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  • View from the Cloud E d i t o r : G e o r g e P a l l i s • g p a l l i s @ c s . u c y.a c . c y Cloud Computing The New Frontier of Internet Computing George Pallis • University of Cyprus Cloud computing is a new field in Internet computing that provides novel perspectives in internetworking technologies and raises issues in the architecture, design, and implementation of existing networks and data centers. The relevant research has just recently gained momentum, and the space of potential ideas and solutions is still far from being widely explored. A fter IEEE Internet Computing’s recent edi- of blogs, forums, and discussion groups on the torial board meeting in March 2010, edi- subject are available on the Web. In indus- tor in chief Fred Douglis invited me to be try, companies are devoting great resources to department editor for this new cloud comput- investing in cloud computing, either by building ing department. This is a topic that’s gaining their own infrastructures or developing innova- considerable research interest and momentum, tive cloud services. and it’s expected to be the next generation of Cloud computing is a new multidisciplinary Internet computing. Through this department, I research field, considered to be the evolution and hope to use this momentum to gather articles convergence of several independent computing from diverse sources, ranging from researchers trends such as Internet delivery, “pay-as-you- in academia to industry leaders who implement go” utility computing, elasticity, virtualization, innovative cloud services. grid computing, distributed computing, stor- age, content outsourcing, security, and Web 2.0. Cloud Computing: However, cloud computing’s multidisciplinarity Current Status and Trends has raised questions in the research community As more aspects of our work and life move about how novel this new paradigm is because online and the Web expands beyond a commu- it includes almost everything that existing nication medium to become a platform for busi- technologies already do. Michael Armbrust and ness and society, a new paradigm of large-scale his colleagues try to clarify cloud computing’s distributed computing has emerged in our lives. innovative aspects, identifying its major techni- Cloud computing has very quickly become one cal and nontechnical challenges.1 of the hottest topics — if not the hottest one — for Even if we can’t precisely define the cloud practicing engineers and academics in domains because it’s an evolving paradigm, the US related to engineering, science, and art for build- National Institute of Standards and Technology’s ing large-scale networks and Internet appli- definition covers the most important aspects of cations. Nowadays, everyone’s talking about the cloud vision (see http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/ clouds. In academia, numerous research papers, SNS/cloud-computing): tutorials, workshops, and panels on this emerg- ing topic have been presented at major confer- Cloud computing is a model for enabling conve- ences and published in the top-level computer nient, on-demand network access to a shared pool science journals and magazines. Also, several of configurable computing resources (for example, universities have added courses that are dedi- networks, servers, storage, applications, and ser- cated to cloud computing principles. A plethora vices) that can be rapidly provisioned and released70 Published by the IEEE Computer Society 1089-7801/10/$26.00 © 2010 IEEE IEEE INTERNET COMPUTING
  • Cloud Computingwith minimal management effort or Everything as a service (XaaS) User front endservice provider interaction. This cloudmodel promotes availability and iscomposed of five essential character- Software as a service (SaaS)istics [on-demand self-service, broadnetwork access, resource pooling, rapid Target: User/business Provides: Applicationselasticity, and measured service], three Platform as a service (PaaS)service models [cloud software as a ser-vice, cloud platform as a service, and Target: Developer Provides: Run time/middlewarecloud infrastructure as a service], and Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)four deployment models [private cloud,community cloud, public cloud, and Target: Administrator Provides: Compute powerhybrid cloud]. Figure 1. A general layered architecture of cloud infrastructures. Cloud