MSBTE 'G' Scehme Second Semester Element of Electronics Teacher Guide by Prashant Badgujar

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Element of Electonics, Basic Electronic

Element of Electonics, Basic Electronic

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  • 2. ELEMENTS OF ELECTRONICS (17215)2CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CELL, MSBTE, MUMBAI.TEACHER’S GUIDE AND SAMPLEQUESTION PAPERDesignation Team of DesignEducation TechnologyConsultantProf. D. M. MakoneProf. R.S.MahashabdeProject InstitutionProject Period November 2012 – December 2012Chief Project Co-ordinatorProject Co-coordinatorSubject Experts• Mr. Prashant N. BadgujarPh.D (pursuing); M.B.A-IBM,HR; B.E.(Electronics)Lecturer in Electronics.Govt. Polytechnic,Ahmednagar,Maharashtra.• Mr. R. R. PagireM.E. (Electronics), L.M.I.S.T.E.Lecturer in E &Tc Dept.Amrutvahini Polytechnic,Sangamner,Dist-Ahmednagar,Maharashtra.© 2012, Maharashtra State Board of Technical Education,49, Kherwadi,Aliyawar Jung Road, Bandra (East), Mumbai-400051.Maharashtra State, India.No part of this Teacher Guide be reproduced in any form or by any means,without permission in writing from MSBTE Mumbai.FIRST PRINT, December 2012
  • 3. ELEMENTS OF ELECTRONICS (17215)31. APPROACH TO CURRICULUM DESIGN1.1 INTRODUCTIONMaharashtra State Board of Technical Education is an autonomous organization sinceApril 1999. The main activities of the board are to design the curricula of Diploma andpost diploma courses and conduct examinations. Further the Board develops appropriatelearning resources – print and non-print – to be used by the students. In order to ensurethe quality of education, monitoring of institutions is carried out normally two times in ayear. Teachers are the backbone of technical education system and hence efforts are madeby the board to provide training opportunities to the teachers. Presently industrial trainingis arranged for the teachers through Maharashtra Economic Development Council(MEDC). Teachers and supporting staff are also deputed for training organized byNational Institute of Technical Teachers Training and Research, Bhopal.During last five years there has been remarkable change in the industrial scenario. Theexpectations of present and future industries indicate the changed role of a diplomaengineer. It is therefore necessary to redefine the job profile of diploma engineer. Thisrevised job profile will be useful in revising the curriculum.The basic principle while designing or revising any curriculum is to identify needs of userindustries. This data and its analysis help in deciding curriculum objectives and furtherenable to select appropriate subjects.Therefore Industry Survey to identify the present and future needs of industry wasconducted in July 2011 by the committee appointed for curriculum revision.For the purpose of revising the curriculum Project Institutes were identified. A team ofCoordinators, Core group members and Subject Experts was formed to execute therevision. The team members were identified from various Government, GovernmentAided and Private Polytechnics.
  • 4. ELEMENTS OF ELECTRONICS (17215)4Training in Curriculum Development of faculty members involved at various levels wasconducted. The core group members visited a number of industries to have first handknowledge about the expectations of industries from diploma pass outs. Industry expertswere involved at all the stages of curriculum revision and validation.The details related to curriculum philosophy, curriculum model, curriculum objectives,desired skills, link diagram, salient features and implementation strategy are given below1.2 CURRICULUM PHILOSOPHYMSBTE has adopted systems approach while designing the scientific based curriculumsince 1995. The same approach has been adopted while revising the curriculum insemester pattern.Fig. No. 1 shows the systems diagram. This diagram provides the holistic view forcurriculum designing, development, implementation and evaluationThe input to polytechnic education system is the students having 10+ qualifications. Theteaching learning process occurs in the institution for six/eight semesters. The output ofthe system i. e. Diploma pass out is normally the input to industries. (Some students dogo for higher education). While designing the curriculum the expectations of theindustries play a major role. Due to globalization and competition the industries expectthat pass outs have generic and technological skills along with right attitude.
  • 5. ELEMENTS OF ELECTRONICS (17215)5REGULATING AGENCIESM.H.R.D., A.I.C.T.E.5) MGTMOEDTE, DIIC, MSBTEPOLYTECHNICS3INPUT1. Students2. State level 4) PROCESS EDUCATIONAL PROCESSES 2) OUTPUT 1) CUSTOMERRO levelAdministratorPrincipals State Institutional Curriculum LRDC Instructional Student’sHODs Planning Planning Design & Design LearningTeachers & DevelopLRUCTech. SupportStaffMinisterial Staff3. IdentifiedResource, ENABLINGPersons PROCESSES4. IdentifiedFaculty(Trainers)I.I.I.`6) RESOURCESPHYSICAL HUMAN INFORMATION FINANCE TIME ENERGYFeed BackFig 1 Systems ApproachExternal1. Industries2. ServiceSectorManpowerhavingknowledge,skills andattitudesrequired touse,operate,evaluate,update andmaintainMISDiplomaEngineerwithdesiredskillsI.I.I. H.R.D. OrganisationalDevelopmentM.I.SState ProjectPlanningInternalStaff of:1. MOE2. DTE/DIIC/MSBTE&RegionalOfficesANDFaculty
  • 6. ELEMENTS OF ELECTRONICS (17215)6To fulfill the needs derived from systems approach following conceptual framework isconsidered:“Curriculum is an educational program designed and implemented to achievespecified educational objectives”This definition takes into account the fact that• Education is purposeful• There is an organized plan of action contemplated• Such a plan is translated into action through appropriate strategies of implementation.Following are the key points in the philosophy:• Job profile of middle scale industries is considered to design the curriculumincluding service industries• Dimensions of curriculum revision are:Individual developmentSocial developmentTechnology developmentContinued learning• Subjects for the course are classified as followsBasic sciencesEngineering sciencesHuman sciencesCore technologyTechnologyLink diagram shows the relationship of various subjects at different categorieswhich helps in deciding the appropriate contents of the subjectsPractical focuses on development of cognitive skills and psychomotor skills
  • 7. ELEMENTS OF ELECTRONICS (17215)71.3 Curriculum Development Model:Following are the major steps used for designing the content and subsequent approval:Entry BehaviorUser need assessmentTeacher Training for Curriculum DevelopmentIndustry InvolvementValidation1.4 Curriculum goals1. To develop confidence in students by providing more exposure to industry experienceand world of work at global level.2. To provide conceptual knowledge and develop analytical ability3. To develop communication skill with good English by providing sufficient practice4. To enhance latest technical knowledge industry interaction and media5. To develop learning to learn skills and life skills to cope up with industrial culture6. To impart managerial skills by providing appropriate theoretical inputs7. To develop problem solving ability through technical projects.DESIRED SKILLSIndustries expect from the diploma engineer the abilities and skills of general nature andspecific to the job performance. The curriculum aims at developing life skills andtechnological skills so that the diploma pass outs would be suitable for industry. The skillsare listed below:Life Skills:Search information from various sourcesDevelop communication abilityDevelop Presentation skillWork as a member of a team/group and as leader
  • 8. ELEMENTS OF ELECTRONICS (17215)8Collect field dataDevelop Learning to learnWrite report for given task/work/projectDevelop computer proficiencyDevelop observation skillsTechnological Skills:Diploma engineers should possess following Technological skills in order tosatisfactorily perform duties assigned to them Diploma engineers should possessfollowing Technological skills in order to satisfactorily perform duties assigned to them:Intellectual skill:1. Interpret circuit diagrams and specifications of electronic systems in technical/service manuals for installation, testing and commissioning.2. Calibrate and test measuring instruments.3. Locate faults in various instruments4. Interpret test results5. Use of appropriate software for electronic applications.6. Prepare tender documents7. Under concept of Technical management which includes technology/productCycle, environment aspects, green technology8. Concepts of wireless technology 2G/3G/4G/CDMA/WIMAX9. Concept of the computer Architecture/NetworkingMotor skills:1. Installation of telecom systems2. Troubleshoot various electronic systems3. Develop soldering skills4. Install hardware devices5. Operate electronic equipment’s6. Test proto type circuits using appropriate equipment’s
  • 9. ELEMENTS OF ELECTRONICS (17215)91.5 Salient Changes in the curriculum:For First Semester Basic Science is divided into two parts- Basic Physics and BasicChemistry. Theory examination of both parts as well as practical examination of bothparts will be conducted on separate days. Sum of theory marks of both parts shall beconsidered for passing theory examination of Basic Science. Similarly it is applicable topractical examination. It is mandatory to appear for theory and practical examination ofboth parts. Candidate remaining absent in any examination of any section will not bedeclared successful for that exam head.For second semester Applied Science is divided into two sections- Applied Physics andApplied Chemistry where the theory examination of 50 marks each and practicalexamination of 25 Marks each will be conducted separately and the minimum passingmarks for Engineering Science will be the combination of both the sections. . It ismandatory to appear for theory and practical examination of both parts. Candidateremaining absent in any examination of any section will not be declared successful forthat exam head.The components of Development of Life Skills were taught in two semesters. InDevelopment of Life Skills –I the topics related to personal development, such asLearning to Learn Skills, personality development, presentation skills etc. were included.In Development of Life Skills – II the topics related to Team Building, Leadership, groupbehavior etc. were covered. In the revised curriculum the scope of development of lifeskills has been broaden to include behavioral science component. Therefore the subjectDevelopment of Life Skills – II has been renamed and it is now included at 5thSemesterin the revised curriculum under the title Behavioral Science.The subject of Professional Practices was introduced to integrate the skills acquired inDevelopment of Life Skills, through technical subjects from second to sixth semester.The experience in implementing the contents of the subject shows that there are limitedactivities possible in second semester as the technical knowledge given to the students isvery limited. Also at sixth semester the student are doing projects in which they areperforming many activities included in the Professional Practices and therefore it isproposed that the subject of Professional Practices be prescribed only for three semestersvis. Third, fourth and fifth semesters.
