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MG2351-PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT

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  • 1. MG2351/PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT DEPT: MECH YEAR: III YR/ VI SEM BY P.RAJALAKSHMI A.P-MBA DEPT
  • 2. MANAGEMENT “ Management is the process of designing and maintaining of an environment in which individuals working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims”. - KOONTZ and WEIHRICH. “ Management is the art of getting things through and with people in formally organized groups”. – KOONTZ. Is management – an art or science Management is a science because it is a systematic body of knowledge with array of principles. Management is also an art as it involves application of managerial skills to get the desired result.
  • 3.  Give some features of management. The features of Management include:  Management is a continuous process  Management aims to achieve the organization goals by ensuring effective use of resources  Management is multidisciplinary in nature  Management functions are planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. The essential skills of a manager The essential skills of a manager are: (i) Technical skill (ii) Human skill (iii) Conceptual skill (iv) Design skill
  • 4.  Scientific management. Scientific Management was concerned essentially with improving the operational efficiency at the shop floor level. Frederick Winslow Taylor, Father of scientific management, has defined as follows: “Scientific management is concerned with knowing exactly what you want men to do and then see that they do it in the best and cheapest way.” List the principles of scientific management. The principles of Scientific Management are:  Replacing Rule of Thumb with science  Harmony in group action  Co-operation  Maximum output  Development of workers „Rule of the thumb‟ Prior to scientific management, skilled craftsmen who had learned their jobsin lengthy apprenticeships performed work. They made their own decisions about how their job was to be performed. This is known as the „Rule of the thumb‟.
  • 5.  Scientific management. Scientific Management was concerned essentially with improving the operational efficiency at the shop floor level. Frederick Winslow Taylor, Father of scientific management, has defined as follows: “Scientific management is concerned with knowing exactly what you want men to do and then see that they do it in the best and cheapest way.” List the principles of scientific management. The principles of Scientific Management are:  Replacing Rule of Thumb with science  Harmony in group action  Co-operation  Maximum output  Development of workers „Rule of the thumb‟ Prior to scientific management, skilled craftsmen who had learned their jobsin lengthy apprenticeships performed work. They made their own decisions about how their job was to be performed. This is known as the „Rule of the thumb‟.
  • 6.  State the contributions of Fayol towards management. Henri Fayol propounded:  Activities of an industrial undertaking are divided into six groups – technical, commercial, financial, security, accounting and managerial;  14 principles of management that are flexible, not absolute, and must be usable regardless of changing and special conditions. „Scalar chain‟ Scalar Chain is the number of different levels of authority through which decisions are passed in the organization. The scalar chain of command of reporting relationships from top executive to the ordinary shop operative or driver needs to be sensible, clear and understood. „Esprit de corps‟ Henri Fayol emphasised the need for building and maintaining of harmony among the work force, team work and sound interpersonal relationships which is „Esprit de corps‟.
  • 7.  Roles played by a manager The roles played by a manager are: * Interpersonal roles - Figurehead role - Leader - Liaison * Informational roles - Monitor - Disseminator - Spokesperson * Decisional roles - Entrepreneur - Disturbance handler - Resource allocator - Negotiator
  • 8. Functions of management Functions of management The functions of Management are: * Planning * Organising * Staffing * Directing * Controlling Across World Quality International
  • 9. classifications of business organization classifications of business organization The classification of Business Organization is: * Sole proprietorship concern * Partnership concern * Joint Stock Companies - Private Limited Company - Public Limited Company * Co-operative societies
  • 10. FACTORS AFFCETING GLOBAL SCENARIO Biological factors Social factors Economic factors Environmental factors Cultural factors Technological factors
  • 11. 2.PLANNING Planning‟. Planning as a process involves the determination of future course of action, i.e., why an action, what action, how to take action, and when to take action. “Planning is the selection and relating of facts and making and using of assumptions regarding the future in the visualization and formalization of proposed activities believed necessary to achieve desired result”. Types of planning Planning is an activity. The different types of planning are: * Corporate and Functional planning * Strategic and Tactical/Operational planning * Long-term and Short-term planning * Proactive and Reactive planning * Formal and Informal planning.
  • 12.  Define the „mission‟ and „vision‟ of an organization Mission: A Mission statement helps the organization to link its activities to the needs of the society and legitimize its existence. It indicates exactly what activities the organization intends to engage in now and in future. Mission sets forth principles and conceptual foundation upon which the organization reacts and the nature of the business in which it plans to operate. Vision: Vision, in a common man‟s language, is a mental picture or contemplative imagination. However, for a management professional, it is the strategic intent, which stands for the future state of an organisation.