Cloud computing grew out of computing uses IT infrastructure as a service. Its architecture defines threeour never-ending hunger for ever- distinct layers from computing resources to end-user applications.faster and ever-cheaper computa-tion. The key driving forces behindit are the promise of broadband and grated development environment. need to be revised in a new context.2wireless networking ubiquity, lower This layer provides a runtime envi- For instance, we should invest in newstorage and mobile device costs, ronment and middleware to deploy service-level agreements betweenand progressive improvements in applications using programming lan- cloud service consumers and pro-Internet computing software and guages and tools the cloud provider viders. In terms of content delivery,mobile computing. The perceived supports. The application layer is the integrating cloud computing in thisadvantages for cloud-service cli- highest layer and features a complete process has changed the architec-ents include the ability to improve application offered as a service. Fig- ture, design, and implementation ofuse by adding more capacity at peak ure 1 shows a cloud infrastructure’s existing content-delivery networks.demand, reducing costs, experiment- general layered architecture, with Using a network of edge locationsing with new services, and removing the additional user interface layer, around the world, cloud providersunneeded capacity. which enables seamless interaction provide mechanisms that distribute From a technical viewpoint, a with all the underlying everything- not only content but also servicescloud’s system elements include as-a-service layers. to end users with low latency andprocessing, network, and storage The European Commission high data-transfer speeds. Also, weelements. The cloud architecture con- recently published a technical report should introduce new standards tosists of three abstract layers: infra- that aims to outline future direc- improve cloud interoperability. Thestructure, platform, and application. tions for cloud computing research problem is that, although a wideInfrastructure is the lowest layer and (see http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/ict/ range of vendors provide cloud ser-is a means of providing processing, ssai/docs/cloud-repor t-f inal.pdf ). vices, clients remain stuck. Con-storage, networks, and other funda- The report’s authors concluded that sidering that a plethora of cloudmental computing re­ ources as stan- s providers are flooding the market,dardized services over the network. Cloud technologies and models have this is a real obstacle on the road toServers, storage systems, switches, not yet received their full potential, the future Internet of services’ cloudrouters, and other systems handle and many of the capabilities associated marketplace due to vendor lock-specific types of workloads from with clouds are not yet developed and in. Currently, a trend in improvingbatch processing to server-storage researched to a degree that allows their cloud interoperability exists. Theaugmentation during peak loads. exploitation to the full degree, respec- recently formed Cloud ComputingCloud providers’ clients can deploy tively meeting all potential circum- Interoperability Forum moves inand run operating systems and stances of usage. this direction, enabling cloud infra-software for their underlying infra- structures to evolve into a trans-structures. The middle layer provides Cloud computing’s emergence parent platform. Regarding securityhigher abstractions and services to has added new issues and perspec- and privacy issues, the move todevelop, test, deploy, host, and main- tives to current Internet technolo- cloud services results in developingtain applications in the same inte- gies because many system facets will new data-­ rotection mechanisms to pSEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2010 71
