Dietary habits and dental caries status in 12 13

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Research done in Kathmandu by MiRON

Research done in Kathmandu by MiRON

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  • 1. Dietary habits and dental caries status in 12-13 years age group school children in Kathmandu valleyShakya P1, Acharya A1, K.C. U 1, Subedi B1, Jnawali M1, Paudyal BD1, Koirala S2 andSingh A11 Central Department of Microbiology, Tribhuvan University (CDM-TU), Kirtipur,Nepal2 National Dental Hospital, Panipokhari, KathmanduConducted under the technical and financial support of Nepal Dental Association 2008
  • 2. IntroductionDental caries• multi-factorial disease• prevalent and chronic oral diseases, common in children.• Diet one of the prime factors• changing dietary habits• Use of Epidemiological tools
  • 3. Objective• To assess the impact of diet on dental caries status in children
  • 4. Materials and methods• Ethical approval –NHRC, –written consent from schools and Guardians of the students
  • 5. Materials and methods• Study subjects – 30 private and government schools – Students of age group 12-13 years• Study design – Cross-sectional• Free dental check ups for all participating schools
  • 6. Materials and methods• Clinical examination – WHO caries form – Done by trained and calibrated volunteer dentist – provided by Nepal Dental Association – Cross check in each 5 students – DMFT/DMFS was used as a standard tool• Questionnaire survey – semi-structured questionnaire• Statistical Analysis – Done by SPSS 16
  • 7. Result• Mean DMFS 1.60• Prevalence 53.23 %• Age – 325 students of age group 12-13 years – average age of 12 years 4 months – high decayed teeth surfaces than other component• Gender – Female (1.97) (60%)> Male (1.26) (47.06%) – High decayed component
  • 8. ResultDietary habits D (SE) M (SE) F (SE) DMFS (SE) p-valueChewing paan 2.07 (0.58) 0 0 2.07 (0.58) p=0.43(n=14, 4.3%)Beetles nut 0.68 (0.17) 0 0.03 (0.02) 0.70 (0.18) p=0.00chewing (n=37,11.4%)No such habits 1.46 (0.13) 0.11 (0.06) 0.13 (0.06) 1.7 (0.16) p= 0.56(n=274, 84.3%) Chocolate (n, %)Everyday (n=35, 2.23 (0.34) 0.11 (0.11) 0.11 (0.09) 2.46 (0.35) p= 0.0210.8 %)Weekly (n=65, 1.34 (0.3) 0 0 1.34 (0.27) p=0.3420 %)Monthly 1.33 (0.16) 0.13 (0.08) 0.17 (0.09) 1.64 (0.22) p=0.87(n=187, 57.5 %)Never (n=38, 1.05 (0.24) 0 0.03 (0.02) 1.08 (0.24) p=0.0411.7 %)
  • 9. Result Sugar (n, %)Everyday (n=30, 1.60 (0.31) 0 0 1.60 (0.31) p=1.009.2%)Weekly (n=28, 8.6%) 1.21 (0.39) 0 0 1.21 (0.39) p=0.33Monthly (n=252, 1.40 (0.14) 0.12 (0.06) 0.12 (0.07) 1.64 (0.18) p=0.8277.5%)Never (n=15, 4.6%) 1.27 (0.32) 0 0.40 (0.40) 1.67 (0. 43) p=0.88 Sour (n, %)Everyday (n=28, 1.21 (0.23) 0.14 (0.14) 0.04 (0.03) 1.39 (0.25) p=0.418.6%)Weekly (n=99, 1.10 (0.17) 0.05 (0.05) 0.04 (0.04) 1.19 (0.21) p=0.0530.5%)Monthly (n=180, 1.63 (0.18) 0.11 (0.08) 0.18 (0.09) 1.92 (0.23) p=0.1655.4%)Never (n=18, 5.5%) 1.00 (0.45) 0 0 1.00 (0.45) p=0.20 Veg/non-veg (n, %)Veg (n=132, 40.6%) 2.04 (0.21) 0.11 (0.08) 0.05 (0.03) 2.19 (0.24) p= 0.012Non-veg (n=193, 0.96 (0.13) 0.08 (0.06) 0.16 (0.09) 1.20 (0.17) p= 0.02159.4%)
  • 10. Discussion• DMFS found below the recommended value by WHO• High prevalence, high decayed and untreated teeth• Indicates lack of awareness• Can invite future complication
  • 11. Discussion• Female higher caries status and prevalence than male – Females more prone to caries – early tooth eruption – differences in dental attendances – difference in dietary pattern• Chewing paan high DMFS
  • 12. Discussion• Beetles nut chewing low dental caries – Antibacterial properties – Risk of developing fissures – Lead to caries• Chocolate no significant difference found• Sugary foods – High DMFS found in those who consumes every day than those who never
  • 13. Discussion• sour foods consumption – No significant difference found• vegetarian / non-vegetarian – High DMFS found in vegetarian than in non- vegetarian – Carbohydrate foods – acid production – metabolic activity of cariogenic bacteria – decalcification – In absence of fermentable carbohydrate, putrefaction – alkaline pH – no decalcification
  • 14. Discussion• School – important platform for promoting health – reach to their family and community as a whole – lifelong sustainable attitudes and skills
  • 15. Limitation• cross-sectional type of study• lack of sufficient statistical power
  • 16. Conclusion• Low caries status, high prevalence• Females more prone to caries• Diet have important role in causation of caries• Vegetarian have higher risk of caries
  • 17. References1. Peterson PE. World oral health report 2003, continuous improvement of oral health in the 21st century – the approach of the WHO global oral health programme, Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2003. p. 1-16.2. Bagg J. Essentials of microbiology for dental students. New York: Oxford University Press; 1999. p. 1-326.3. Burnett GW, Scherp HW. Oral microbiology and infectious disease. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Oxford Book Company; 1964. p. 45-90,173-270,273-401,578-613.4. Moynihan PJ. The role of diet and nutrition in the etiology and prevention of oral diseases. Bull World Health Organ 2005 Sep;83(9):694-99.5. Messer LB. Assessing caries risk in children. Aust Dent J 2000;45(1):10-6.6. Burt BA, Kolker JL, Sandretto AM, Yuan Y, Sohn W and Ismail AI. Dietary patterns related to caries in a low- income adult population. Caries Res 2006;40(6):473-80.7. Tinanoff N, Kanellis MJ and Vargas CM. Current understanding of the epidemiology, mechanisms, and prevention of dental caries in preschool children. Pediatr Dent 2002;24(6):543-51.8. World Health Organization. Oral health surveys. Basic methods. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1997.9. Watt RG. Strategies and approaches in oral disease prevention and health promotion. Bull World Health Organ 2005 Sep:83(9):711-8.10. Petersen PE. World health organization global policy for improvement of oral health-world health assembly 2007. Int Dent J 2008;58:115-21.
  • 18. Acknowledgement• Nepal Dental Association• Central Department of Microbiology, TU• participating schools, students and their guardians• Volunteer dentists and enumerators• Dr. Sudin Shakya and Dr. Sudhamshu KC• Mr. Anil Thapa, Visiting lecturer CDM-TU