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3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
3d navigation and localization
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3d navigation and localization

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  • 1. WELCOME 17-10-2013 1
  • 2. SEMINAR ON Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices PRASHOB N PAVANAN ROLL NO : 09 S7 ECE 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE SEMINAR GUIDE Ms NIMITHA 2
  • 3. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices CONTENTS • INTRODUCTION • TECHNIQUES USED FOR LOCALIZATION AND NAVIGATION • CURRENTLY USED METHODS • ADVANTAGE OVER OTHERS • BLOCK DIAGRAM • ALTITUDE DETERMINATION • ADDITIONAL HARDWARE • IMPROVED ACCURACY OF 2D LOCALIZATION • 2D LOCALIZATION ERRORS • ERROR REDUCTION USING 3D AUGMENTED MODEL • HOW THE SEAMLESS 3D LOCALIZATION WORKS • APPLICATIONS • CONCLUSION • REFERENCE 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 3
  • 4. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices INTRODUCTION • Advances in Wireless cellular networks • Provide bandwidth for mobile to access the internet • In addition – More powerful processor – Sensors • Enables Smartphone for several services like – User current location 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 4
  • 5. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices Continues….. -LBS (Location Based Service) -Both indoor and outdoor navigation, Utilizing GPS(Global Positioning System) o Outdoor-strong GPS signals o Indoor –weak GPS signals -RSS (Received Signal Strength) based Fig 1(a) : Satellite used for GPS localization 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 5
  • 6. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices TECHNIQUES USED FOR LOCALIZATION AND NAVIGATION • Traditional triangulation localization • Using RADAR (Radio Detection And Ranging) • GPS • WIFI Localization Figure 1.1 showing GPS navigation 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 6
  • 7. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices CURRENTLY USED LOCALIZATION METHODS • Designed for two-dimensional (2-D) conditions • No altitude information • Less accuracy • Not possible for localization and navigation in multi-storied buildings and navigation around the mountain • 3D localization based on RFID ( requires more computing capability) 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 7
  • 8. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices ADVANTAGES OVER OTHERS • Provides accurate altitude information • Improves the accuracy of indoor RSS based localization using the altitude information • Provides seamless 3-D localization and navigation Service across indoor and outdoor environments • Uses atmospheric pressure for the altitude determination • Possible with all android smart phones which uses an application software for downloading the maps 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 8
  • 9. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices BLOCK DIAGRAM Fig. 1 : Seamless 3-D localization and navigation system framework 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 9
  • 10. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices • IN OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENTS • Such as mountains Fig 1.2 : Mountains • IN INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS Figure 1.3 : showing indoor and outdoor navigation • Buildings have different layouts on different floors 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 10
  • 11. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices p2 p1 Fig. 2 :Navigation in a multi-story building 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 11
  • 12. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices ALTITUDE DETERMINATION H T0 /( dT / dH ).[1 ( P / P0 ) ( dT / dH ).R / g ] where, H – Altitude P - Measured atmospheric pressure To - Temperature. dT /dH - Temperature gradient with the altitude Po - Standard atmospheric pressure g – Acceleration of gravity R - Gas constant. 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 12
  • 13. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices By substituting values Equation changes to i e; dT /dH =−6.5 K/km Po =101325 Pa g = 9.82 m/s2 R=287.052 m2 /(s2∙K) H 17-10-2013 T0 /(6.5 K / km).[1 ( P / 101325 Pa ) 0.19 ] Dept. of ECE 13
  • 14. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices Continues….. • Measured pressure -used to calculate the altitude • Pressure is measured using pressure sensor • Height error much less than 0.5 m which is enough to specify the floor 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 14
  • 15. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices ADDITIONAL HARDWARE Fig. 3 : Atmospheric pressure sensor and communication module 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 15
  • 16. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices • Some smart phones have an integrated atmospheric pressure sensor Or • Attached through a blue tooth transceiver • It also uses • Microcontroller • Battery • Power management unit 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 16
  • 17. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices IMPROVED ACCURACY OF INDOOR 2-D LOCALIZATION METHOD • Calculation of distance between sender and receiver is based on RSS (received signal strength) • Attenuation Happens during transmission • RSS is related to distance • As the distance between the anchor nodes increases the signal strength decreases 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 17
  • 18. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices • Distance can be calculated as q Q 10r lg d E where , q - Measured RSS d - Distance Q -RSS at a distance of one meter (remains constant) r - Path loss exponent E - Random variable 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 18
  • 19. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices • E has little effect and can be omitted Thus, d 10 ( Q q / 10 r ) • It can be used to calculate d from q and r • d is used in 2-D localization to calculate the location 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 19