  • 10. ELEMENTS OF ELECTRONICS (17215)10Introduction of Environment Engineering at fourth Semester for all coursesFrom the experience of implementation of Elective Subjects at V and VI semesters inlast five years, it is proposed to have only one elective either at the fifth and sixthsemesters for all courses. However the specialized courses like Medical Electronics,Electronics and Video Engineering will not have provision for electives. For elective,student will have to choose one from the given two/three subjects.While revising the curriculum redundant /obsolete topics/sub topics are being replacedby new/advance technology topics/sub topics.In Mechanical Engineering Group CADD, 3D Modelling, CNC Machines, EngineMaintenance (AUTO) are introduced as independent subjects.In Civil Engineering Group CAD has been added as an independent subject.In Electronics Engineering Group simulation software has been introduced, weightageof Microprocessors is reduced and more weightage is given to Microcontrollers, topicson PLC and SCADA are added, contents of discrete circuits are reduced and emphasisis given on integrated circuits.In Electrical Engineering new topic of LED lighting has been added in IlluminationEngineering subject. Similarly introduction of residential solar lighting systems, topicslike duties and responsibilities of Electrical Inspector, Commercial aspects of powerutilities have also been added. Heating, Ventilation & Air-conditioning (HVAC) hasbeen deleted from the revised curriculum. Subject of Power System Operation has beenintroduced at VI Semester Electrical Course also.
  • 11. ELEMENTS OF ELECTRONICS (17215)111.6LINK DIAGRAM for Electronics Engineering Group:Human SciencesEnglishCommunication SkillDevelopment of Life SkillBehavioral ScienceProfessional Practices III to VManagementEntrepreneurship DevelopmentEngineering SciencesEngineering GraphicsComputer FundamentalsBasic Workshop practiceElements of ElectronicsElectronic Devices &circuitsElectrical EngineeringElectronics Engineering WorkshopEnvironmental EngineeringBasic SciencesBasic PhysicsBasic ChemistryBasic MathematicsApplied ScienceApplied MathematicsEngineering MathematicsCore TechnologyPrinciples of Digital TechniquesIndustrial MeasurementApplied ElectronicsLinear Integrated CircuitsDigital Techniques andMicroprocessorsVisual BasicProgramming in ‘C’Electronic Instruments andMeasurementsDigital System DesignAnalog CommunicationCurriculum Goals1) Develop confidence in students by providingmore exposure to industry experience2) Provide conceptual knowledge and developanalytical abilityDevelop communication skill by providingsufficient practice4) Update latest technical knowledge byarranging lectures of industry experts5) Develop learning to learn skills and life skillsto cope up with industrial culture6) Develop managerial skills by providingappropriate theoretical inputs7) Develop problem solving ability throughtechnical projects.Job ProfileSupervisor in• Electronics Goods ManufacturingIndustry• Electronic Maintenance inEngineering IndustryMarketing ExecutiveDesign AssistantEntrepreneurTesting and Trouble shootingInstallation of ElectronicssystemsTechnology• Industrial Electronics• Computer Architecture and Networking• Microcontrollers• Industrial Project• Control Systems& PLC• Advanced Communication System• Audio Video Engineering• Digital Communication• Embedded Systems• Elective I• Elective II• Simulation Software
  • 12. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 122. OBJECTIVES2.1 IntroductionObjectives are the statements which describe the expected learning outcome. Suchstatements enable teachers to plan instructional process with appropriateresources. These objectives also provide a direction to frame proper questions toassess the learning outcome.During last decade there has been research on cognitive approach in psychology.This approach is based on biological structure of brain and meta-cognitiveknowledge dimension. Important elements of this approach which form basics oflearning are explained below.2.2 Basic Model of LearningThe basic model of learning is as shown below:GENERIC DIAG. – Stimulus and ResponseFig. 2: Generic Diagram of Learners.GENERIC DIAG.- STIMULUS & RESPONSEObjectsPeopleEventsSymbolsSELF ACT.SELF ESTEEMSOC. BELONG.SECURITYBASIC NEEDSCOG.PHY.VERB.STIMULUSEMOTIONAL CENTRERESPONSEFEEDBACKCOGNITIOSRSTM/WM LTMLearnerMemory
  • 13. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 13Stimulus: The information is received by senses from many things in surroundings. Itactivates senses for experience. It is called as stimulus. It. includes people, objects,events, symbols etc. For example: teachers, friends, instruments, drawings, text etc arestimulus for students.Cognition: Cognition is the act of knowing. It deals with mental activities of the learner.It is triggered due to stimulus. It involves memory, its components structure ofknowledge in memory and various processes in memory. The study of the same is doneto know how learning takes place.Emotional Centre: Stimulus may be pleasant or unpleasant feelings. It decides whetherlearner will approach to stimulus situation or avoid it. This is the effect of emotions oflearners in emotion center.Response: When stimulus stimulate the learner reacts. This response may be mentalresponse like reflection of face (cognition), physical movement (motor skills) or verbalresponse like communication. The response always aims at changing the stimulussituation.Feedback: When teacher asks the question, you answer it. Then based on the content ofthe answer, teacher says whether it is ‘correct’ or ‘wrong’. This is feedback. Thus it maybe the information about the changed stimulus situation provided after response by thelearner. Feedback helps learner to compare changed stimulus to expected change instimulus.Basic Concepts: Different forms used in the study of memory and its working are asbelow:Memory: It is the ability to recall the information, which has been previouslylearnt through experience. In context of memory structure, it is the locationlearned information is stored.Storage: It is process of putting information in the memory.Encoding: In memory, the information is not stored in original form but innumerical form, verbal form, visual images etc. Encoding is the process ofmodifying information from one form to another form. It helps to storeinformation easily. It also stores new information to existing knowledge.Retrieval: It is the process to find the information that is previously stored in thememory so that it can be put to use.
  • 14. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 14Components of Memory: The most prevalent view of human memory states thatmemory has three distinct components viz.Sensory Register (SR)Working Memory (WM) or Short Term Memory (STM)Long Term Memory (LTM)Control Process: This is the process of movement of information from onememory component to another memory component.Perception: It is the final image formed in WM after processing the informationfrom SR and LTM. The final image consists of visual image supported byelaboration and emotional content.2.3 Domains of Learning:Learning is a process by which students develop relatively permanent change in mentalassociations through experience. This is how learning is defined by cognitivepsychologists. Behavioral; psychologists define learning as a relatively permanent changein behavior.There are following domains of learning:A: Cognitive Domain relates to intellectual skills or abilitiesB: Affective Domain relates to emotions, feelings, likes, dislikes etc.C: Psychomotor Domain relates to manipulative skills of hands, legs. Eye-handcoordination in Engineering & Technology courses, endeavor is made to designcurriculum with a focus on development of cognitive skills through classroom teaching.Where as manipulative (psychomotor) skills are developed in workshops, laboratories &seminars where students work individually or in a group. Development of affective skillsattitudes and value is supposed to be acquired through projects and co curricularactivities. These are also developed from the work culture or institutions.How far a student has developed these abilities/skills especially from cognitive andpsychomotor domains is assessed on the basis of suitable examinations. When classroomand laboratory teaching is viewed in this light, evaluation becomes an integral part ofteaching – learning process.SR WM LTM
  • 15. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 152.4 LEVELS OF LEARNING:Question paper is a tool/ instrument designed to test the extent of learning of the student.Various questions set in a question paper should assess the abilities of students to respondto level of learning. Dr. Bloom a German educationist classified levels of learning incognitive domain for the purpose of writing objectives and assessment. Dr. Bloom’srevised taxonomy is based on cognitive psychology and is two dimensional. Firstdimension is cognitive process dimension ad other is knowledge dimension. Details ofthese two dimensions are given below.2.4.1 Cognitive Domain:Dr. Benjamin Bloom (1956) analysed questions asked in various examinations inAmerican situation and proposed a hierarchical arrangement of instructional objectives(Intellectual abilities) tested by these questions.The lowest level of cognitive learning achieved by a student is demonstrated by the recallof information that the student retrieves from his long term memory. So, the storage andretrieval of specific facts, concepts, principles, laws, definitions, properties, proceduresetc. directly from memory was classified as a knowledge level objective. Thus questionstesting memory of students were treated as at the lowest level of the hierarchy ofintellectual abilities. The other levels of hierarchy proposed by Dr. Bloom in 1956 relateto the degree of information processing required in the brain needed to provide answer toa question. The various levels in the cognitive hierarchy proposed by Dr. Bloom in 1956and further revised in 2001 are given below in the diagrammatic form.