  • 13.  MBO MBO (Management By Objectives) is a comprehensive managerial system that integrates many key management activites in a systematic manner, consciously directed towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. MBO is an approach and philosophy to management and not merely a technique. Policies “Policies are general statements or understandings which guide or channel thinking in decision-making”. Policies define how the company will deal with stakeholders, employees, customers, suppliers, distributors, and other important groups. Policies narrow the range of individual discretion so that employees act consistently on importan issues.
  • 14.  Tpes of plans Plans may be classified in two ways: (i) Standing and single-use plans: Standing plans provide guidelines for further course of action and are used over a period of time. Ex: Policies, strategies. Single-use plans are relevant for a specified time and after the lapse of that time, these plans are again formulated again for the next period. Ex: Projects, Budgets. (ii) Strategic and Operational plans: Strategic plans define the long- term course of action for an organization in the light of its environment. These plans are implemented through various operational plans. Ex: Strategies are implemented through projects, budgets, etc.
  • 15.  „Strategy‟. Strategy is the determination of the basic long-term goals and objectives of an enterprise and the adoption of the course of action and the allocation of resources necessary for carrying out these goals. A strategy is a course of action through which an organization relates itself with environment as a as to achieve its objectives Different types of policies The different types of policies are: * Formulated policy * Implied policy * Imposed policy * Appealed policy
  • 16.  SWOT analysis A SWOT Analysis is a strategic planning tool used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture or in any other situation of an organization or individual requiring a decision in pursuit of an objective. It involves monitoring the marketing environment internal and external to the organization or individual.
  • 17.  State the levels of strategy. The levels of strategy are: * Corporate-level strategy – occupies the highest level of decision- making which tends to be value-oriented and conceptual. * Business-level strategy – identifies the discrete independent product / market segments served by an organization. * Functional-level strategy – relates to a single functional operation and the activities involved therein. Decision making: IT is the process of estimating the relevant events of future, based on the analysis of their past and present behavior. Business forecasting refers to the statistical analysis of the past and current movement in the given time series so as to obtain clues about the future pattern of those movements.
  • 18.  Rules Rules are prescribed guides for conduct or action. They are plans as they are a course of action which is chosen among alternatives. A rule is a specific guide for action, established authoritatively, and utilized in order to inform employees of conditions under which designated activities are to be performed. Project A project is a complex of policies, procedures, rules, etc., to carry a given course of action. A project is prepared in context of the objectives incorporating policies, procedures, rules, and other elements which are necessary for project formulation.
  • 19.  objectives of a project The main objectives of a Project are: * Project activity is definable in terms of specific objectives. * Project activity is unique and infrequent to the organization. * Project activity is complex in respect to independence of various task accomplishments. * Project activity is critical to the organization in terms of realization of its objectives. ****************************
  • 20. 3. organising Organization. ORGANISATION may be defined as the process of i) Identifying and grouping the work to be performed ii) Defining and delegating responsibility and authority iii) Establishing relationships for the purpose of enabling people to work most effectively together in accomplishing objectives. Purpose of organization The purposes of organization are given below: i) Creates organization structure ii) Assigning duties iii) Grouping tasks iv) Formal reporting relationships v) Ensures effective coordination within the organization.
  • 21.  organizing Organizing is defined as the management function of assigning duties, grouping tasks, formal reporting relationships and ensuring effective coordination within the organization. specialization Specialization means the process of dividing the work. Specialization permits individuals to develop expertise in their assigned tasks and their own and groups effectiveness. Specialization refers to the degree to which the overall organizations activity is broken down into smaller components. job design Job Design is the determination of a particular individuals work related responsibilities. Job Design involves in determining the level of specialization to be incorporated in the work process.
  • 22.  Recruitment and Selection Recruitment: Recruitment is the process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The result is a pool of applicants from which new employees are selected. Selection: Selection is the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify those with a greater likelihood of success in a job.
  • 23.  on-the-job training On-the-job describes training that is given in a normal working situation, using the actual tools, equipment, documents or materials that they will use when fully trained. On-the-job training (OJT) is one of the best training methods because it is planned, organized, and conducted at the employees worksite. OJT will generally be the primary method used for broadening employee skills and increasing productivity. It is particularly appropriate for developing proficiency skills unique to an employees job - especially jobs that are relatively easy to learn and require locally-owned equipment and facilities. Ex: Coaching. off-the job training Off-the-job training takes place away from normal work situation which means that the employee is not regarded as productive worker when training is taking place. An advantage of off-the-job training is that it allows people to get away from work and totally concentrate on the training being given. This is most effective for training concepts and ideas. Ex: Seminars and lectures.
  • 24. Matrix organization Matrix structure is a hybrid organizational form, containing characteristics of both project and functional structures. It is two dimensional pattern developed to meet the problems of growing size and complexity of undertakings. Matrix organization is any organization that employs multiple command structure but also related support mechanism and an associated organizational culture and behavioral pattern.