  • View from the Cloud IBM (key contributor Jim Rymarczyk) Salesforce.com launches CP-67 introduces the Amazon Web Services software; one of IBM’s concept of delivering provide a suite of Cloud providers first attempts at enterprise cloud-based services, offer browser- virtualizing mainframe applications via including storage and based enterprise operating systems a website computation applications 1961 1967 1999 2002 2006 2008 2009 2010 John McCarthy The term grid computing Amazon launches Elastic Private cloud Cloud 2.0 envisions that is originated by Ian Foster Compute (EC2) as a models make model is “computation” might and Carl Kesselman’s work, commercial Web service their emerging someday be The Grid: Blueprint for a that small companies and appearance organized as a New Computing Infrastructure individuals rent to run their public utility own computer applicationsFigure 2. Cloud computing timeline. Cloud computing has evolved from previous computing paradigms going back tothe days of mainframes.secure data privacy, resource secu- networks, content delivery, col- about 40 percent compound annualrity, and content copyrights. laborative software development, growth rate — over the next six years Recently, many people argue and online games and e-­ ommerce c and [that] expenditure will pass $7that we’re moving from cloud 1.0 to applications. Using a cloud pro- billion by 2015” (see www.marketcloud 2.0. Although it’s too early to vider, companies can start small researchmedia.com/2009/05/20/usspeak for the next cloud generation, and increase hardware resources -federal-cloud-computing-marketits evolution will integrate Web 2.0 only when necessary. This elimi- -forecast-2010-2015).social networking features and func- nates the need to plan far ahead fortionality into cloud-based applica- provisioning computing resources. Initiatives and Objectivestions. In this context, social cloud In the market, companies have built In this department, I hope to estab-is another emerging trend in which cloud services to predict market lish a respected information sourceusers can discover and trade storage trends, tailor pricing, and optimize on foundational research and trendsand computing services contributed procurement and manufacturing. in cloud computing. Specifically, myby their friends in an online social In academia, college students use vision is to have articles, positionnetwork (for example, Facebook), the cloud infrastructure to develop statements, and viewpoints writ-taking advantage of pre-existing their skills and build next-genera- ten by academics in this area andtrust relationships.3 According to tion computing infrastructures and researchers affiliated with compa-Dave Durkee, the bottom line is that applications. nies that provide cloud services. Thethe cloud 2.0 model belongs to both All this advocates that this dis- department will aim at deliveringsmall and medium enterprise and cipline has a prosperous future and the state-of-the-art research on cur-large enterprise markets.4 Specifi- will become one of the most signifi- rent cloud computing topics, and atcally, Durkee believes that the “cloud cant industries. The Pew Research promoting the internetworking dis-2.0 model will be focused on deliv- Center’s Internet and American Life cipline by discussing novel problemsering a high-performance, highly Project and Elon University recently that must be investigated and willavailable, and secure computing conducted a survey of 900 Internet enhance the evolution of next-gen-infrastructure for business-critical practitioners, social analysts, and eration cloud-based networks. Pos-production applications.” Figure 2 researchers; their survey results sible topics includeshows a cloud computing timeline, confirm this viewpoint. Specifi-highlighting key dates. cally, most of the survey respondents • platform, software, and infra- Embracing cloud computing’s believe that Internet users will “live structure as a service;growth and challenges, several mostly in the cloud” by 2020. Also, • cloud elasticity and availability;companies have built high-per- a recent Market Research Media • power-efficient computing;formance systems (for example, study forecasts that “US government • security and privacy;Google’s Bigtable) and Internet spending on cloud computing [will] • migration;applications such as search, social enter an explosive growth phase — at • management and configuration;72 www.computer.org/internet/ IEEE INTERNET COMPUTING