  • 16. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 16Following are the details of each level which indicate the general and specific objectives.Further appropriate verbs are given which are useful in setting good questions. In thistable only four levels are considered for diploma students.Description of the Major Levels in thecognitive Domain (Bloom’s Taxonomy)Illustrative GeneralInstructional ObjectivesIllustrative verbsfor statingspecific learningoutcomesRemember – Knowledge is defined as theremembering of previously learnedmaterial. This may involve the recall of awide range of material, from specific factsto complete theories, but all that is requiredto mind of the appropriate information. Thisrepresents the lowest level of learningoutcomes in the cognitive domainKnows common terms,specific facts, basicconcepts, principles,methods & proceduresDefine, describe,identify label, list,match, name,outline,reproduce, select,stateUnderstand – This is defined as the abilityto grasp the meaning of material. This maybe shown by translating material from oneform to another (words or numbers) byUnderstands fact,principles Interpretsverbal material,Interprets charts, tables,Convert,distinguishestimate, explain,extend, generalize,RememberUnderstandApply(AnalyseEvaluateCreate123456
  • 17. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 17interpreting material (explaining orsummarizing), and by estimating futuretrends (predicting consequences or effects).Draw sketches these learning outcomes goone step beyond the simple remembering ofmaterial and represent the lowest level ofunderstanding.graphs.Translates verbalmaterial tomathematical formula.Estimatesconsequences impliedin data. Justifiesmethods & procedures.give examples;infer, paraphrase,predict, rewrite,summarize, drawlabeled sketches.Apply – Application refers to the ability touse learned material in new and concretesituations. This may include the applicationof such things as concepts, principles, rules,methods, laws and theories. Learningoutcomes in this area require a higher levelof understanding than those under the leveldescribed earlier.Applies principles tonew situations. Appliestheories to practicalsituations. Solvesmathematical problem.Construct charts,graphs Demonstratescorrect usage of aprocedureChange, compile,demonstrate,discovermanipulate,modify operate,predict, prepare,produce, show,solve, use.Analyze – Analysis refers to the ability tobreak down material into its componentparts so that its organizational structure maybe understood. This may include theidentification of the parts, analysis of therelationship between parts, and recognitionof the organizational principles involved.Learning outcomes here represent a higherintellectual level than “understand” andapply because they require an understandingof both the content and the structural formof the material.Recognizes unstatedassumptions andlogical fallacies inreasoning.Distinguishes betweenfacts and inferences.Evaluates relevance/adequacy of data.Breakdown,diagram,differentiate,discriminate,distinguish,identify illustrate,infer, outline,point out, relate,select, separate,subdivide.2.4.2 Categories of Knowledge DimensionAfter considering the various designations of knowledge types, especiallydevelopments in cognitive psychology that have taken place since the original frameworkof Bloom’s taxonomy, knowledge is categorised in 4 types – Factual , Conceptual,Procedural and Meta-cognitive.Factual Knowledge (A) is knowledge of discrete, isolated content elements. It includesknowledge of terminology and knowledge of specific details and elements. In contrast,Conceptual Knowledge (B) is knowledge of “more complex, organised knowledge form”.It includes knowledge of classifications and categories, principles and generalizations andtheories, models and structures.Procedural Knowledge (C) is “knowledge of how to do something”. It includesknowledge of skills and algorithms, techniques and methods, as well as knowledge of
  • 18. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 18criteria used to determine and/or justify “when to do what” within specific fields anddisciplines.Meta-cognitive knowledge (D) is “knowledge about cognition in general as well asawareness of and knowledge about one’s own cognition. It encompasses strategicknowledge, knowledge about cognitive tasks, including contextual and conditionalknowledge; and self-knowledge”.Assessment is required to be done on the basis of categories of knowledge and levels oflearning. Table below indicates the two dimensional grid based on Blooms Taxonomy forsetting questions.KnowledgeDimensionCOGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION1 Remember 2 Understand 3 Apply 4 AnalyzeA. FactualKnowledgeB. ConceptualKnowledgeC. ProceduralKnowledgeD. Meta-cognitiveKnowledge2.5 Components of Curriculum:2.5.1 Rationale: It indicates the logical basis for the inclusion of the subject in thecurriculum It also indicates the importance of the subject related to entire curriculum.Importance of the subject is on two counts:One the knowledge gained while studying the subject helps understand and developfurther knowledge of the subject or understand and effectively learn the higher levelsubjects.
  • 19. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 19The other indicates how the knowledge gained can be used in the world of work toperform given tasks.Rationale tells the students the connection of subjects related to study of higher levelsubjects and also the us in their job/profession.2.5.2 Objectives: Objectives indicate what the student will be to do/perform after hecompletes the study of the subject. It also in other words indicate the scope of the subject.Objectives indicate what is achievable and hence gives direction ot the student about howto study the subject, what important things are to be observed and performed duringpracticals.Just as rationale indicates the use of the knowledge gained while studing the subject,objectives indicate how efficiently and effectively one can work if the objectives arefulfilled while studying the subject.2.5.3 Learning Structure: It graphically/pictorially indicates the content of thecurriculum of the subject and what is to be learnt in the subject. As you know that inCognitive Domain knowledge is divided in four components Factual, Conceptual,Procedural and Metacognitive. Of this Factual, Conceptual and Procedural knowledgecomponents are identified in the curriculum of the subject along with the applications.Learning structure gives broad idea of these components for a subject. It indicates thescope of the subject. Normally we first decide what we want to achieve by studying thesubject, which forms the application component. Based on this we decide whatprocedures are required for these applications.Facts, Concepts, Principles are used in developing procedures and applications. So theseare given sequentially below procedure as Principles, Concepts and Facts in their order.Learning structure also provide an idea about how to develop the subject logically toachieve the objectives.2.5.4 Contents: List of topics and subtopics to be included in the curriculum of thesubject is given in the contents. This helps in achieving the rationale and objectivesidentified. Contents indicate the importance of the topics, sub topics in development ofthe subject and accordingly weightages in terms of Hours required to teach the subjectcomponents, so that the desired learning takes place. Marks to be allotted while testingthe knowledge gained by the student are also indicated.One has to be careful in allotting the hours required to teach the topics looking at theimportance of the topic for development of the subject. There fore it is necessary toprovide sufficient time to teach concepts and principles so that they are well understoodby the students as they form the basis for development of the subject.
  • 20. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 202.5.5 Practicals: While designing the curriculum the objectives are identified. Toachieve these objectives students have to develop certain intellectual and motor skills.These skills are developed through well designed Practicals. So in the curriculum the listof the skills to be developed through Practicals is given. The list of Practicals is sodeveloped that after performing the Practicals identified skills will be developed. Here itis necessary that the teacher gives enough opportunity to all the students to perform thepractical properly to develop the skills in each one of them.The skills will be developed if the students actually perform certain activities or tasks.Therefore it is necessary that any practical included in the curriculum necessarily involvesome activities to be done by the students. So there should not be any study typeexperiment as it is nothing but repetition of what is taught in the theory class. So one hasto think and innovate to modify the study experiments so that students will be asked toperform some activity. It could be in terms of identifying components, listing of materialsused for manufacturing the components, stating importance of use of certain materialsetc.So any curriculum of a subject is so designed that it achieves the objectives of thatsubject as well fulfill the objectives of the entire curriculum
  • 21. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 213. CONTENT ANALYSIS3.1 Components of Content Analysis:As we have discussed earlier, any curriculum or syllabus of a SUBJECT given to theteacher is organised in terms of UNITS which include TOPICS or SUB-TOPICS as thecase may be indicating the TIME in which it is expected to be taught to the students.Components of a topic or part thereof are analysed here at a micro level.Before we begin actual teaching of any topic (lesson), we must carefully and criticallyanalyse it so that we can plan for teaching - select appropriate media, methods andtechniques of teaching and arrange the suitable resources to be required. This analysis ofthe content of a Topic results in identification of the following components of thecontent:1. Facts2. Concepts3. Principles (rules, laws, theories)4. Applications5. Procedures6. Skills (Psychomotor Skills), and7. Attitudes (underlying affective behaviors as quite often these are not specificallymentioned in the curriculum, still they are to be developed lesson after lesson gradually).When we undertake the exercise of content analysis, we ourselves understand the subjectfully well and at the same time we become clear as to what we are going to teach. It alsogives us an idea as to which methods of teaching and media of instruction weshould prepare and use and also what resources including time we will require. Thisanalysis will also enable us to design assignments as well as how we are going to assessstudents learning.Since the nature of the components of content (1 to 7) differs from one another. These arelearned by the students differently as different mental processes are involved in learning
  • 22. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 22these components. The immediate implication of this varying nature of components isthat these need to be taught differently and assessed differently. For example, if you lookat components I to 5 all of which belong to Cognitive Domain of Learning; Component 6belongs to Psychomotor Domain and Component 7 belongs to Affective Domain (cannotbe taught as these attitudes are caught), you will find that these differ from one another.The classification of human behaviors (activities) into the above three domains oflearning entails the use of entirely different methods and media of instruction. Differentlocations of learning (classroom, laboratories, workshops, field visits) need to beselected.Now we will discuss these components in some detail and see how each one of theseshould be taught and assessed differently.3.1.1 FACTS:These are universally accepted and commonly understood items about whichthere cannot be much argument and discussion. These are required only to be informed.For example: The sun rises in east and sets in the west; names of scientists and the year inwhich their theories were propounded; the rules and regulations of admission andexamination prescribed by the University are some of the examples of facts. Sometimes,they need not be emphasized in the class as the students already know them. Butinformation can be passed on by word of mouth, if deemed necessary.3.1.2 CONCEPTS:A concept is an abstraction or an idea that permits the learner to classify a varietyof related phenomena into a convenient and meaningful category. Concept of somethingis like a picture formation of that thing which helps in conceptualizing it. Gagne says thatconcept learning produces a certain fundamental change in human performance that isindependent of subject or content. Concepts can be divided into the following twocategories:1.Concrete Concepts: those which can be seen, touched and manipulatede.g. house, book, table, chair, cat, dog, any machine or apparatus, overheadprojector, chalkboard and duster.