  • 25.  organizational chart An Organizational chart is a diagrammatical form which shows the important aspects of an organization including the major functions and their respective relationships, the channels of supervision and the relative authority of each employee who is incharge of each respective function. Span of Control Span of Control or Span of Management means the number of people effectively managed by a single superior in an organization. It is also known as „Span of Supervision‟, „Span of Authority‟ and „Span of Responsibility‟. It is very difficult to decide the appropriate span of control. It is related to the degree of responsibility exercised by the group members.
  • 26.  line and staff organization Line and staff organization refer to a pattern in which staff specialist advice managers to perform their duties. When the work of an executive increases, its performance requires that services of specialist which he himself cannot provide because of his limited capabilities on various issues, in actual practice, how ever. it is difficult to determining which department are line and staff.
  • 27.  Functional organization structureFunctional organization structure perhaps, the most widely used one in medium and large organizations. this is traditional concept of originating for creating functional organization, the basis of department is the various function to be performed by the organization.
  • 28.  Divisional organization structure Divisional structure, also called profit decentralization by Newman and others, is built around business units. in this form, the organization divided into several fairly autonomous units. Each unit relatively self-contained in that it has the resources to operate independently of other divisions. Project organization structure Project organization appear like a divisional structure, except that in the latter, various division are created permanent basis while into he former they created only for the life time of a project. Where the particular project is completed. The concerned division may disappear. Matrix organization structure Matrix organization structure are essentially a violation of unity command and therefore. Whole classical concepts related top the principle of unity command are violated. Matrix organization structure is the relation of two-dimensional structure while emanates directly from two dimension of authority.
  • 29.  Brainstorming Brainstorming is a technique stimulates idea generation for decision-making. Originally applied by OSBORN in 1938 in an American company using the brain to storm the problem " a conference technique by which group attempts to find solution for a specific problem by amassing all the ideas spontaneously contributed to the members.
  • 30. CAREERMANAGEMENT
  • 31. INTRODUCTION Organizations now focus on matching the career needs of employees with the requirements of the organization. While many organizations still invest in their employees, they don‟t offer career security and they can‟t meet the needs of everyone in a diverse workforce.
  • 32. WHAT IS A CAREER? Definition  Pattern of work-related experiences that span the course of a person‟s life.  Reflects any work, paid or unpaid.  Broad definition helpful in today‟s work environment where employees and organizations have diverse needs.
  • 33. DEFINITION “ A Career is a sequence of separate but related work activities that provides continuity, order and meaning in a person‟s life”. - Edwin.B.Flippo “A Career is an individually perceived sequence of attitudes and behaviours associated with work related experiences and activities over the span of the person‟s life”. - Douglas.T.Hall
  • 34. TERMS IN CAREER PLANNINGCareer Path - A planned progression of jobs within an organization or in a professional field leading to the realization of career goals.Career Goals - Career goals are those dreams turned into reality by the one who strives for it.Career planning - Career planning applies the concepts of strategic planning and marketing to taking charge of ones professional future.
  • 35. CONTD..Career Development - In Organizational development, the study of career development looks at: how individuals manage their careers within and between organizations and how organizations structure the career progress of their membersCareer Management - Career Management is a strategic service that assists in creating a future for the organization and its employees. This program focuses on developing, and growing employees for long-term advancement while supporting organizational strategic goals.
  • 36. CONTD..Individual versus Organizational Perspective  Organizational career planning – Developing career ladders, tracking careers, providing opportunities for development.  Individual career development – Helping employees identify their goals and steps to achieve them.
  • 37. CONTD.. Career Development versus Employee Development  Career development looks at the long-term career ? effectiveness and success of organizational personnel.  Employee training and development focuses on performance in the immediate or intermediate time frames.
  • 38. WHAT IS A CAREER?Value for the Organization:  A long term career focus should increase the organization‟s effectiveness in managing it‟s human resources 1. Ensures needed talent will be available. 2. Improves the organizations ability to attract and retain talented employees. 3. Ensures that minorities and women get opportunities for growth and development. 4. Reduces employee frustration. 5. Enhances cultural diversity. 6. Promotes organizational goodwill.
  • 39. CONTD..Value for the Individual Individuals‟ external career success is measured by criteria such as:  progression up the hierarchy, type of occupation, long-term commitment, and income. Internal career success is measured by the meaningfulness of one‟s work and achievement of personal life goals.
  • 40. TRADITIONAL CAREER STAGES
  • 41. CONTD..Exploration (birth to 14 years) Includes school and early work experiences, such as internships. Involves:  trying out different fields  discovering likes and dislikes  forming attitudes toward work and social relationship patterns
  • 42. CONTD..Establishment (14 yrs – 24yrs) Includes:  search for work  getting first job  getting evidence of “success” or “failure” Takes time and energy to find a “niche” and to “make your mark”.
