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Transit Oriented Development - JAKARTA


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  • 1. Enabling High PerformanceTransit-Oriented Development September 2006 Michael Replogle
  • 2. The walking city
  • 3. The public transport city
  • 4. The automobile city
  • 5. Many factors make them what they are Quality, connectivity of public transportation Development density Urban form  Mixture of uses vs. separation of retail, housing, industrial, recreation land uses  Street space management for non-motorized users  Parking management  Block size, street connectivity Transportation pricing
  • 6. Density is one factor intransit oriented development Vehicle distance traveled per person vs. population density: 46 cities worldwide Kenworthy JR, Laube FB, Barter P, Raad T, Poboon C. An International Sourcebook of Automobile Dependence in Cities, 1960 – 1990. (Niwot, Colorado: University Press of Colorado, 1999.)
  • 7. Appropriate urban form is even morevital to transit oriented development
  • 8. Appropriate transport services & pricing make TOD effective High frequency, high quality public transport High quality non-motorized access near TOD Sound pricing of parking, roads, public transport More motorways will reduce success of TOD
  • 9. Automobile dependent urban formseparating uses: the opposite of TOD SHOPPING CENTERS IMPREGNABLE BORDER HOMES
  • 10. Traffic cells: making TOD,walk and bike access central  Highest density near central public transport station  Direct paths for walking, cycling, & transit  80% internal trips by walk/bike  Examples: Houten, Delft, Gronigen (Neth.); Japan, Gottenberg (Sweden); Davis, California, Boston (USA);
  • 11. A smart growth transportation system includes Multiple route choices between  A network of dense, frequent points public transit service Short blocks & frequent opportunities to cross streets on foot A wide variety of street types that provide both access and mobility Sidewalks and bicycle facilities that provide direct and safe travel routes Use of access management; e.g., highways linking towns, but not bisecting or bypassing them, and driveways strategically located on commercial arterials - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Characteristics and Performance of Regional Transportation Systems, 2004, Washington, DC
  • 12. Pattern and scale of streets Attention to street network design is vital to transit oriented development
  • 13. Role of smart growth transportation in TOD Study of 10 US regions considered vehicle travel, congestion, pollutant emissions, and vehicle fatalities system performance:Higher density regions that do not have a transportationsystem with smart growth characteristics tend not toperform as well as areas that effectively combine densitywith a smart growth transportation system.The effects of density and a smart growth transportationsystem on performance are not additive but synergistic,creating enhanced performance when the two arecombined. - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Characteristics and Performance of Regiona Transportation Systems, 2004, Washington, DC
  • 14. Measuring smart growth transportation characteristics Connectivity and Pedestrian Orientation Block faces length: shorter is more convenient Density of street network: shorter distances between intersections improves pedestrian connectivity Higher intersection density and street connectivity Share of four-way intersections: grid street networks favor walking more than cul-de-sacs Share of major-minor intersections: greater connection of arterials to local streets favors walking Public Transportation Service Quality & Connectivity Greater public transport revenue-hour density Greater public transport stop density Connectivity between regional activity centers
  • 15. Brownfield redevelopment presents TOD opportunities Brownfields are decayed older properties that often face environmental challenges due to past industrial pollution or use of building materials now considered hazardousSource: Smart Growth andNeighborhood Conservation, Maryland
  • 16. Pricing boosts TOD effectiveness 40 US/EU studies show Most effective to combine TOD with expanded public transport and no expansion of roads High fuel taxes, work trip parking charges, all-day tolls boosts effectiveness of TOD Peak-period tolls by themselves spur travel Expanding road & public transport capacity without pricing for efficient use of existing roads & parking yields costly transit with low ridership Source: Robert A. Johnston, Review of U.S. and European Regional Modeling Studies of Policies Intended to Reduce Motorized Travel, Fuel Use, and Emissions, Environmental Defense, August 2006.