  • 23. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 232. Abstract Concepts: those which cannot be seen and touched and handled butcan only be imagined e.g. force, work, fractions, decimal, bending moment,moment of inertia, friction, heat, and induction. Teaching of concrete concepts isnot that difficult because the teacher can show the object physically or its picture.On the contrary, teaching of an abstract concept offers difficulty to the teacher aswell as for students to understand. These concepts can be learned by heart withoutunderstanding as children mug up Nursery Rhymes without understanding even asingle word. But at the stage of higher tearing, this type of rote learning is notdesirable. Adolescents (teenagers) and adults do not accept things withoutunderstanding.3.1.3 Concept Attributes:We identify a concept and understand it, once we are told about its qualitiescharacteristics, and features. They are technically called concept attributes. Whileteaching a concept to our students we must spell out as many attributes as possible forbetter understanding of the concept.Example: The Concept of FrictionAttributes:1. Friction is a resistive force.2. Frictional force acts in the direction opposite to the direction of the applied force.3. Frictional force is more when the surfaces in contact are rough.4. Smooth surfaces (perfect) have zero friction.5. Frictional force is self-adjusting to a limit.Towards the end of this Theme Paper a number of examples of concept attributesare given for your guidance.The following questions pertaining to a concept (object or process) will be helpful inwriting concept attributes:1. What it is.2. What are its constituent parts.3. How it works.4. How it is similar to and different from other known concepts.5. What are its uses?
  • 24. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 243.1.4 PRINCIPLES:A principle is a statement of relationship between two or more concepts.Principles are sometimes called rules, laws or generalizations. In others words,relationship between two or more concepts which is scientific and universally true iscalled a Principle.For Example: (related concepts are underlined)1. Actions and reactions are equal and opposite.2. Ohms law I = V/R is a principle, where I (Current), V (Voltage), and R(Resistance) are the concepts. While teaching a principle we must recall the conceptswhich it involves. These concepts might have been taught in the previous lesson. As youalready know, concept learning is a prerequisite to Principle learning. Thus we recall theconcepts of current, voltage and resistance by asking questions to the students. Onlyafter that we must tell the relationship among these i.e. Ohms Law.3.1.5 APPLICATIONS:Whatever principles, laws and theories have been learned are only academic exercisesunless these are applied to solve a practical problem. In other words, we call thisapplication transfer of learning to a new situation. If you recall, the process of learningdealt with in Theme Paper 2, you will appreciate that the litmus test of learning havingoccurred is its application in a new situation or solving a new problem.For example:1. Ohms law can be applied to find out the unknown quantity (voltage, current, andresistance).2. Design of a structure can be made based on related principles and theories.3. Principles of learning and events of instruction can be applied in ‘Designing alesson Plan and Presenting the lesson in the classroom".4, The above principles can also be applied while preparing textbooks, workbooks,learning packages and laboratory manuals to be used by the students.3.1.6 PROCEDURES:While analysing the content of a topic you might come across certain standardprocedures which are prescribed to perform an operation or a given task. Theseprocedures should be clearly identified and taught accordingly not to be left to chance.
  • 25. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 25We should not pre-suppose that the students understand them. We cannot afford to takethese things for granted.For Example:1. Procedure of setting up of an apparatus.2. Procedure to start an engine.3. Procedure to operate a machine (a lathe).3.1.7 SKILLS (PSYCHOMOTOR):A skill is an ability to perform a task expertly and well. The skilled performance; mustmeet a pre-specified standard of acceptable performance. A skill has the following threecharacteristics:1. It represents a chain of motor responses;2. It involves the co-ordination of hand and eye movements, and3. It requires the organization of chains into complex response patterns.Skills could be intellectual (thinking, understanding); interactive (communication skills)and social (socialising, mixing up with others) also. But normally when we use the wordskills, it refers to psychomotor skills.For Example:1. Welding a butt joint,2. Setting a theodolite at a station,3. Making proper circuit connections, and4. Turning a job on a lathe machine.Laboratories and workshops of Polytechnics are the locations where these skills aredeveloped among the students under the guidance of expert instructors of operators. Drilland practice are the main methods of teaching and learning these skills through modeldemonstrations and careful observations thereof.Alongside developing these skills, desirable attitudes like cooperation, team work,leadership, safety, cost consciousness are also developed.3.2 TEACHINGOFCONCEPTSIn order to teach concepts effectively the following steps have been suggested by DeCecco & Crawford (1974).
  • 26. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 26Steps Suggested:1. Describe the performance expected of the student after he has learned the concept.2. Reduce the number of attributes to be learned in complex concepts and makeimportant attributes dominant.3, Provide the student with verbal indicators (explanation).4. Provide positive and negative examples (non-examples) of the concept.5. Present the examples in close succession or simultaneously.6. Provide occasions for student responses and the reinforcement of these responses7. Assess the learning of the concept.3.3 TEACHINGOFPRINCIPLES:De Cecco & Crawford (1974) has suggested the following steps for teaching principleseffectively.Steps:1. Describe the performance expected of the student after he has learned theprinciple.2. Decide and indicate which concepts or principles the students must recall inlearning the new principle.3. Assist the student in the recall of component concepts.4. Help the student in the recall of component concepts.5. Help the student to combine the concepts and put them in a proper order.6. Provide for practice of the principle and for reinforcement of student responses.7. Assess the learning of the principle.3.4 CONCLUSION:To sum up, it can be said that. it is essential for the teachers to develop the skills ofContent Analysis of their subjects. It brings content clarity among teachers themselves.More importantly, Content Analysis will be a pre-requisite for writing InstructionalObjectives of the topic to be taught. You will study Instructional Objectives in a separateTheme Paper in detail. Teaching and learning process is bound to be effective once thesecrucial academic activities are undertaken.
  • 27. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 274. CURRICULUM – G Scheme (w.e.f Academic year 2012-13) :Course Name : Electronics Engineering Group.Course Code : DE/ED/EI/EJ/EN/ET/EV/EX/IC/IE/IS/IU/MUSemester : SecondSubject Title : Elements of ElectronicsSubject Code : 17215Teaching and Examination Scheme:Teaching Scheme Examination SchemeTH TU PRPAPERHRSTH PR OR TW TOTAL04 -- 04 03 100 50 # -- 25@ 175NOTE:Two tests each of 25 marks to be conducted as per the schedule given by MSBTE.Total of tests marks for all theory subjects are to be converted out of 50 and tobe entered in mark sheet under the head Sessional Work. (SW)Rationale:The world of Electronics has encompassed day to day life of every individualwith its glorious development and advancement in the technologies. Elements ofElectronics subject is the foundation for all Electronics Engineering courses.It includes basic components used in Electronics Engineering. It also gives theconceptual part of active and passive components, diodes and its various types andapplications.DC circuit and network theory is included as a part of fundamental electricaltheory required for analysis of electronics subject.General Objectives: The students will be able to:1) Identify types of components and understand construction, working principle,specifications and applications.2) Realize the DC circuit applications by applying the fundamental electrical laws.3) Apply various electrical theorems for different circuit which are the foundationsfor electronics subject.