  • 43. CONTD..Mid-Career ( 24yrs – 45yrs) Challenged to remain productive at work. Employee may:  continue to grow  plateau (stay competent but not ambitious)  deteriorate
  • 44. CONTD..Late career (45 yrs – 65 yrs)  Successful “elder states persons” can enjoy being respected for their judgment. Good resource for teaching others.  Those who have declined may experience job insecurity.  Plateauing is expected; life off the job increases in importance.
  • 45. CONTD..Decline (Late Stage) (65+ yrs) May be most difficult for those who were most successful at earlier stages. Today‟s longer life spans and legal protections for older workers open the possibility for continued work contributions, either paid or volunteer.
  • 46. CAREER CHOICES AND PREFERENCESHolland Vocational Preferences Model identifies six vocational themes  Realistic  Investigative  Artistic  Social  Enterprising  Conventional
  • 47. CONTD..A Career anchor functions in your work life as a way of organizing experience, it involves identifying your area of contribution in the long run and generating criteria for the kinds of work settings in which you want to function.The Edgar Schein Anchors Personal value clusters determine what is important to individuals.  Technical-functional competence  Managerial competence  Security-stability
  • 48. CONTD..  Entrepreneurial creativity  Autonomy-independence  Service or Dedication to a cause  Pure Challenge  Lifestyle Success of person-job match determines individual‟s fit with the job.
  • 49. CONTD..Jung and the Myers-Briggs Typologies Four personality dimensions:  Extraversion-Introversion  Sensing-Intuitive  Thinking-Feeling  Judging-Perceiving
  • 50. CAREER DEVELOPMENTThere are four steps involved in a career development programme. They are:- Needs – defining the present system Vision – determining new directions and possibilities Action plan – formulation of a strategy Results – Maintaining the change
  • 51. CAREER DEVELOPMENT ACTIONS Job Performance Exposure Resignations Change the job Career guidance
  • 52. ENHANCING YOUR CAREERThe individual holds primary responsibility for his/her career. Suggestions on how to do that are:
  • 53. MENTOR-PROTÉGÉ RELATIONSHIP Mentoring is the process of using specially selected and trained individuals to provide guidance and advice which will help to develop the careers of the protégés allocated to them. Mentoring is aimed at complementing learning on the job, which must always be the best way of acquiring the particular skills and knowledge the job holder needs. The senior employee is the Mentor and the junior employee is the Protégé.
  • 54. CONTD..Establishing some basic roles and responsibilities can ensure a successful mentor-protégé relationship. - Identify roles the mentor can play to help the protégé achieve goals. - Develop an action plan to achieve agreed upon goals. - Determine level of structure in the relationship. - Communicate on a regular basis. - Set milestones to monitor success of reaching goals. - Set the agenda for each meeting. - Schedule formal meetings and cancel only when absolutely necessary. - Establish guidelines for telephone calls; i.e., calls at home are or are not acceptable.
  • 55. REQUISITES FOR MENTOR- PROTÉGÉ RELATIONSHIP Collaborative - working on a shared agenda Expectant of growth and learning from each other Mutually supportive and caring, reciprocal in acceptance Based on a belief that it is worth making time to cultivate and maintain the relationship Positive, openness to learning, each respecting the dignity of the other Goal oriented and problem solving focused, checking assumptions
  • 56. CONTD.. Confidential, promoting a low-risk climate for trying new ideas and risking mistakes for the sake of learning Developmental, evolving and changing over time as the protégé grows professionally Open to assistance from other colleagues outside of the mentor-protégé pair Professional, oriented to continually improving the practice of teaching and the learning of students Reflective, self-assessing, analyzing & evaluating.
  • 57. CONTD.. The sound mentor-protégé relationships help the protégés to develop at a faster rate in a right direction. They minimize the management‟s responsibility in HR development.
  • 58. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
  • 59. COMMUNICATION IN BUSINESS Communication is the ability of mankind to interact across barriers and beyond boundaries that has ushered the progress of mankind. It brings out many images in one‟s mind. It could be a process, a concept, a network, a technique, or a form of entertainment. Communication is the process that links discontinuous parts of the living world. It is the human interchange of facts and opinions.
  • 60. CONTD.. Business communication is defined as the process of transmission of information within the business environment. Communication must be simple, clear and meaningful. These qualities of communication directly influences the success of business. For people at all organisational levels, all functional areas, for all workers, good communicative power is a must. Communication in business includes all contacts made both inside and outside the organisation.
