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Hardware and Software parallelism

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  • 1. 1 Hardware and Software Parallelism Dept. of Computer Science & Engineering 2013-2014 Presented by Prashant Dahake Mtech 1st sem (CSE) Sub:- High Performance Computer Architecture 1 A Presentation on G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering Nagpur 1
  • 2. What is Parallelism ?  Performing more than one task at a time.  It speed up the process.  More work in less time .  It reduces the cost of work.
  • 3.  Modern computer architecture implementation requires special hardware and software support for parallelism. Types of parallelism  Hardware parallelism  Software parallelism
  • 4. Hardware Parallelism:  This refers to the type of parallelism defined by the machine architecture and hardware multiplicity.  Hardware parallelism is a function of cost and performance tradeoffs. It displays the resource utilization patterns of simultaneously executable operations. It can also indicate the peak performance of the processors.  One way to characterize the parallelism in a processor is by the number of instruction issues per machine cycle.  In a modern processor, two or more instructions can be issued per machine cycle. e .g i960CA was a 3-issue processor.
  • 5. Software Parallelism:  It is defined by the control and data dependence of programs.  The degree of parallelism is revealed in the program profile or in the program flow graph.  Software parallelism is a function of algorithm, programming style, and compiler optimization.  The program flow graph displays the patterns of simultaneously executable operations.  Parallelism in a program varies during the execution period. It limits the continuous performance of the processor.
  • 6. Mismatch between H/W and S/W parallelism Example: A= L1*L2 + L3*L4 B= L1*L2 - L3*L4 Software Parallelism There are 8 instructions; FOUR Load instructions (L1, L2, L3 & L4). TWO Multiply instructions (X1 & X2). ONE Add instruction (+) ONE Subtract instruction (-) The parallelism varies from 4 to three cycles. Average s/w parallelism = 8/3 =2.67
  • 7. Hardware Parallelism: Parallel Execution: • • Using TWO-issue processor: The processor can execute one memory access (Load or Store) and one arithmetic operation (multiply, add, subtract) simultaneously. The program must execute in cycles. • 7 • The h/w parallelism average is 8/7=1.14. This demonstrate the mismatch between h/w and s/w parallelism. • G
  • 8. Example:  A h/w platform of a Dual-Processor system, single issue processors are used to execute the same program.  Six processor cycles are needed to execute the 12 instructions by two processors.  S1 & S2 are two inserted store operations.  L5 and L6 are two inserted load operation.  The added instructions are needed for inter- processor communication through the shared memory
  • 9. Conclusion To achieve parallelism joint efforts between hardware designer and software programmer are needed which further upgrade computer performance.
  • 10. Thank you