of 2011. Non-GAAP net income was $3.33 billion in the first quarter of 2012, compared to $2.64 billion in the first quarter of 2011. GAAP EPS in the first quarter of 2012 was $8.75 on 330 million diluted shares outstanding, compared to $5.51 in the first quarter of 2011 on 326 million diluted shares outstanding. Non-GAAP EPS in the first quarter of 2012 was $10.08, compared to $8.08 in the first quarter of 2011.
  • 48. CONTENT 6 Google and Yahoo Search Engine Technology Comparison A search engine, such as Yahoo! or Google, is an online tool that helps users of the World Wide Web finds the sites and information they're looking for. The internet is a huge and overwhelming place to look for things. Without search engines such as Yahoo and Google .it would be nearly impossible to find exactly what you are looking for. This is the precise reason that Google has continued to be a household name, they focus on saving your time and helping you find exactly what it is you are looking for on the web with their advertisements being relevant to the search topic. Yahoo more focuses on ad revenues and increasing page views.
  • 49. These are the eight major differences what I have found till now. 1 Well Google is faster than Yahoo. Google index the site and articles faster than yahoo and traffic more gather on Google. 2 Google updates very fast where as yahoo little bit slow. 3 Both search engines are good but in my opinion Google is best search engine because Google provide always relevant results against query. 4 Google and yahoo both differ from each other and use its own algorithm. Google much concern about off-page where as Yahoo much concern about one-page factors. 5 As what I know their difference is Yahoo algorithm doesn’t have page ranking feature while Google has its own page ranking feature and most webmasters think meta description is quite important in yahoo, but only little importance in Google. Tim Mayor from Yahoo says 6 According to united state serve in April 2008, Google acquired more than 62% search engine market where as Yahoo 17.2%. It shows that there is very big difference in yahoo search market and Google search market. 7 Google is simplistic whilst Yahoo is overcomplicated. 8 Google is famous for decentralization and redundancy whereas yahoo isn’t.
  • 50. The difference is explained with the help of table – Basis Google Yahoo Nature Simple complicated Relevant More relevant Less relevant Search technology Similar to yahoo Similar to Google ranking links Inbound links differently Inbound links differently Redundancy Redundancy present Less redundancy Update Update more frequently Update less frequently Algorithm more concern about off-page factors Much concern about on-page factors Page rank Have own page ranking features Doesn’t have page ranking features (fig 6) SUMMARY - In conclusion, the technology behind both Yahoo and Google is very similar but yahoo and Google differ in the rankings. It is quite obvious that Google, the most important search engine, is the hardest to penetrate and achieve high positions for competitive keywords. Yahoo has recently changed its policy and is now harder to manipulate and to its merit also holds the most accurate back link count. Yahoo is more complicated and advertiser-focused.
  • 51. Reference Financial statement - reference: http://investor.google.com/earnings/2012/Q1_google_earnings.html