  • 61. DEFINITION OF COMMUNICATION“Communication is the process by which information is transmitted between individuals and / or organisations so that an understanding response results”. - Peter Little “Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions, or emotions by two or more persons”. - W.H.Newman & C.F.Summer
  • 62. THE MESSAGE THE MEDIUMROLE OF ICT BUSINESS COMMUNICATION VALUE TO WHOM BARRIERS
  • 63. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION AS A SYSTEM A system is a set of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent elements forming a complex whole. For ex: The human body is regarded as a functional physiological unit. A business communication system consists of the various business activities like production, sales, marketing, etc., which form the business organisation as a whole. With the advent of technology today, these business activities need to be faster and quicker to generate more business through proper communication.
  • 64. OBJECTIVES OF COMMUNICATIONThe objectives and functions of communication areinterrelated. Communication is largely goaloriented. The activities of any organisation requireboth people within and people outside to act,interact, exchange and get across to each other sothat the objectives are accomplished in an effectivemanner. Any organisation would ensure that itsobjectives are achieved with the optimumutilisation of resources like time, money andeffort.
  • 65. CONTD..The objectives of business communication includes : - to inform - to educate - to motivate - to integrate - to relate - to promote - to entertain - to suggest - to facilitate decision-makingThe objectives of communication would cover various functions -planning, staffing, coordinating, directing and controlling of the organisation.
  • 66. CLASSIFYING BUSINESS COMMUNICATIONBusiness communication is classified into two broad areas, namely:Internal communication is communication within organisation. Effective internal communication is seen while,- communicating with superiors,- communicating with subordinates,- communicating between departments and- communicating with colleagues.
  • 67. CONTD..External communication is communication withexternal agencies, both government and private.Effective external communication is seen while,- dealing with government agencies anddepartments,- interacting with customers,- dealing with the public,- communicating with the press and- handling suppliers.
  • 68. BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATIONBusiness communication is especially more proneto misunderstandings, because the message iscomplex, conditions are difficult and psychologicaland social differences often separate the senderand the receiver. The more complex the situationthe more are the barriers. Problems ofcommunication directly retard the success ofmanagers in the performance of their functions. Ifthe massages are poorly transmitted managementcannot plan or control activities properly.
  • 69. CONTD..Communication Barriers are classified into4 types:(i) Physical barriers(ii) Semantic barriers(iii) Psychological and Physiologicalbarriers and(iv) Other barriers.
  • 70. TYPES OF BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION PSYCHOLOGICALPHYSICAL SEMANTIC & OTHERBARRIERS BARRIERS PHYSIOLOGICAL BARRIERS BARRIERS
  • 71. PHYSICAL BARRIERSThese relate to defects in the system. These areeasily removed by minimum effort. They may be- Source- Distance- Time- Physical noise- Source of the communication- Defects in the medium.
  • 72. SEMANTIC BARRIERSThese relate to the language usage. It is notvery easy to do away with these barriers.They may be- Bad expressions- Inaccurate translations- Semantics- Words having different connotations.
  • 73. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL BARRIERSThese barriers relate to the mind and to thebody. They may be- Inattention- Unclarified and vague assumptions- Distrust- Sloppiness- Premature evaluation- Fear
  • 74. CONTD..- Emotions- Closed mind- Status consciousness- Poor retention- Poor communication skills- State of health- Defensiveness- Self-centered attitudes.
  • 75. OTHER BARRIERSThe other barriers may include,- Lack of common knowledge- Unsolicited communication- Over communication- Politics- Technical jargon.
  • 76. GENERAL BARRIERS OF COMMUNICATION Language Technical content Not recognising the receiver‟s need Inadequate feedback Emotional interference (anger, frustration, etc.,) Degree of knowledge and expertise of both sender & receiver Quantity of information Inappropriate medium Lack of trust/honesty Cultural differences Poor listening skills
  • 77. COMMUNICATION PROCESS IN BUSINESS CHANGES IN FINANCE DEPT E-MAIL PAYMENT SYSTEMSSENDER CHANNEL MESSAGE RECEVIER FEED BACK
  • 78. CONTD..Communication is a five-step process. The senderhas an idea, the idea becomes a message, themessage is transmitted, the receiver gets themessage, the receiver reacts and sends feedback..There are certain elements in the process whichinclude :(i) SOURCE OR SENDER : initiates the processof communication. He is the person desirous ofpassing on some information.(ii) ENCODE : The message, which is sent needsto be encoded.
  • 79. CONTD..(iii) MEDIUM : The medium which is used totransmit the message.(iv) DECODE : The encoded message has to bedecoded by the receiver.(v) RECEIVER : The receiver attends to themessage and decodes the symbols intounderstandable information.(vi) FEEDBACK : The feedback is the response ofthe receiver.Communication is complete and effective onlywhen the receiver correctly comprehends thepurpose of the message and uses it or acts upon itas envisaged by the sender.
