Cerebellum
Lecture Class by
Pratap Sagar
Tiwari, MD, Lecturer, NGMC
Nervous System Development :
Anatomical subdivisions

Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:EmbryonicBrain.svg
Refere...
Nervous System Development :
Anatomical subdivisions
Primary division of
neural tube

Sec. subdivision

Final segments

Pr...
The Cerebellum Has Three Functionally Distinct Regions

The cerebellum is divided into anatomically distinct lobes.
The ma...
Cerebellum & its connections
Connections with brainstem:
• Superior cerebellar peduncle connects to
midbrain
• Middle cere...
Afferent connections with spinal cord
and brain
Afferent connections with spinal cord and
brain
Cortico-cerebellar project...
Efferent connections
Efferent connections
Thalamus
Red nucleus
Reticular formation
Vestibular nucleus
Sections of the Cerebellum
Vestibulocerebellum or archicerebellum
• Comprises the flocculonodular lobe
• Extensive connect...
CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLES
Superior cerebellar peduncle
(brachium conjunctivum)
• Connects to midbrain
Afferents: only ventral spinocerebellar tract
...
Middle cerebellar peduncle
(brachium pontis)
• Connects to pons
Afferents: from cerebral cortex (“corticopontocerebellar s...
Inferior cerebellar peduncle (“corpus
restiform” or “restiform body”)
• Connects to medulla
• Two components:
• Restiform ...
Cerebellar Cortex

Deep Cerebellar Nuclei:
Dentate

Interposed
Fastigial

PNS Fig. 42-1
General View

Gross features of the cerebellum, including the nuclei,
cerebellar peduncles, lobes, folia, and fissures.
(A...
Pyramidal Tract and Associated Circuits

upper motor neuron
UMN

BASAL
GANGLIA

Cerebellum
pyramidal

tract

lower motor n...
Motor Hierarchy

1° Som sensory

Intent
Actual

Exerts influence
at all levels
Cerebellar divisions
Spinocerebellum:
Vermis
Intermediate hem.
Cerebrocerebellum:
Lateral hem.

Spinocerebellum
(Vermis + ...
Inputs and Outputs of Cerebellum
The Cerebellum Has Three Functionally Distinct Regions
Cerebellar Cortex
Inputs
Climbing fibers
•from Inferior olive
Mossy fibers
Output
Purkinje neurons
Interneurons
Granule ne...
The Cerebellum Has Three Functionally Distinct Regions

The three functional regions of the cerebellum have different inpu...
a

d

b

c

Cerebellar
Ataxia
Ataxic gait and
position:
Left cerebellar tumor
a. Sways to the right in
standing position
b...
Cerebellar dysfunction
Dysfunction: damage produces the following:
• Ataxia- a disturbance that alters the direction and
e...
Cerebellar dysfunction
1. Small lesions produce no signs or only transient
symptoms; small deficits are compensated for by...
References
Cerebellum
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Cerebellum

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  • In terms of development, the human nervous system is often classified based on the original 3 primitive vesicles from which it develops: These primary vesicles form in the normal development of the neural tube (time ??)of the human fetus and initially include prosencephalon,mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon,. Later in development of the nervous system each section itself turns into smaller components and form the final segments of the brain as shown in the table and the structures that are relevant to the basal ganglia are shown in bold):like the caudate,putamenglobuspallidus,stn and the substantianigra.
  • In terms of development, the human nervous system is often classified based on the original 3 primitive vesicles from which it develops: These primary vesicles form in the normal development of the neural tube (time ??)of the human fetus and initially include prosencephalon,mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon,. Later in development of the nervous system each section itself turns into smaller components and form the final segments of the brain as shown in the table and the structures that are relevant to the basal ganglia are shown in bold):like the caudate,putamenglobuspallidus,stn and the substantianigra.
  • Cerebellum