  • 29. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 29Name of Topic and Contents Hours MarksTopic 1) Passive ComponentsSpecific Objectives :Students will be able to• Differentiate active & Passive components by observation, specification &application• Use various passive components as per requirements and applications1.1 Resistor: (8)• Classifications of resistors, material used for resistor.General specification of resistor- maximum voltage rating, power rating,temp. coefficient, ohmic ranges, operating temperature• Classification and application of resistor• Colour coding: with three, four & five bands• LDR – Working, Characteristics & application• TDR- listing of its type.• Potentiometer : linear and logarithmic, constructional diagram,specifications, applications of carbon and wire wound resistor1.2 Capacitor : (6)• Classification of capacitor, dielectric materials used in capacitor• Capacitor specifications: working voltage, capacitive reactance, frequencycharacteristic• Fixed capacitor : specifications & applications• Aluminum Electrolytic capacitor: constructional diagram & working• Variable capacitors: requirement of variable capacitor, construction,working, specification of air gang, PVC gang capacitor, trimmer capacitor• Coding of capacitors using numerals, colour band system1.3 Inductor: (6)• Introduction of magnetic materials- Ferromagnetic &ferrimagnetic. B-Hcurve, hard & soft magnetic material, concept of Hysterisis, permeability,corecivity, reluctivity& losses in magnetic material.• Faradays law of electromagnetic induction, self & mutual induced emf.• Induction – Definition & expression (with simple derivation) of selfinductance, mutual inductance, coefficient of coupling, Q factor, inductivereactance.• Constructional diagram & application of Air core, iron core & ferrite core,inductor frequency range for- AF, RF, IF torodial inductor.• Working Principle of slug tuned inductor• Colour coding of Inductor.16 20
  • 30. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 30Topic 2) Semiconductor DiodesSpecific Objectives :• Draw symbol and constructional sketch of various types of semiconductor,optical diodes• List diodes for the various applications• Understand concepts of PN Junction diode, Zener diode, Special diodes,optical diodes with schematic symbols.2.1 P.N. Junction DiodesWorking principle & circuit diagram of characteristic of PN junction diode,Static & dynamic resistance, specification, forward voltage drop, maximumforward current power dissipation.2.2 Zener diodeConstructional diagram, symbol, circuit diagram and characteristics of Zenerdiode Specification: Zener voltage, power dissipation, dynamic resistance2.3 Special DiodesConstruction, symbol & applications of PIN diode, Schottky diode, Tunneldiode2.4 Optical diodesConstruction, symbol, operating principle & applications of LED, IRLED,Photodiode, Laser diode16 24Topic 3) Rectifiers and Filters:Specific Objectives :• Draw circuit of different types of rectifiers.• Compare different types of rectifiers with respect to their parameters andapplications• Compare different types of filters3.1 Rectifiers• Need of rectifiers. Types of rectifiers:• HWR,FWR (bridge and center tap) circuit operation I/O waveforms forvoltage & current• Parameters of rectifier ( without derivation) Average DC value of current &voltage, ripple factor, ripple frequency, PIV of diode, TUF, efficiency ofrectifier• Comparison of three types of rectifiers3.2 Filters• Need of filters• Circuit diagrams, operation and input-output waveforms of following typesof filtersShunt capacitorSeries inductorLC filterπ filterNumerical examples based on parameters of rectifiers10 16
  • 31. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 31Topic 4) Wave shaping CircuitSpecific Objectives :• Draw circuit of different types of wave shaping circuits• Compare different types of wave shaping circuits with respect to theparameters and applications4.1 Linear wave shaping circuit• Need of wave shaping circuits, comparison between linear and non-linearwave shaping circuits• Operations of wave shaping circuits• Linear circuits: RC Integrator & differentiator4.2 Non linear wave shaping circuits• Circuit diagram, operation, waveforms of different types of clippers usingdiodes: series, shunt, (biased and unbiased)• Circuit diagram, operation, waveforms of different types of clampers:positive and negative08 16Topic 5) DC circuits and Network TheoremsSpecific Objectives :• Able to use basic rules of electrical circuits with the view of solvingproblems on electrical circuits• They will be able to use various theorems to determine unknown electricalquantities in the network5.1 Fundamental of DC circuit• Review of ohms law• Concept of open &short circuit• Kirchhoff’s current and voltage law• Maxwell’s loop current method5.2 Node analysis• Concept of ideal & practical current and voltage sources source conversion• Star/Delta & Delta /Star conversion( no derivations)• Network terminology- active, Passive, linear, non linear bilateral, unilateralnetwork5.3 Network theorem: Statement, explanation & applications of following• Super position theorem• Thevenin’s theorem• Norton’s theorem• Maximum power transfer theoremNumerical examples on above topic.14 24Total 64 100
  • 32. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 32Practical:Skills to be developed:Intellectual Skills:• Identify various components and find their values.• Interpret characteristics of various devices and components.• Verification of network theorems.Motor Skills:• Plot the characteristics of electronic devices and circuits.• Testing of electronic devices and components.List of Practicals:1) Compute values of resistors by multimeter and colour coding2) Verify the performance of LDR and to draw its characteristics3) Draw the characteristics of linear and logarithm potentiometer.4) Identify & test fixed and variable capacitors.5) Identify & test inductors 5 inductor of different types.6) Identify & test IC’s (analog & digital)7) Plot VI characteristics of PN junction diode and find static & dynamic resistance8) Plot VI characteristics of zener diode. Find the breakdown voltage of zener diode9) Plot V-I characteristics of Tunnel diode10) Plot the characteristics of photo diode11) Draw the waveforms of a) H.W.R. b) F.W.R. from C.R.O.12) Draw o/p wave forms of capacitor and inductor fitter using bridge rectifier.13) Plot frequency response of RC integrator and differentiator circuits.14) Draw outputs for positive, negative and combinational clippers from C.R.O.15) Draw the outputs waveforms of positive and negative clampers from C.R.O.16) Verify the Superposition theorem for DC circuit.17) Verify Thevenins theorem.18) Verify Norton’s theorem.19) Plot graph of power dissipation for different value of resistors and to find outthe maximum power dissipation.20) Find out the current through known resistors by Maxwell’s loop currentmethod and verify it practically.Learning Resources:1. Books:Sr. No. Title Author Publisher01Electronics Device &Circuit TheoryRobert L. BoylesteadLouis NeshelskyPearson02Basic Electronics &Linear CircuitN.N.BhargavaS.C. GuptaTata McGraw Hill03 Electrical Technology B.L. Thereja S.Chand04Electronics Device &CircuitDavid J. Bell Oxford2.
  • 33. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 335. IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY:5.1 Planning of Lectures for a Semester with Content Detailing:[The method used to explain the contents are just guide lines. Any relevant methodscan be used for better understanding of students and effective teaching process]Topic1Name: Passive componentsFacts: Materials, Conductors, Insulators, Semiconductors, Passive components used inelectronics system.Concepts: Passive components construction, Resistance, Capacitance, Inductance,Specifications, Color coding for passive components.Principles & Procedures: Testing of passive components. Color codes to find rating ofpassive components.Reference MaterialBooks: 1) Basic Electronics and Linear Circuits By N NBhargava, D C Kulshreshtha,S C Gupta; Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi (pg1-17)2) Basic Electronics: B.L. Thereja, S ChandTeaching Aids: Various electronic components such as Resistors, Capacitors, Inductors,Charts on color coding, Experimental set up, Laboratory Manual.PPT with Sample: PPT of types of passive components, Videos from Subtopic to be covered1 • Importance of electronics in engineering and everyday life including in communication,medical electronics, TV, information transmission.