  • 80. METHODS/CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION METHODS OF COMMUNICATIONORAL NON- VERBAL VISUAL AUDIO SILENCE WRITTEN VISUALTALKS,SPEECHES, FACIAL EXPRESSIONS, LETTERS,DISCUSSIONS, EYE CONTACT, MEMOS, NOTES,MEETINGS, VOCAL CIRCULARS,SEMINARS, CHARACTERISTICS, REPRESENTATIONS,COUNSELLING, GESTURES & POSTURES, REPORTS,INTERFACE, PERSONAL BROCHURES,TELEPHONE, APPEARANCE, BOOKS,TELEX,MICROPHONE, USE OF TIME, FAX, MAIL,LOUDSPEAKER, USE OF SPACE, COURIER, E-MAIL,AMPLIFIER,RADIO, TOUCH, SILENCE. TELEGRAM,TAPERECORDER. ATTIRE, SMILE PHOTOCOPIER. BEHAVIOUR
  • 81. CONTD..The methods or the channels of communicationappropriately chosen in the communicationprocess adds to the efficiency and reliability of themessage. The choice of the channel would beinfluenced by factors like availability, cost,urgency and reliability. The various methods orthe channels of communication are:(i) ORAL COMMUNICATION : It takes the formof sound and words. Direct person-to-personcommunication plays a very useful role in anyorganisation. It works well in small groups.
  • 82. CONTD..(ii) WRITTEN COMMUNICATION : It reaches across vast geographic areas and target audience , distributed around the world. It can be recorded and preserved for constant and future use. It is less interactive compared to oral communication. (iii) NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION : It is neither oral or written. It thrives on observation. It is used to regulate the flow of conversation in the meeting.
  • 83. CONTD..(iv) VISUAL COMMUNICATION : It iseffected through pictures, graphs andcharts, as well as through symbols andsigns. In business communication, these areused to illustrate, highlight and focusattention. (v) AUDIO-VISUAL COMMUNICATION: It involves demonstration andpresentations through audio-visual aids likemultimedia. It is useful in fosteringlearning.
  • 84. CONTD..(vi) SILENCE : It may convey a form ofpunishment. It may express anger oratonement. It can be deliberate orunintentional. Each of these methods of communicationhas its own distinguishing features in termsof speed, reliability, cost, reach, merits anddemerits. It is necessary to clearlyappreciate these methods in dealing withpeople and situations in any organisation.
  • 85. TYPES OF COMMUNICATIONCommunication can be categorised intodifferent types depending upon the level atwhich it takes place, the direction it takes,or by its very nature. Some of the commontypes of communication are :- Personal Communication- Business Communication- Internal Communication- External Communication
  • 86. CONTD..- Upward Communication- Downward Communication- Formal Communication- Informal Communication- Mass Communication- Global Communication- Lateral Communication- Interactive Communication- Social Communication- Grapevine
  • 87. PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONPersonal Communication concernscommunication that takes place betweenany two individuals, be it in a family, group,community or even an organisation. It isprivate in nature and there is nothingofficial about it.It can take the form of personal letters,personal telephone calls, conversations, one-to-one meetings or e-mail messages.
  • 88. BUSINESS COMMUNICATIONBusiness Communication takes place amongbusiness entities, in markets and market places,within organisations and between various groupsof employees, owners and employees, buyers andsellers, service providers and customers, salespersons and prospects and also between peoplewithin the organisation and press persons.Done with care, such communication can promotebusiness interests. Verbal, Non-verbal andWritten communication is a prerequisite fororganisational and business related success.
  • 89. INTERNAL COMMUNICATIONInternal communication takes place within theorganisation or group- among different groups ofemployees and between employers and employees.It could be oral or written, visual or audio-visual,formal or informal, and upward or downward.The issues that internal communication addressesare knowledge, skills, goal orientation, sharing ofcorporate concerns, review and monitoring,performance appraisal, counseling and training.
  • 90. EXTERNAL COMMUNICATIONExternal communication addresses people outsidethe organisation, like the prospective customers,competitors, public, press, media and theGovernment.It may be letters, notices, brochures, businessmeetings, demonstrations, telephone calls, pressreleases, press conferences, audio-visualpresentations, publicity films, product launchevents and advertisements.
  • 91. UPWARDCOMMUNICATIONUpward communication is one which moves upward, i.e., from bottom to top levels in the hierarchy. Large organisations have different hierarchical levels or tiers. The process of communication to be complete and effective, should encompass all these levels and tiers.It may be employee suggestions, market reports, performance reports, feedback on new products and requests for facilities or instructions.
  • 92. DOWNWARD COMMUNICATIONDownward communication moves from topto bottom levels in the hierarchy, i.e., fromthe CEO downwards.It may include corporate goals, businesspriorities, motivational letters, work relatedinstructions, newsletters, letters from theCEO/GM‟s desk.
  • 93. FORMAL COMMUNICATIONFormal communication generally follows a well-defined hierarchical pattern and periodicity.Memos, circulars, instructions, guidelines,clarifications, agreements and reports are some ofthe channels that facilitate formal communication.It may be staff meetings, union-managementmeetings, branch managers‟ conferences,periodical sales review meetings and customermeets.