  • 17. Parking management another key to effective TOD High cost of free parking Limits set on parking supply in Boston, San Francisco, Portland Bollards installed to limit sidewalk parking (Bogota) Cash-in-lieu-of-parking incentives Parking excise taxes Information-based parking management
  • 18. TOD helping air quality:Charlotte moves towards TODAir quality conformity law revealed transportation plan caused 4% annual traffic growth and violation of emission limits designed to protect public healthCharlotte adopted 1998 Integrated Transit Land/Use plan to cut forecast traffic growth by 1/4:  Multi-family housing at stations, transit-oriented development  Rail & Bus Rapid Transit  Sales tax funds plan 15
  • 19. Oregon: integrated planning process leads to very successful TOD Facing air quality problem, in 1970s Portland tears out freeway, converts funds for another freeway to instead create busway, light rail, and urban growth boundaryBefore After From This
  • 20. Portland 2040 Plan promotes transit oriented development links local and regional comprehensive plans protects growth boundary promotes transit priority, boulevards removes another freeway from old plan established limit on parking supply Before After
  • 21. Portland: Focus on outcomes not outputs Plan accommodates 720,000 more residents and 350,000 more jobs in area with 1.8 million residents Cuts non-residential parking by 10% by 2015 and reduces VKT per capita by 10% by 2015 and by 20% by 2025, as required by state Transportation Planning Rule Plan designed to meet non-driver mode share targets:  60-70% center city  45-55% regional centers, town centers, main streets, station communities and corridors  40-45% industrial areas, intermodal facilities, and inner and outer neighborhoods Protects open space, boosts density of developed land
  • 22. Oregon’s legal frameworks support TOD Portland urban design code bans blank walls at street level, limits parking supply Oregon Transportation Planning Rule integrates performance goals/planning for traffic reduction, land conservation Air quality plan enforces TOD land use changes: funding contingent on local zoning changes Interagency collaboration links transportation, land use, natural resource plans
  • 23. TOD as defined by Washington, DCTransit-Oriented Development (TOD) is a land use strategy to accommodate new growth, strengthen neighborhoods, and expand choices and opportunities by capitalizing on bus and rail assets to stimulate and support vibrant, compact, diverse and accessible neighborhood centers within an easy walk of transit.- District of Columbia
  • 24. District of Columbia TOD  Generally occurs within a 800 m of a public transportation stop  Is linked to a grid of walkable and bikeable streets  Contains a rich mix of uses – residential, retail, and workplaces  Has appropriate treatment of parking – at rear, away from sidewalks, and reduced requirements  Contains a mix of housing types and sizes  Has densities appropriate to its setting
  • 25. Creating an inventory ofopportunities for TOD in DC  Identified vacant, abandoned or underutilized land near transit  568 acres are within 5 minutes of metro  1,150 acres within 10 minutes of metro  Over 2,000 acres are within 5 minutes of a major bus corridor  Identified Joint Development opportunities 1,621,641 square feet of land  Identified publicly controlled developable land Over 2.6 million square feet of land  Total potential build-out Office: 36 million sq.ft. Retail: 27.5 million sq.ft Residential: ~35,000 units
  • 26. Key actions to implement TOD Community Education Priority preference for public investment/incentives TOD coordination and permit streamlining Station-Area Planning, design guides, and zoning Regional Partnerships and collaborations Employer-assisted “Live-Near- Now planned as BRT Where-You-Work” corridor Transit enhancements
  • 27. An ecology of roadsGrid roads are like wetlands: absorbing, distributing loads fluidlyDiverse transportation systems are like diverse ecosystems: more niches mean more efficient resource use, system resilience
  • 28. An ecology of roadsFreeways are like channelized streams:traffic gets stuck in an impermeable ditchuntil it can find an exit
  • 29. Expanding motorways reduces TOD opportunitiesMilwaukee Before Motorways  Areas bypassed by freeways may decline economically as growth pushes to metro edge  Doubling of road capacity yields 30%-120% increase in traffic (with 80% typical)  Expanding roads to solveMilwaukee After Motorways congestion: like buying bigger pants to cure obesity  Removing road capacity: much traffic to disappears
  • 30. Milwaukee tore down freeway to promote TODMilwaukee, Wisconsin spent $20 m to replace I-43 freeway with boulevard, saving $60 m over rebuild costSpurred core revitalization
  • 31. Seoul reallocatedstreet space for TOD To ThisFrom This To This
  • 32. Bicycle access supports TOD Expands walk access 35 X at both trip ends 10-100 times cheaper than park-and-ride California, Holland, Oregon as models Program guarded bike parking, racks, paths for stations, P&R lots
  • 33. Los Angeles-Long Beachlinking TOD, BRT, bikestations
  • 34. The way to the station  Direct priority routes for cyclists and pedestrians  Information infrastructure  Channelized traffic with medians, traffic calming  Good models: Delft, Leiden, Den Hague, Hannover, Copenhagen, Malmo, Bogota, Curitiba
  • 35. TransJakarta: growing success Opened 2004, Corridor II & III Opened 2006 Daily ridership: 100,000+ Mode shift from cars: 19% (JICA)
  • 36. TransJakarta:future TOD success story? Many opportunities to channel growth near BRT stations
  • 37. TransJakarta: access improvements key to TOD Before AfterEach Corridor has sidewalks widened and reconstructed
  • 38. For more information