Now in the present scenario we can’t even imagine traffic management without ITS. As it will be impossible to provide the expected services because the components, both publicly and privately owned, are not fully compatible. As we are aware of changes in our day to day needs, it will be difficult to extend or modify the various service requirements without the proper planning which is present in ITS. It will be literally impossible to adopt emerging technologies and this result in:
High costs due to the need for updates or re-adaptation;
Limitations in service delivery due to lack of inter-operability.
Failure to develop the ITS deployment to its full potential
A top-level diagram, which shows how the various elements of the transportation system gets integrated and explains how the whole system works.
A Functional (or Logical) Architecture (or Viewpoint) –
It consists of logic involved in the integration of various services. If we have to implement something we must first think and plan the series of operations needed to satisfy the various user needs.
A Physical Architecture (or Viewpoint) –
Involves the various physical nodes involved in the system. A system can’t be imagined without proper infrastructure, so the specifications for the physical components and their locations for a particular deployment are required.
A Communications Architecture (or Viewpoint) –
Now in the communication and information services era an analysis of the requirements for the links needed between the locations shown in the Physical Architecture must be dealt very carefully as any lose and weak node can lead to the failure of whole system.s of ITS Architecture:
Travel Information Services is one of the most upcoming field and will be attaining an industry status by 2010. Hence it is the need of the time to speed up the development process in this sector. If we take the example of Indian Railways which caters to about 50 lakh passengers daily but it has literally no traveler information service as such, any disruption in one node leads to the failure of the whole system resulting in huge losses which can not be estimated. ITS applications can provide a complete ‘travel service’, from trip planning and route guidance to the booking of tickets. Links with tourist services can offer additional services, such as hotel bookings through a single source (e.g. Website).
As for as transportation system is considered, the various user needs that are to be provided for the safety of the road users are
VITS : Vehicle Information and Communications System is the real time information by means of FM broadcasting, radio waves & optical beacons
ETC :Electronic Toll Collection System for collection of tolls without stopping the vehicle
DSRC :Dedicated Short Range Communicator for supporting services
Examples of Intelligent transportations systems include;
Advanced Traveler Information Systems , which deliver data directly to travelers, empowering them to make better choices about alternate routes or modes of transportation. When archived, this historical data provides transportation planners with accurate travel pattern information, optimizing the transportation planning process.
Advanced Traffic Management Systems , which employ a variety of relatively inexpensive detectors, cameras, and communication systems to monitor traffic, optimize signal timings on major arterials, and control the flow of traffic.
Incident Management Systems , which provide traffic operators with the tools to allow quick and efficient response to accidents, hazardous spills, and other emergencies.
Redundant communications systems , link data collection points, transportation operations centers, and travel information portals into an integrated network that can be operated efficiently and "intelligently."
Mayday Plus involves public infrastructures (e.g., mobile trauma centers) which work effectively along with automated crash detection. An effective Automated Collision Notification system can reduce the time for personnel to reach crash victims .
Apart from the above mentioned systems, ITS can provide the following services
A single payment system, e.g. a smart card, that enables a traveler to pay for parking, travel information, tolls, use of public transport systems, etc.,
Automated tolling systems that enable vehicles to be charged the correct amount without needing to stop at pay booths,
An on-board ITS can generate an automatic May Day call in the case of an emergency. The call centre gives the Emergency Services, the precise location and guides them to the scene with the support of a Traffic Management System,
ITS can help in the management of exceptional road transport conditions (like unfair weather and road conditions),
ITS can be used to detect traffic violations automatically.
ITS already has a presence in everyone’s day-to-day mobile activities, a part of our daily life. Inside the vehicle, for example, active support systems such as vision enhancement, lane-keeping assistance, collision warning and alertness monitors will have an impact on driver error and fatigue. In addition, systems such as coordinated traffic control, ramp metering, variable message signs, and traffic and incident detection systems are being implemented by infrastructure operators to monitor road conditions and provide smooth and safe journeys