  • 34. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 34• Curriculum, Components of Curriculum, specific objectives, teaching scheme,examination scheme, lab manual: its components and its importance• Learning structure: necessity and use.• Introduction to different electronic components like active & passive components.Example of Passive components Resistor, Capacitor, Inductor. Example of Activecomponents Diode, Transistor, Field Effect Transistor. Identify various active andpassive components (Show various electronic component to the students and give atleast one use)
  • 35. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 35• Introduction to resistors. Classification of resistors. Materials used for resistors.2 • General specification of resistors including max. voltage rating, power rating, temp.coefficient, ohmic ranges, operating temperature• Application of resistor such as radio receiver
  • 36. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 36• Colour coding for resistors: with three, four & five bands (Use appropriate readymadecharts / ppt’s)Resistor Color Codes
  • 37. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 37• Assignment (Give problems to the students on color coding as Home Work or as anassignment. Further problems can be given for practice in practical sessions is advisable)3 • Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) – Working, Characteristics & application4 • Temperature Dependent Resistor (TDR)- Working, Characteristics.• TDR listing of its type. Definition of NTC / PTC / PT 100• TDR Application.5 • Potentiometer : Types-linear and logarithmic, constructional diagram, specifications,• Applications of carbon and wire wound resistor
  • 38. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 386 • Concept: Rate of change, voltage, charge, capacitance, capacitors.• Classification of capacitor, dielectric material used in capacitor.7 • Capacitor specification, working voltage, capacitive reactance, frequency characteristic• Fixed capacitor: specification & application.8 • Aluminum electronic capacitor: Symbol, constructional diagram, working,&specifications• Variable capacitor: Symbol, Requirement, constructional diagram, working andspecifications.• Air Gang capacitor: Symbol, Requirement, constructional diagram, working andspecifications.9 • PVC gang capacitor: Symbol, Requirement, constructional diagram, working andspecifications.• Trimmer capacitor: introduction, symbol, Requirement, constructional diagram, workingand specifications.• Coding of capacitor using numerals colour band systemCeramic Disc Capacitor Marking• Assignment (Give problems to the students on color coding as Home Work or as anassignment. Further practice can be done in practical sessions is advisable)10 • Properties of magnetic materials– Diagrammatic representation of Ferromagnetic &ferromagnetic
  • 39. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 39• Concept: BH curve, Hysteresis• Differentiate between hard & soft magnetic material,• Definition and expression of permeability, corecivity, reluctivity & losses in magneticmaterial.• Methods to reduce losses in magnetic material11 • Faradays law of electromagnetic inductions – Statement, explanation, equation• Self & mutual induced emf.• Give various examples of self & mutually induced e.m.f. (ex. Transformer–magneticallycoupled but electrically insulated, current flowing through coil becomes magnetic etc.)12 • Inductance: Definition, Expression with simple derivation of self inductance, mutualinductance.• Coefficient of coupling, Q factor, inductive reactance: Definition, formula, simplenumericals• Inductor: definition, Specifications.• Types of inductors.13 • Constructional diagram & application of Air core, iron core & ferrite core, inductor.• Frequency range for- AF, RF, IF torodial inductor.14 • Slug tuned inductor: General information, Working Principle of slug tuned inductor• Color coding of Inductor through available color coding charts• Simple numerical for calculating inductor value using color coding.Inductor Color Codes• Assignment: (Give problems to the students on color coding as Home Work or as anassignment. Further problems practice to be done in practical sessions is advisable)15 • Additional numerical– Color coding based– Formula based16 • Revision, Assessment, Assignment
  • 40. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 40Topic2Name: Semiconductor DiodeFacts: Semiconductor material, Intrinsic Semiconductor, Extrinsic SemiconductorP type semiconductor, N type semiconductorConcepts: PN junction diode, Forward bias, Reverse Bias, Depletion LayerPrinciple and Procedure: Working principle of diodes, Characteristics of diodesReference Material:Books: 1) Basic Electronics &Linear Circuits By N N Bhargava, D C Kulshreshtha,S CGupta; Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi (pg 50-81, 102-107)2 ) Electronic Devices and Circuits, Fifth Edition,David A BellOxford University Press 5thEdition (pg 1-65)Teaching Aids: Various types of Diodes, Chart, Data sheets, Experimental Set up,Laboratory ManualPPT with superconductor.pptwww.khanacademy.comWebsites:**Note: Use ppt, charts, animation and videos for teaching this topicLectureNo.Topic/ Subtopic to be covered1 • Concept of Fermi level
  • 41. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 41• Concept of doping: Process of adding external impurity• Development of P type & N type semiconductor through doping• N type doing• Concept of Hole Majority Charge carriers, minority charge carriersConduction in Semiconductors• Concept: P-N Junction, Addition of impurities.• Introduction to concept of diode. Uses of diode. Types of semiconductor diodes.• Materials used in PN junction diodeElectron moves to fill hole
  • 42. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 42• Formation of depletion layer in PN junction, Barrier Voltage2• Working of Unbiased PN junction diode
  • 43. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 43• Biasing the P-N Junction diode– Forward Bias, Reverse bias. Symbol3 • Working principle of PN junction diode, VI characteristics(Forward and Reversecharacteristics), Ideal characteristics4 • Static and Dynamic resistance of a diode: Definition & calculation from graph.• Diode specifications: Knee voltage, Forward voltage, Peak Inverse voltage, MaximumForward current, Reverse Saturation Current. Power dissipation; Meaning of the terms• Applications.5 • Introduction to zener diode. Symbol. Applications• Constructional diagram of zener diode• Working of zener diode.
  • 44. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 446 • VI Characteristics of Zener diode (in forward and reverse bias)• Zener as a voltage regulator: (no mathematical treatment)7 • Specification: Zener voltage, Breakdown voltage, power dissipation, dynamicresistance: meaning of the terms.• Comparison of PN junction diode and zener diode.8 • Special diodes. Types• Construction, symbol, operating principle& applications of PIN diode,
  • 45. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 459 • Construction, symbol, operating principle& applications of Schottky diode,10 • Construction, symbol, operating principle& applications of Tunnel diode.
  • 46. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 4611 Specifications of special diodes. Comparative analysis of special diodes and othersemiconductor diodes12 • Optical diodes. Types• Construction, symbol, operating principle & applications of LED.13 • Construction, symbol, operating principle & applications of IRLED.
  • 47. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 4714 • Construction, symbol, operating principle & applications of Photodiode.Comparison between Photo diode and LED15 • Construction, symbol, operating principle & applications of Laser diode16 • Revision, Assignment on chapter, Comparisons between various diodes.Topicno 03Name: Rectifiers and FiltersFacts: P type and N type Semiconductor, Capacitor, InductorConcepts: PN junction diode, Ideal AC/DC, Pulsating DC, Pure DCPrinciple and Procedure: Working principle of diodes, Capacitor and Inductor,Rectifier and FilterReference Material:Books:1) Basic Electronics and Linear Circuits By N N Bhargava, D C Kulshreshtha,S C Gupta, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited,New Delhi (pg 81-102)2) Electronic Devices and Circuits, Fifth Edition,David A Bell; Oxford University Press(pg 71-102)Teaching Aids: Diodes, Transformers, Rectifiers, Capacitors, Inductors, Charts,Experimental setup, Laboratory ManualPPT with Sample: PPTs on Rectifier,
  • 48. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 48Websites: Subtopic to be covered1 • Concept of ideal AC and DC waveforms.• Concept of Rectifier, Need of Rectifier Types of Rectifier ,Half wave Rectifier circuitdiagram, operation/working ,Input/output wave forms, Parameters of Half waveRectifier(Without derivation)
  • 49. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 492 Full wave center tapped Rectifier circuit diagram, operation/working ,Input/outputwave forms, Parameters of Full wave center tapped Rectifier(Without derivation)3 • Full wave Bridge Rectifier circuit diagram, operation/working ,Input/output waveforms, Parameters of Full wave Bridge Rectifier(Without derivation)Positive Half CycleNegative Half Cycle4 • Comparison of three rectifiers, Numerical Examples based on parameters of rectifiers5 • Numerical Examples based on parameters of rectifiers
  • 50. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 506 • Need of filters.• Different types of filters , Shunt Capacitor filter Circuit diagrams, operation with Halfwave rectifier, Full wave center tapped, Full wave bridge rectifier,• Expression for output voltage (Without derivation),Ripple Factor(Without derivation)Numerical Example7 • Series Inductor filter Circuit diagrams, operation with Half wave rectifier, Full wavecenter tapped, Full wave bridge rectifier, Expression for output voltage (Withoutderivation),Ripple Factor(Without derivation) Numerical Example
  • 51. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 518 • LC filter Circuit diagrams, operation with Half wave rectifier, Full wave centertapped, Full wave bridge rectifier, Expression for output voltage (Withoutderivation),Ripple Factor(Without derivation) Numerical Example9 • π Filter Circuit diagrams, operation with Half wave rectifier, Full wave center tapped,Full wave bridge rectifier, Expression for output voltage (Without derivation),RippleFactor(Without derivation) Numerical Example10 • Revision, Assessment, AssignmentTopic4Name: Wave Shaping CircuitFacts: P-type and N type semiconductor, Resistor, CapacitorConcepts: PN junction diode, RC Integrator, RC DifferentiatorPrinciple and Procedure: Working of PN junction diode, Wave shaping circuitReference Material:Books: 1) Electronic Devices and Circuits, Fifth Edition, David A BellOxford University Press; 5thedition (pg 113-128)2) Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory By Robert L Boylestad,Louis Nashelsky,Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi-110001; 6thedition (pg 78-89)Teaching Aids: : Diodes, Rectifiers, Capacitors, Inductors, Charts, Experimental setup,Laboratory ManualPPT with Sample: . www.circuitinnovation.comLectureNo.Topic/ Subtopic to be covered1 • Need of wave shaping circuit. Definition of wave shape circuits Basic types of waveshaping circuits: Linear and Non linear wave shaping circuits ,Types of linear waveshaping circuits, Types of non linear wave shaping circuits
  • 52. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 522 • Concept of integration, Concept of RC circuit, RC Time constant, Circuit diagram RCIntegrator, operation/working principle, Condition for Integration, Input/Output waveform for different inputs such as sine wave, square wave , triangular wave, rectangularwave ,ramp wave, step input, Applications
  • 54. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 54ExampleSolution** Teacher can use other examples also. These simple numerical are given just for betterunderstanding of students.3 • Concept of differentiation, RC Differentiator: Circuit diagram, operation/workingprinciple, Condition for differentiation , Input / Output wave form for different inputssuch as sine wave, square wave , triangular wave, rectangular wave ,ramp wave, stepinput ,Applications
  • 56. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 564 • Concept of clipping, Clipper circuit: Types of clipper circuit: Series clipper: Types ofseries clipper: Biased and Unbiased; Circuit of negative series clipper,operation/workingof circuit, Sketch of input/out wave forms for inputs, Circuit of positive series clipper,:operation/working of circuit, sketch of input/output waveforms for different inputs;Biased series clippers; Applications of series clippers
  • 57. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 57Diode Clipping CircuitDiode Negative Clipper
  • 61. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 615 • Types of shunt clippers, unbiased, biased, Positive shunt clipper, Negative shuntclipper,biased shunt clippers,circuit,operation/working,sketch of input/output waveformsfor different types of input waveforms,Zener diode shunt clipper,Applications of shuntclippers6 • Types of Clamping circuit: unbiased and biased clamping circuit, Negative voltageclamping, Positive voltage clamping circuit, ,Circuit operation/working, sketch of input/output wave forms for different types of inputs, Applications of clamping circuits7 • Biased clamping circuit, operation/working, Sketch of input/output waveforms fordifferent types of input forms ,Applications of biased clamping circuits, Zener diodeclamping circuit
  • 62. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 628 • Revision, Assessment, AssignmentTopic5Name: DC Circuits and Network TheoremsFacts: Current, Voltage, Power, Ohm’s Law and Kirchoff’s LawConcepts: Fundamentals of DC Circuits.Principle and procedure: Network theorems and use of network theorems to reducecircuit components. To simplify the network.
