Broad range of wireless and wire line communications
wire line communications based on information
Control and Electronic technologies
Integrated transportation system
Managing traffic flow
Provide alternate routes
Conventional sysytem of transportation by I.T.S
Effective road capacity increases upto 20% without new construction
Major reduction in road casualties
Travel time savings amounting to one year over an average lifetime
Significant reductions of vehicle CO2 emissions
A market of up to 20 billion Euros in 2010 for equipment and services in Europe alone.
On-board navigation systems
Weather information services
Fleet tracking & weigh in-motion technologies
Electronic payment systems
Traffic video/control technologies
Variable message signs
Crash notification systems
The risks we run with no ITS Architecture:
Now in the present scenario we can’t even imagine traffic management without ITS. As it will be impossible to provide the expected services because the components, both publicly and privately owned, are not fully compatible. As we are aware of changes in our day to day needs, it will be difficult to extend or modify the various service requirements without the proper planning which is present in ITS. It will be literally impossible to adopt emerging technologies and this result in:
High costs due to the need for updates or re-adaptation;
Limitations in service delivery due to lack of inter-operability.
Failure to develop the ITS deployment to its full potential
Components of ITS Architecture:
An Overview or (Conceptual Model) –
A top-level diagram, which shows how the various elements of the transportation system gets integrated and explains how the whole system works.
A Functional (or Logical) Architecture (or Viewpoint) –
It consists of logic involved in the integration of various services. If we have to implement something we must first think and plan the series of operations needed to satisfy the various user needs.
A Physical Architecture (or Viewpoint) –
Involves the various physical nodes involved in the system. A system can’t be imagined without proper infrastructure, so the specifications for the physical components and their locations for a particular deployment are required.
A Communications Architecture (or Viewpoint) –
Now in the communication and information services era an analysis of the requirements for the links needed between the locations shown in the Physical Architecture must be dealt very carefully as any lose and weak node can lead to the failure of whole system.s of ITS Architecture:
Points to be considered before designing:
Before designing any system we must have faith in it that it will not become obsolete and ineffective after a particular period thus the ITS should;
Be planned in a logical manner,
Be integrated successfully,
Have desired behavior,
Meet the desired performance levels,
Be easy to manage & maintain,
Be easy to extend,
Satisfy the expectations of the users.
MULTI-MODAL TRANSPORT SYSTEM
MASS-RAPID TRANSPORT SYSYTEM
Traveler Information Services:
Travel Information Services is one of the most upcoming field and will be attaining an industry status by 2010. Hence it is the need of the time to speed up the development process in this sector. If we take the example of Indian Railways which caters to about 50 lakh passengers daily but it has literally no traveler information service as such, any disruption in one node leads to the failure of the whole system resulting in huge losses which can not be estimated. ITS applications can provide a complete ‘travel service’, from trip planning and route guidance to the booking of tickets. Links with tourist services can offer additional services, such as hotel bookings through a single source (e.g. Website).
As for as transportation system is considered, the various user needs that are to be provided for the safety of the road users are
Roadway Weather Information systems
En-Route Services Information
Public Fleet Management
ITS in towns and cities:
Advanced Traffic Management Systems apply a dynamic approach to traffic control that takes into account real-time traffic flows, road works, accidents, etc., and optimize the use of network.
Systems giving priority to public transport at junctions with traffic signals, e.g. allowing delayed vehicles to make up lost time.
Automatic Information and Routing Systems that enable drivers to avoid areas of congestion and reach their destination, or parking spaces, without wasting time.
Electronic Control Systems that can regulate access to parts of the road network (e.g. city centre) and permit only authorized vehicles to enter.
ITS in Rural areas:
Traffic information and advice to drivers via overhead message signs or on-board devices,
Incident detection systems that automatically send messages to traffic control centers and provide immediate warnings to drivers,
The control of traffic speed on congested motorways to smooth out the total flow of vehicles,
Automatic ramp metering to permit vehicles to join a congested motorway in a controlled manner.
Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) systems ensure that speed limits are maintained at all times – and even varies the limits dynamically according to road, traffic or weather conditions,
Major hardware components of ITS:
VITS : Vehicle Information and Communications System is the real time information by means of FM broadcasting, radio waves & optical beacons
ETC :Electronic Toll Collection System for collection of tolls without stopping the vehicle
DSRC :Dedicated Short Range Communicator for supporting services
Examples of Intelligent transportations systems include;
Advanced Traveler Information Systems , which deliver data directly to travelers, empowering them to make better choices about alternate routes or modes of transportation. When archived, this historical data provides transportation planners with accurate travel pattern information, optimizing the transportation planning process.
Advanced Traffic Management Systems , which employ a variety of relatively inexpensive detectors, cameras, and communication systems to monitor traffic, optimize signal timings on major arterials, and control the flow of traffic.
Incident Management Systems , which provide traffic operators with the tools to allow quick and efficient response to accidents, hazardous spills, and other emergencies.
Redundant communications systems , link data collection points, transportation operations centers, and travel information portals into an integrated network that can be operated efficiently and "intelligently."
Mayday Plus involves public infrastructures (e.g., mobile trauma centers) which work effectively along with automated crash detection. An effective Automated Collision Notification system can reduce the time for personnel to reach crash victims .
Supporting Services :
Apart from the above mentioned systems, ITS can provide the following services
A single payment system, e.g. a smart card, that enables a traveler to pay for parking, travel information, tolls, use of public transport systems, etc.,
Automated tolling systems that enable vehicles to be charged the correct amount without needing to stop at pay booths,
An on-board ITS can generate an automatic May Day call in the case of an emergency. The call centre gives the Emergency Services, the precise location and guides them to the scene with the support of a Traffic Management System,
ITS can help in the management of exceptional road transport conditions (like unfair weather and road conditions),
ITS can be used to detect traffic violations automatically.
Freight and Fleet Operations:
fleet management involves the following operations;
Scheduling of vehicles and drivers for both public transport and commercial operators, and automatic compilation of trip reports,
Optimal routing for both normal and ‘abnormal’ vehicles, e.g. oversized vehicles,
Monitoring of safety-related operations of the vehicle, and storage of this data on-board for response to roadside interrogations,
Monitoring of the location of commercial goods throughout their journey, their physical status if they are perishable and maintaining two-way contact with the driver,
Automation of the commercial and regulatory documentation that must accompany commercial vehicles and goods,
Provision of an “office in the cab” for vehicle owners/drivers
Difficulties in Implementing ITS:
Scarcity of skilled manpower required for the development and the proper working of the system.
Any region might not be economically and psychologically prepared to accept the system.
An ITS might not be applicable for the region in the present scenario.
Political problems in a region which discourage the effective implementation of the system.
An ITS applicable to one region may not be applicable to another, because of geography, road and weather conditions etc,
Because of heterogeneous traffic conditions, the various systems for all types of traffic must be introduced in a single road, which leads to congestion and overlapping of data.
If the road is prone to frequent accidents at various intersections, the systems must be installed at regular intervals, which increase the cost.
If in some places, the traffic is very less, the system will be seldom used. Hence it becomes ineffective, again leading to economic losses .
Benefits of ITS:
Support for public transport operations is provided through a phased infrastructure development,
Traveler information services like route information, information on weather and conditions etc. are provided,
Automated traffic management services through which the traffic can be managed from a single place,
Freight and fleet management operations bring about the development of not only the urban areas but also the rural ones,
Emergency systems management helps in reducing the suffering of the people, while away from any developed area, by swift services,
Electronic payment services save the valuable time of the vehicles,
An advanced in-vehicle technology supports the guidance system for the driver and brings two way communications between the driver and the controller.
ITS already has a presence in everyone’s day-to-day mobile activities, a part of our daily life. Inside the vehicle, for example, active support systems such as vision enhancement, lane-keeping assistance, collision warning and alertness monitors will have an impact on driver error and fatigue. In addition, systems such as coordinated traffic control, ramp metering, variable message signs, and traffic and incident detection systems are being implemented by infrastructure operators to monitor road conditions and provide smooth and safe journeys
Federal Highway Administration- US Department of Transportation