    1. 1. Cerebellum Lecture Class by Pratap Sagar Tiwari, MD, Lecturer, NGMC
    2. 2. Nervous System Development : Anatomical subdivisions Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:EmbryonicBrain.svg Reference: Gray’s Anatomy
    3. 3. Nervous System Development : Anatomical subdivisions Primary division of neural tube Sec. subdivision Final segments Prosencephalon 1. Telencephalon 2. Diencephalon 1. The cortex, Caudate, Putamen, Globus pallidus 2. Thalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamus, subthalamic nuclei Mesencephalon Rombencephalon Mesencephalon 1. Metencephalon 2. Myelencephalon Mesencephalon (Midbrain), Substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) 1. Pons and cerebellum 2. Medulla
    4. 4. The Cerebellum Has Three Functionally Distinct Regions The cerebellum is divided into anatomically distinct lobes. The main body of cerebellum has three functional regions: the central vermis and the lateral and intermediate zones in each hemisphere. It is divided by the primary fissure into anterior and posterior lobes. The posterolateral fissure separates the flocculonodular lobe.
    5. 5. Cerebellum & its connections Connections with brainstem: • Superior cerebellar peduncle connects to midbrain • Middle cerebellar peduncle connects to pons • Inferior cerebellar peduncle connects to medulla
    6. 6. Afferent connections with spinal cord and brain Afferent connections with spinal cord and brain Cortico-cerebellar projection Ventral spinocerebellar tract Dorsal spinocerebellar tract
    7. 7. Efferent connections Efferent connections Thalamus Red nucleus Reticular formation Vestibular nucleus
    8. 8. Sections of the Cerebellum Vestibulocerebellum or archicerebellum • Comprises the flocculonodular lobe • Extensive connections with the vestibular system Spinocerebellum or paleocerebellum • Comprises the vermis (medial) & paravermal (intermediate) region • Extensive connections with the spinal cord & brainstem Cerebrocerebellum or neocerebellum • Comprises lateral portions of cerebellar hemispheres (excluding paravermal regions) • Extensive connections with cerebral cortex through relay stations in cerebellar nuclei and dorsal thalamus
    9. 9. CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLES
    10. 10. Superior cerebellar peduncle (brachium conjunctivum) • Connects to midbrain Afferents: only ventral spinocerebellar tract Efferents: • Most of the efferents from the cerebellum • All of the efferents from three (out of four) pairs of nuclei: dentate, emboliform, and globose
    11. 11. Middle cerebellar peduncle (brachium pontis) • Connects to pons Afferents: from cerebral cortex (“corticopontocerebellar system”). Corticopontine projections (originating in the cerebral cortex) synapse in ipsilateral basal pons. From there, most pontocerebellar projections decussate, pass through middle cerebellar peduncle and enter cerebellum. • A small number remain ipsilateral. Efferents: none.
    12. 12. Inferior cerebellar peduncle (“corpus restiform” or “restiform body”) • Connects to medulla • Two components: • Restiform body – Afferents: • Ascending spinal proprioceptive fibers from three of the spinocerebellar tracts (dorsal, rostral, and cuneocerebellar) • Ascending fibers from contralateral inferior olivary nuclei to cerebellar cortex (olivocerebellar projections) • Reciprocal connections with motor reticular formation and spinocerebellum (paleocerebellum): reticulocerebellar and cerebelloreticular projections • Juxtarestiform body – Mostly contains reciprocal connections to and from vestibulocerebellum (archicerebellum) and vermal portion of spinocerebellum (paleocerebellum): vestibulocerebellar and cerebellovestibular fibers
    13. 13. Cerebellar Cortex Deep Cerebellar Nuclei: Dentate Interposed Fastigial PNS Fig. 42-1
    14. 14. General View Gross features of the cerebellum, including the nuclei, cerebellar peduncles, lobes, folia, and fissures. (Adapted from Nieuwenhuys et al. 1988) A. Dorsal view. Part of the right hemisphere has been cut out to show the underlying cerebellar peduncles. B. Ventral view of the cerebellum detached from the brain stem. C. Midsagittal section through the brain stem and cerebellum, showing the branching structures of the cerebellum.
    15. 15. Pyramidal Tract and Associated Circuits upper motor neuron UMN BASAL GANGLIA Cerebellum pyramidal tract lower motor neuron UMN
    16. 16. Motor Hierarchy 1° Som sensory Intent Actual Exerts influence at all levels
    17. 17. Cerebellar divisions Spinocerebellum: Vermis Intermediate hem. Cerebrocerebellum: Lateral hem. Spinocerebellum (Vermis + Intermed. Hem) Control of limbs and trunk Cerebrocerebellum (Lateral hemisphere) Planning of movement+ Vestibulo-cerebellum (Floculo-nodular lobe) IVth vent Vermis Intermediate hem. Lateral hem. Control of eye & head movements Balance NTA Fig. 13-1 Floculo-nodular lobe
    18. 18. Inputs and Outputs of Cerebellum
    19. 19. The Cerebellum Has Three Functionally Distinct Regions
    20. 20. Cerebellar Cortex Inputs Climbing fibers •from Inferior olive Mossy fibers Output Purkinje neurons Interneurons Granule neurons Stellate neurons Basket neurons Molecular Purkinje Granular NTA Fig. 13-11 Golgi neurons
    21. 21. The Cerebellum Has Three Functionally Distinct Regions The three functional regions of the cerebellum have different inputs and outputs.
    22. 22. a d b c Cerebellar Ataxia Ataxic gait and position: Left cerebellar tumor a. Sways to the right in standing position b. Steady on the right leg c. Unsteady on the left leg d. ataxic gait
    23. 23. Cerebellar dysfunction Dysfunction: damage produces the following: • Ataxia- a disturbance that alters the direction and extent of voluntary movements; abnormal gait and uncoordinated movements • Dysmetria- altered range of motion (misjudge distance) • Intention Tremor-oscillating motion, especially of head,during movement • Vestibular signs-nystagmus, held tilt
    24. 24. Cerebellar dysfunction 1. Small lesions produce no signs or only transient symptoms; small deficits are compensated for by other parts of the brain 2. Lesions of the cerebellar hemispheres result in loss of muscular coordination and jerky puppet-like movements of the limbs on the ipsilateral side (same side as lesion) 3. Lesions of the vermis result in truncal tremor and gait ataxia (splayed stance and swaying of the body while walking)[
    25. 25. References
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