  • 63. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 63Reference Material:Books: Electrical Technology, B LThereja, S.Chand; 1stedi. print 2010 (pg 18-27, chp 2)Teaching Aids: Charts, Experimental Set up, Laboratory ManualPPT with Sample: PPTs on DC circuit fundamentals and theoremsWebsites: : Subtopic to be covered1 • Review of ohms law.2 • Kirchoff’s current and voltage law Statement and Numerical examples
  • 64. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 64• KVL : It states that the total voltage around a closed loop must be zero.∑ V = 0…. Prefer using loop method as it is simple to understand and salve problems• KCL: At node ∑∑∑∑ I = 03 • Maxwell’s loop current method4 • Concept of ideal and practical current and voltage sources. Conversion of sources.Numerical examples on conversion of voltage source in to current source. Numericalexamples on conversion of current source in to voltage source.5 • Star/Delta and Delta/Star conversion (no derivation) Concept of star network. Concept ofdelta network. Formula to convert star network in to delta network.Formula to convert delta network into star network. Numerical examples based onconversion6 • Network terminology-active, passive, linear, nonlinear, bilateral, unilateral network.Review of network components. Examples of active and passive components. Definitionof network and network terminology7 • Superposition theorem Statement: It states that the effect of two or more voltage sourcesin a resistor is equal to the sum of the individual effects of each source taken separately,replacing all the remaining voltage sources with short circuits
  • 65. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 65• Explanation and applications .Steps to apply to superposition theorem to given network.Numerical examples8 • Numerical examples based on superposition theorem9 • Thevenin’s theorem Statement .Explanation and applications.• Steps to apply to Thevenin’s theorem to given network. Numerical examples10 • Numerical examples based on Thevenin’s theoremRefer: for excellent demo onnumerical11 • Norton’s theorem Statement .Explanation and applications .Steps to apply toNorton’s theorem to given network. Numerical examples12 • Numerical examples based on Norton’s theoremRefer: for excellent demo onnumerical
  • 66. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 6613 • Maximum power transfer theorem Statement .Explanation and applications .Steps toapply to Maximum power transfer theorem to given network. Numerical examples14 • Revision, Assessment, Assignment5.2 Planning and Conduct of Test:Two class tests each of 25 marks to be conducted as per the schedule given inMSBTE academic calendar.Sr. No Class Test Marks Topics1 Class Test 1 25 1 Passive Component1.1 Resistor1.2 Capacitor1.3 Inductor2 Semiconductor2.1 P N Junction Diode2.2 Zener Diode2.3 Special Diodes2.4 Optical Diodes3 Rectifiers and Filters3.1 Rectifiers2 Class Test 2 25 3 Rectifiers and Filters3.2 Filters4 Wave Shaping Circuit4.1 Linear Wave Shaping Circuit4.2 Non linear Wave Shaping Circuit5 DC Circuits and Network Theorems5.1 Fundamental of DC Circuits5.2 Node Analysis5.3 Network Theorems5.3 Details about conduct of assignments:• After completion of each chapter one assignment based on all points of concernedchapter, sample question paper, old MSBTE question paper shall be given tostudents. It shall be assessed by subject teacher before giving next Assignment.• However it is suggested that one or two, revision based on, interactive discussionsabout doubts in understanding subject will definitely give an added advantage tostudents.• Assignment & its Evaluation may be done efficiently in practical’s.[At the time of submission of Elements of Electronics, students should produce thisAssignment Note book to Subject Teacher which will contain Five Assignment. SubjectTeacher will review it for Five Assignment and return it to students for further study ofMSBTE Exam.
  • 67. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 675.4 Strategies for Conduct of Practical:5.4.1 Approach for design of Manual:• Basic approach of lab manual is to develop better understanding of subjects and todevelop intellectual skill and Motor skill the as per subject objectives.• While designing the experiments, various activities are added in the experimentsso that contents can be related to applications in the industry.5.4.2 Suggestions for effective conduct of practical and assessment:• Subject Teacher shall prepare Laboratory planning (D2) format in duplicate.One copy of laboratory planning (D2) shall be displayed onlaboratory/departmental notice board for students’ information. SubjectTeacher shall conduct practical as per planning and assess/check regularly• Display the given data of each experiment in the laboratory.• Display the charts of all instruments which are required to the practical ofElements of Electronics.• At the beginning of the semester Lab Assistant and Subject Teacher shouldcheck and ensure that the equipment required to conduct practical are inproper working condition. They should calibrate all necessary equipment toconduct practical using standard calibrated instrument and maintaincalibration register and maintenance register.• Teacher should refer the guide lines given in laboratory manual.• Teacher should make the students aware of instructions given in thelaboratory manual.• Teacher should motivate the students by taking activities on related contentsin theory and practical.• Teacher should ensure that at least one activity given in the Lab Manual isperformed by the student and observations should be tabulated.• There should be one revision practical after every three regular practicalso that student can grasp the content deeply.• Teacher should make the assessment report of student during the repletionround.• Teacher should assess the students on the basis of his/her participation in agroup and performance in a group during practical as per MSBTE rule.• Teacher should give marks out of 10 for each practical.5.4.3 Preparation for conduct of practical• Experimental set up along with the sample readings (Expected result) shouldbe available with the concerned teacher before the commencement of eachexperiment.• Teacher should give the instruction regarding proper handling of instrument,precautions while performing the experiment while taking observations.5.5 Additional guidelines to conduct course smoothly.• Use of ICT based teaching-learning methods, PPT’s, internet, CD/DVD’s,readymade charts/graphs, video may help students to learn subject easily.• Prefer use of recommended reference books for teaching / learning purpose.
  • 68. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 68• Preparation of subject notes will definitely be fruitful for students. Howevergiving Xerox of notes instead of detecting notes will be more beneficial.• Overview of topics covered in last lecture at start of current lecture isexpected.• Assignments or home work based on last lecture or related to next lecture maybe helpful for all students.• Preparation and Circulation chapter wise question bank based on samplequestion paper, MSBTE old question papers will definitely give good idea tostudents about subject.• Showing of components, portable electronic equipment’s, working models,simulations, project boards will definitely give brief idea about subject tounderstand electronic equipment’s to the students6. Mode of assessment:6.1 Class Test:• There will be two tests each of 25 Marks.• The tests will be conducted as per the MSBTE Schedule.• Teacher should prepare model answer of class test question papers and displayit on notice board after the class test for clear understanding of the subject bystudents.• Teacher should show the answer paper of class test to the student and discussabout the mistakes in practical’s or free time. Give appropriate suggestions.• Teacher should maintain the record of class test as per MSBTE norms.6.1.1 Guidelines for Setting Class Test Question Paper:• Question No.1 Attempt any three out of four (3 X 3 = 9 Marks)• Question No.2 Attempt any two out of three (2 X 4 = 8 Marks)• Question No.1 Attempt any three out of four (2 X 4 = 8 Marks)6.1.2 Sample Test Papers:Structure of Question Paper: Class Test 1Q1. Attempt any Three (03 x 03) 09a) Based on Topic 1.2b) Based on Topic 3.1c) Based on Topic 2.3d) Based on Topic 1.1Q2. Attempt any Two (04 x 02) 08a) Based on Topic 1.3b) Based on Topic 2.4c) Based on Topic 2.1Q3.Attempt any Two (04 x 02) 08a) Based on Topic 1.1b) Based on Topic 2,2c) Based on Topic 3.1Note: While setting question paper40 % Questions should be based on Remember level