  • Cloud Computing• interoperability;• economics; PURPOSE: The IEEE Computer Society is the world’s largest association of computing• new applications; and professionals and is the leading provider of technical information in the field.• use scenarios. MEMBERSHIP: Members receive the monthly magazine Computer, discounts, and opportunities to serve (all activities are led by volunteer members). Membership is Another objective is to cover open to all IEEE members, affiliate society members, and others interested in themajor innovations and events (such computer field. COMPUTER SOCIETY WEB SITE: www.computer.orgas conferences, symposiums, and OMBUDSMAN: Email help@computer.org.so on) that have taken place aroundthe world. Next Board Meeting: 15–16 Nov. 2010, New Brunswick, NJ, USA EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE COMPUTER SOCIETY OFFICESR egarding this department’s long- term objectives, I envision it as afocal point for practicing engineers President: James D. Isaak* President-Elect: Sorel Reisman;* Past President: Susan K. (Kathy) Land, Washington, D.C.: 2001 L St., Ste. 700, Washington, D.C. 20036 Phone: +1 202 371 0101; Fax: +1 202 728 CSDP;* VP, Standards Activities: 9614; Email: hq.ofc@computer.organd academics who work in the Inter- Roger U. Fujii (1st VP);* Secretary: Los Alamitos: 10662 Los Vaqueros Circle,net computing area. This department Jeffrey M. Voas (2nd VP);* VP, Los Alamitos, CA 90720-1314will provide a platform to exchange Educational Activities: Elizabeth L. Phone: +1 714 821 8380; and collaborate on research in a Burd;* VP, Member & Geographic Email: help@computer.orgcomprehensive, coordinated, and Activities: Sattupathu V. Sankaran;† Membership & Publication Orders: VP, Publications: David Alan Grier;* Phone: +1 800 272 6657; Fax: +1 714 821integrated manner. I anticipate this VP, Professional Activities: James W. 4641; Email: help@computer.orgdepartment will establish a path- Moore;* VP, Technical & Conference Asia/Pacific: Watanabe Building, 1-4-2way for the development of future-­ Activities: John W. Walz;* Treasurer: Minami-Aoyama, Minato-ku, Tokyogeneration clouds. Frank E. Ferrante;* 2010–2011 IEEE 107-0062, Japan Division V Director: Michael R. Phone: +81 3 3408 3118; Williams;† 2009–2010 IEEE Division Fax: +81 3 3408 3553References VIII Director: Stephen L. Diamond;† Email: tokyo.ofc@computer.org 1. M. Armbrust et al., “A View of Cloud 2010 IEEE Division VIII Director-Elect: Computing,” Comm. ACM, vol. 53, no. 4, Susan K. (Kathy) Land, CSDP;* Computer IEEE OFFICERS 2010, pp. 50–58. Editor in Chief: Carl K. Chang† President: Pedro A. Ray; President- *voting member of the Board of Governors Elect: Moshe Kam; Past President: 2. M.D. Dikaiakos et al., “Cloud Computing: †nonvoting member of the Board of Governors John R. Vig; Secretary: David G. Distributed Internet Computing for IT and Green; Treasurer: Peter W. Staecker; Scientific Research,” IEEE Internet Com- BOARD OF GOVERNORS President, Standards Association puting, vol. 13, no. 5, 2009, pp. 10–13. Term Expiring 2010: Piere Bourque; Board of Governors: ; W. Charlston 3. K. Chard et al., “Social Cloud: Cloud André Ivanov; Phillip A. Laplante; Itaru Adams; VP, Educational Activities: Mimura; Jon G. Rokne; Christina M. Tariq S. Durrani; VP, Membership & Computing in Social Networks,” Proc. 3rd Schober; Ann E.K. Sobel Geographic Activities: Barry L. Shoop; Int’l Conf. Cloud Computing (IEEE Cloud Term Expiring 2011: Elisa Bertino, VP, Publication Services & Products: 10), IEEE CS Press, 2010, preprint. George V. Cybenko, Ann DeMarle, Jon G. Rokne; VP, Technical Activities: 4. D. Durkee, “Why Cloud Computing Will David S. Ebert, David A. Grier, Hironori Roger D. Pollard; IEEE Division V Never Be Free,” Comm. ACM, vol. 53, no. Kasahara, Steven L. Tanimoto Director: Michael R. Williams; IEEE Term Expiring 2012: Elizabeth L. Burd, Division VIII Director: Stephen L. 5, 2010, pp. 62–69. Thomas M. Conte, Frank E. Ferrante, Diamond; President, IEEE-USA: Evelyn Jean-Luc Gaudiot, Luis Kun, James W. H. HirtGeorge Pallis is a lecturer in University of Moore, John W. Walz Cyprus’s Computer Science Department. EXECUTIVE STAFF His research interests include distributed Executive Director: Angela R. Burgess; systems, such as the Web and clouds, con- Associate Executive Director; tent distribution networks, information Director, Governance: Anne Marie retrieval, and data clustering. Pallis is on Kelly; Director, Finance & Accounting: IEEE Internet Computing’s editorial board. John Miller; Director, Membership Development: Violet S. Doan; Director, Contact him at gpallis@cs.ucy.ac.cy. Products & Services: Evan Butterfield; Director, Sales & Marketing: Dick Price Selected CS articles and columns are also available for free at http:// revised 17 Jun. 2010ComputingNow.computer.org.SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2010 73