  • 20. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices 2-D LOCATION SYSTEM ERRORS • A multi-story building may have many Wi Fi-APs • It is deployed on different floors • The AP’s on the different floors are described in a 3D coordinate system • It convert the 3-D coordinates to 2-D coordinates by ignoring the Altitudes • 2-D localization - cause a localization error 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 20
  • 21. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices Attenuation by the floor The L is larger than the true distance Device receives the attenuated signal Fig. 4 : Position relationships between the user and the APs 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 21
  • 22. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices Continues…. • RSS will not be accurate • Received wireless signal is attenuated by the floor slab • It is mainly concrete and thicker than the walls • L is larger than the true distance between the user and AP3 FIG:WAP54G 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 22
  • 23. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices Fig 4.3 : Indoor navigation using software 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE Fig 4.3(a) : Indoor navigation 23
  • 24. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices REDUCING ERRORS USING AUGMENTED 3D MODEL • A better approach - Real 3-D Coordinate System – It is used to describe the locations of the APs and the user – Complex • An alternative approach – Augmented 3-D model • Movement on the stairs is neglected – Floor number is enough to describe the user altitude • L′ is the true distance value ( Fig 4) 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 24
  • 25. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices • C is added to account for the signal attenuation by the floor slab and for the AP on the 2nd floor and user on the 1st; d ( Q ( q c ) / 10 r ) 10 • Compensation C depends on – Floor thickness – Material • Approximate d to L • If AP is on the floor 3 and the user on the floor 1 then the C doubles 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 25
  • 26. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices • After considering the Signal Strength Attenuation • L can be calculated • L′ can be calculated using the Pythagorean theorem L' L2 H2 where H - Distance between neighbouring floors L′ - Projection value L - Distance • Improves the localization method accuracy 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 26
  • 27. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices STEPS OF LOCALIZATION METHOD • Step 1: check the APs that can be identified to find which APs are on the same floor as the user and which APs are on the different floors • Step2:calculate the distance from each AP to the user. The distances between the AP s on the different floor and user are found • Utilize the traditional triangulation localization method to calculate the location le Map APIs 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 27
  • 28. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices BRIEF IDEA OF TRIANGULATION USER OR OBJECT AP 1 AP 2 ; Outdoor navigation software based on the Google Map APIs 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 28
  • 29. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices HOW SEAMLESS 3D NAVIGATION SYSTEM WORKS Consider an office building with 4 floors: 1. In outdoor environments ,uses GPS transceiver and the atmospheric pressure sensor to calculate 3D location 2. Indoor 3D localization uses 20 wi fi AP’ s to serve as anchor nodes 3. The smart phone automatically calculates the indoor location based on RSS from Wi fi AP’ s 4. The Application Programming Interfaces of Google updates the map of the current location 5. When user enters the building , the software downloads the location information for each WiFi AP in the building ,including the horizontal location and floor number ,map of Outdoor navigation software based on the floors and each floor , altitude, the distance betweenGoogle Map APIs compensation C for each floor 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 29
  • 30. CONTINUED…… Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices Outdoor navigation software based on the Google Map APIs 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 30
  • 31. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices PRESSURE DETERMINATION • In certain smart phones have the integrated pressure sensor , temperature sensor and also humidity sensor • The software running in the smart phone uses the pressure value to get the altitude information in real time • The atmospheric pressure decreases as the altitude increases and vice versa • The altitude or atmospheric pressure can be used to determine the floor number 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 31
  • 32. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices Fig: 7 Altitude determined by the pressure sensor 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 32
  • 33. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices Fig 7.1: Altitude vs Pressure 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE Fig 7.2: Atmospheric Pressure 33
  • 34. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices APPLICATIONS •Used for navigation inside a large shopping mall •Helps in easy navigation in hilly areas •Can keep the track of the user •Helps for the real time measurement and monitoring of pressure •Helps to identify easily the location based services Figure 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 34
  • 35. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices CONCLUSIONS • Seamless 3-D localization and Navigation System uses Atmospheric Pressure Sensor • Provide better guidance indoors or outdoors – Including multi-story buildings or high mountains(on a map on the user’s device) • Accuracy – more accurate than the traditional 2-D localization method 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 35
  • 36. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices REFERENCES • Bahl P, Padmanabhan : An in-building RF-based user location and tracking system • Chintalapudi K, Padmanabha I A, Padmanabhan V N. Indoor localization without the plain • Youssef M, Agrawala A, The Horus WLAN location determination system • www.wikipedia.com • ieeexplore.ieee.org 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 36
  • 37. Atmospheric Pressure-Aware Seamless 3-D Localization and Navigation for Mobile Internet Devices Thank you…………… 17-10-2013 Dept. of ECE 37

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