  • 69. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 6940 % Questions should be based on Understand level20 % Questions should be based on Application levelG-SchemeSample Test Paper IRoll No.Institute Name:Course Name: Electronics Engineering GroupCourse Code: DE/ED/EI/EJ/EN/ET/EV/EX/IC/IE/IS/IU/MUSemester : SecondSubject: Elements of ElectronicsMarks: 25 Time: 1 hourInstructions:1. All questions are compulsory2. Illustrate your answers with neat sketches wherever necessary3. Figures to the right indicate full marks4. Assume suitable data if necessary5. Preferably, write the answers in sequential orderQ1. Attempt any Three (03 x 03) 09a) Write the formula for capacitive reactance. State the effect of frequency on the capacitivereactance.b) Draw the circuit diagram of half wave rectifier. Describe the operation with input andoutput wave form.c) Draw the symbol and list the applications of PIN diode and Schottky diode.d) List specifications and applications of linear and non linear potentiometersQ2. Attempt any Two (04 x 02) 08a) Compare air core and ferrite core inductor on the basis of constructional diagram andapplications.b) Draw the constructional details of LED. Describe the operating principle.c) Draw the symbol of PN junction diode .Describe its working principle and listtwoapplications of the same.Q3.Attempt any Two (04 x 02) 08a) Compare LDR and TDR on the basis of working principle, material used for construction,characteristics curves and applications.b) Draw the characteristics of Zener diode. List four applications of zener diodec) Compare center tapped rectifier with bridge rectifier on the basis of following parameteri) Number of diode used ii) PIV iii) TUF iv) Efficiency17215
  • 70. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 70Structure of Question Paper : Class Test 2Q1. Attempt any Three (03X03) 09a) Based on Topic 4.1b) Based on Topic 5.1c) Based on Topic 4.1d) Based on Topic3.2Q2. Attempt any Two (04X02) 08a) Based on Topic 3.2b) Based on Topic 4.2c) Based on Topic5.2Q3.Attempt any Two (04X02) 08a) Based on Topic 4.2b) Based on Topic 5.1c) Based on Topic 5.3Note: While setting question paper40 % Questions should be based on Remember level40 % Questions should be based on Understand level20 % Questions should be based on Application level
  • 71. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 71G-SchemeSample Test Paper IIRoll No.Institute Name:Course Name: Electronics Engineering GroupCourse Code: DE/ED/EI/EJ/EN/ET/EV/EX/IC/IE/IS/IU/MUSemester : SecondSubject: Elements of ElectronicsMarks: 25 Time: 1 hourInstructions:1. All questions are compulsory2. Illustrate your answers with neat sketches wherever necessary3. Figures to the right indicate full marks4. Assume suitable data if necessary5. Preferably, write the answers in sequential orderQ1. Attempt any Three (03 x 03) 09a) Draw the circuit diagram of RC integrator. Sketch the output wave form for square waveinput. Describe the operation of the circuit.b) State the Kirchoff’s Current Law(KCL) with suitable examplec) Compare linear and nonlinear wave shaping circuitsd) Draw the circuit diagram of half wave rectifier with shunt capacitor filter. Describe theoperation of circuit with input output wave forms.Q2. Attempt any Two (04 x 02) 08a) Draw the circuit diagram of bridge rectifier with series inductor filter. Describe theoperation of circuit with input output wave forms.b) Draw the circuit diagram of positive clamper using diode. Describe the operation ofcircuit with input output waveforms.c) Three resistances each of 12Ω are connected in star. Convert it into equivalentdelta connectionQ3.Attempt any Two (04 x 02) 08a) Draw the circuit diagram of positive clipper .Describe the operation circuit with input outputwave forms.17215
  • 72. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 72b) By using Maxwell’s loop current method calculate current in 3Ω resistance for the networkshown in figure 1Figure 1c) Obtain the Thevenin’s equivalent circuit for the network shown in figure 2Figure 2
  • 73. © MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCTION 736.2.1 Specification Table:Course Name: Electronics Engineering GroupCourse Code: DE/ED/EI/EJ/EN/ET/EV/EX/IC/IE/IS/IU/MUSemester: SecondTitle of the Subject: Elements of Electronics Subject Code: 17215R – Remember U – Understand A – Analyze / ApplySPECIFICATION TABLELevelChapter/TopicLevels from Cognition Process Dimension TotalMarksR U A1.1 4 4 – 81.2 4 2 – (4) (4) 6 – (8)1.3 2 4 – (2) – 6 – (2)2 8 – (4) 8 – (4) 8 – (0) 24 – (8)3 4 – (4) 8 – (4) 4 – (0) 16 – (8)4 8 – (4) 8 – (0) 0 – (4) 16 – (8)5 10 – (4) 6 – (4) 8 – (2) 24 – (10)Total 40 – (16) 40 – (18) 20 – (10) 100 – (44)
  • 74. 746. 2.2 QUESTION PAPER ROFILE:Course Name: Electronics Engineering Group Course Code: DE/ED/EI/EJ/EN/ET/EV/EX/IC/IE/IS/IU/MUSemester: SecondTitle of the Subject: Elements of Electronics Subject Code: 17215.T = Topic/Chapter Number L = Level of Question M = MarksR = Remember U = Understand A = Analyze /ApplyQ.No.Bit 1 Bit 2 Bit 3 Bit 4 Bit 5 Bit 6 OptionT L M T L M T L M T L M T L M T L M011.3 R 2 1.3 U 2 1.2 U 2 3 U 2 3 U25 R 2Bit 7 Bit 8 Bit 9 Bit 10 Bit 11 Bit 125 U 2 5 A 2 2 U 2 2 U 2 4 R24 R 2 10 / 12021.1 R 4 1.1 U 4 1.2 U 4 1.2 R 4 1.3 U 4 2 R 4 04 / 06032 R 4 2 R 4 2 U 4 2 U 4 3 R 4 3 R 4 04 / 06043 U 4 1.2 A 4 3 U 4 3 A 4 2 A 4 2 A 4 04 / 0605 4 R 4 4 R 4 5 R 4 4 U 4 5 R 4 5 R 4 04 / 06064 U 4 4 A 4 5 U 4 5 A 4 5 A 4 5 U 4 04 / 06100 /144
  • 75. 75
  • 76. 766.2.3 Sample Question Paper: G SchemeExam SeatNo.Maharashtra State Board of Technical EducationCourse Name: Electronics Engineering GroupCourse Code: DE/ED/EI/EJ/EN/ET/EV/EX/IC/IE/IS/IU/MUSemester: SecondTitle of the Subject: Elements of Electronics Subject Code: 17215Marks: 100 Time:3 HoursInstructions:1. All questions are compulsory2. Illustrate your answers with neat sketches wherever necessary3. Figures to the right indicate full marks4. Assume suitable data if necessary5. Preferably, write the answers in sequential orderQ1. Attempt any TEN (02 x 10) 20a) State the Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction. Also write its formula.b) Draw the neat labeled sketch of slug tuned inductor. State two functions of it.c) Define the term “Effective Series Resistance” with reference to capacitor.d) Draw the circuit diagram of bridge rectifier and label it.e) Draw the circuit diagram of center tapped rectifier with π filter and label it.f) Draw the ideal current source and practical current source.g) State the Kirchoff’s Voltage Law along with its formula.h) Calculate the supply voltage of the circuit shown in figure 117215
  • 77. 77i) Write the four applications of zener diode.j) Explain with neat sketch construction of PIN diode.k) State the condition for integration with reference to RC integrator with neat circuitdiagram.l) Draw the circuit diagram of shunt negative clipper with input and outputwaveform.Q2. Attempt any FOUR (04 x 04) 16a) Describe the working of LDR with neat sketch. State their four applications.b) Draw the characteristics of Linear and Logarithmic potentiometers. Write fourspecifications of Potentiometers.c) Draw the constructional diagram of Electrolytic Capacitor. Explain the workingd) List the two specifications of capacitors and two dielectric materials used incapacitors.e) Draw the constructional diagram iron core inductor and ferrite core inductor.f) Describe the working of PN junction diode with neat sketch under forwardbiased condition.Q3. Attempt any FOUR (04 x 04) 16a) Enlist four specifications of zener diode.b) Describe construction of tunnel diode with neat sketch. List two applications.c) Describe the operating principle of Laser diode with neat sketch.d) Draw the symbol of Schottky diode. With neat sketch explain working principleof Schottky diode..e) List different types of filters. Which filter is practically preferred to get pureDC output voltage? Why?f) State the values of following parameters with reference to half wave rectifieri) Ripple Factor ii) Efficiency iii) TUF iv) Average value of DC output voltageQ4. Attempt any FOUR (04 x 04) 16a) Draw the circuit diagram of full wave bridge rectifier with LC filter. Explainwith input and output wave form.b) Using colour code ,write the colour codes for following resistors
  • 78. 78i) 560K ± 5% ii)23.4K ± 10%c) Draw the circuit diagram of series inductor filter with half wave rectifier.Explain with input and output wave forms.d) In FWR VM= 10V, RL = 10 KΩ. Calculate VDC, IDC and ripple factor. Referfollowing Figure 2sFigure 2e) Compare PN-junction diode &Zener diode. (Four points)a) Compare LED and Photo diode..(Four points)Q 5. Attempt any FOUR (04 x 04) 16a) What do you mean by the term wave shaping circuit? Explain why it is neededin practical applications?b) Describe the working principle of RC differentiator with neat sketch. State thecondition for differentiator.c) Describe the working of Positive shunt clipper with neat circuit diagram andinput/output wave forms.d) Draw the circuit diagram of RC integrator. Draw the input and outputwaveforms of RC integrator for square wave and triangular as input.e) State the superposition theorem with suitable example.f) State the Thevenin’s theorem with suitable example.Q 6. Attempt any FOUR (04 x 04) 16a) Draw circuit diagrams for negative and positive voltage clamping circuits.Show the input and output waveform. Write working of circuit.b) Compare clipper and clamper. (Four points)c) Explain the following termsi) Active Network ii) Linear Network
  • 79. 79iii) Bilateral Network iv) Unilateral Networkd) Calculate the value of current in 5Ω resistance using Norton’s theorem for thenetwork shown in figure 3Figure 3e) Calculate the value of RL ,so that power transferred is maximum in the circuitshown in figure 4Figure No. 4f) Write the meaning term open circuit and short circuit with neat diagram.