  • 94. INFORMAL COMMUNICATIONInformal communication takes place in anunstructured manner and outside theformal forums. It works well in smaller,loosely knit organisations. It is used moreoften in situations where there are no rigidhierarchical tiers. Informal communication takes placethrough chats, conversations and informaltalks.
  • 95. MASS COMMUNICATIONMass communication addresses a vast, well spreadout heterogeneous group of people. Special effortswill have to be made to sustain their interest andachieve the desired response. Its other branchesare public relations, advertising and publicity,journalism and digital media.Public speaking, newspapers, magazines andjournals, radio, television, dotcoms, etc., arechannels of mass communication.
  • 96. GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONGlobal communication is the process oftransmitting and receiving information on aworld-wide scale. It gives us an eyewitness view ofevents in most remotest locations. It is a globalprocess in which knowledge, values and ethics,aesthetics and lifestyles are exchanged. Theevolution of global communication can be linkedclosely to the evolution of technology.Mobile phones, internet and communicationssatellite are the channels of global communication.
  • 97. LATERAL COMMUNICATIONLateral communication is neither upwardnor downward. It proceeds in an horizontalmanner and takes place among equals andat peer level. There is no hierarchical leveldifference in this communication.Any communication that takes place, orallyor in writing, from one branch head to theother, from one group head to the othermay be described as lateral communication.
  • 98. INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATIONInteractive communication is essentially a two-way process. It is most appropriate when themessage or subject is to be presented at length,e.g., in practical sessions, case study discussionsand strategy formulation.It takes place through meetings, conferences,teleconferencing, multimedia presentations, groupdiscussions and other active two-way exchanges.
  • 99. SOCIAL COMMUNICATIONSocial communication is a type of communicationthat explores the ways information can beperceived, transmitted and understood, and theimpact those ways will have on a society. It bringsabout social change by an innovative and effectiveparticipatory communication strategy. Itenvisages increasingly horizontal communicationallowing people to communicate with each othereasily and inexpensively.Through channels such as community radio, videocollectives, popular theatre, and ICTs, socialchange gains strength.
  • 100. GRAPEVINEGrapevine is a kind of informal communicationthat prevails in organizations and businesses. The„Grapevine‟ is so-called , as, it follows no set linesand no set direction. It spreads by way of gossipand rumours. It travels through informalnetworks and quite often travels faster than theformal messages.It may not always be possible to control thegrapevine, but, nevertheless, an ablecommunicator knows how to influence it.
  • 101. PATTERNS OF GRAPEVINEProf. Keith Davis has identified fourpatterns of grapevine : (i) single strand : This involves the passingof information through a long line ofpersons right till the ultimate recipient. (ii) Gossip : This pattern is like a wheelwhere „A‟ is at the centre and passesinformation to others along the spokes.
  • 102. CONTD..(iii) Probability : An individual transmitsmessage to others in a random manner.(iv) Cluster : An individual telling themessage to clusters of people. They, in turn,transmit information to other individuals orclusters.
  • 103. FACTORS FACILITATING COMMUNICATIONThe factors that facilitate communicationare :- The message to be conveyed should be anew one ;- It should be interesting to read ;- It should be relevant ;- It should be understandable ; and- It should be concise and memorable.
  • 104. IMPORTANCE OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION Managing complexity all around Managing a big organisation Better understanding and cooperation can take place Profitability increases No more cohesion in the organisation Image of the company improves Opportunities available in the market can be known easily Employee turnover is less Dissemination and collection of information is easier Customer interaction is better
  • 105. ATTRIBUTES OF COMMUNICATION Communication is a two-way process Communication is a dynamic process Communication is both an interaction and transaction Communication can be intentional or unintentional Communication is systematic and continuous.
  • 106. ESSENTIALS FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Effective communication calls for coordinated efforts. It is necessary to understand the essentials of good communication and work towards achieving them. They are : Be clear about the purpose Understand the process of communication Be clear about the target audience Develop good communication skills Be well informed
  • 107. CONTD.. Plan your communication Be positive in approach Be sincere, don‟t manipulate Be consistent Appreciate the time factor Use proper modes and channels Be cost conscious Obtain feedback
  • 108. MANAGEMENT AND COMMUNICATION Communication is not and end in itself. It is a means - and a very effective means - for the solution of managerial problems for the attainment of managerial objectives. The various uses of communication by management are : Use of communication in employee participation – Getting the attention, interest and involvement of the employees. Use of communication in administering change – The necessity for change in a business enterprise and the employees‟ resistance to change.
  • 109. CONTD.. Use of communication in crises – To some typical crises that afflict business enterprises communication can be applied to remove misunderstanding or correct misinterpretation. Use of communication in strikes – By careful and continuous communication, strikes can be avoided. A strike is an economic warfare and it requires courageous leadership, projected overtly through sincere and forthright leadership.
  • 110. CONTD.. Management philosophy and practice in the area of Risk-taking communication – „Where there is no risk, there is no progress‟ for any business concern. Businessmen must accept the risk in risk- taking communication and have a free discussion with the employees. Long-term communication planning – Thinking ahead in the communication field is increasing importance of planning in business enterprises. The employee-employer communication should be healthy.
  • 111. CONTD..A mature manager should get hiscommunication on target, by using the mostappropriate method of communication. Heshould harness his communication to moveforward the short and long-term objectivesof the business to enhance the welfare of theemployees – management bycommunication.
  • 112. MOTIVATION Motivation is to inspire people to work, individually or in groups in the ways such as to produce best results. It is the will to act. It is the willingness to exert high levels of effort towards organizational goals, conditioned by the efforts and ability to satisfy some individual need. Motivation is getting somebody to do something because they want to do it. It was once assumed that motivation had to be injected from outside, but it is now understood that everyone is motivated by several differing forces.
  • 113.  Theories of Motivation 1) Contribution of Robert Owen : 2) Jeremy Bentham‟s “The Carrot and the Stick Approach” : 3) Abraham Maslow‟s “Need Hierarchy Theory” : 4) “Theory X and Theory Y” of Douglas McGregor 5) Contribution of Rensis Likert :
  • 114.  leader Leader is one who makes his subordinates to do willingly what he wants. The efforts of subordinates are to be channelised in the right direction by him. Leadership Leadership is the process of influencing the behaviour of others towards the accomplishment of goals in a givens situations. Leadership is the art of process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly towards the achievement of group goals. List the few leadership theories Few leadership theories include: The Michigan studies The Ohio state university studies and The Managerial grid.
  • 115.  Qualities of Good leader They identify themselves as change agents. They are courageous. They believe in people. They are value driven. They are life long learners. They have the ability to deal with complexity, ambiguity and uncertainty. They are visionaries.
  • 116.  The theories of leadership Trait theories of leadership-behavioral theories of leadership-group & exchange theories-contingency theory-path goal theory of leadership-social learning approach The dimensions of political behavior Scape- goating others-sabotage-manipulation- of information-build bad image on others Path-goal leadership theory Directive leadership-supportive leadership-achievement oriented leadership. State house path goal approach Leaders are effective because of the influence on followers motivation ability to perform and their satisfaction. This path goal is employed because the leader setup clear guidance through which the subordinates can achieve goals.
  • 117.  leadership styles:The various leadership styles include: Autocratic leadership Democratic leadership and Laissez-faire leadership.
  • 118. 5.CONTROLLING Control Control is a process that guides activity towards some predetermined goals. Define control. According to Koontz, “Controlling is the measurement and correction of performance in order to make sure that enterprise objectives and the plans devised to attain them are accomplished”.
  • 119.  The characteristics of control The characteristics of Control is: Universal Continuous process Action-based and Looking Back. Need of control in the organization Need for control include: Control can minimize the mistakes It discovers the deviation in the management and It minimizes dishonest behaviour of employees
  • 120.  Give some critical point standards of control Cost Standards Revenue standards Goal standards Program standards Types of control Feedback control Concurrent control Feed forward control
  • 121.  Traditional techniques of control The traditional techniques of control are: Personal observation Break Even Analysis Statistical Report and Budgetary control. Modern techniques of control The modern techniques of control: Management Audit Return on Investment PERT & CPM and MIS.
  • 122. CULTURE The types of culture Quinn and McGrath classified organization culture into four basic purposes. Depending on the nature of transaction that take place between individuals or groups of individuals in organizations. Market culture Adhocracy Clan culture Hierarchal culture
  • 123. ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE Organizational change is a complex process, which involves various stages. These stages must follow a certain sequence. The sequences of stages in which the charge process must take place are listed below. Problem recognition, identifying the causes, implementing the change, Generating motivation for change, managing the transition state,supporting the change, evaluating the change .
  • 124. PRODUCTIVITY PRODUCTIVITY IS THE PROCESS OF OUTPUT WITH THE INPUT PRO: OUTPUT/INPUT
  • 125.  Budget. According to Jfred Meston “A budget is the expression of a firm‟s plan in financial form for a period of time in to the future”. Budgetary Control. According to J.Batty “A system which uses budgets as a means of planning and controlling all aspects of producing and selling commodities and services". Classifications of budget Functional classification Time classification Activity level.
  • 126. MISA system of obtaining, abstracting, storing and analyzing the data to produce information and to use in planning, controlling nd decision- making by managers at the time they can most effectively use it.
  • 127. THE END