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Critical reasoning
 

Critical reasoning

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    Directions : Study the following information carefully and answer the questions given below.
    Harnoor and four other male workers were unemployed when there was a slump in the market. They werecompelled to change their job and switch over to another new job. After changing they adopted their job as aDetective, a Personal Assistant, an Editor, a Photographer and a Doctor. Their previous jobs were SalesExecutive Associate Editor, Research Team member, Adviser and Copy Editor. The following clues giveinformation about them and in some of the clues information consists of surnames (Singh, Ojha, Thakur,Patnaik, and Nene).
    I. Hari, who is neither Detective nor Ojha, used to be a Sales Executive.
    II. Mr. Singh is now an Editor but he was not a Associate Editor
    III. The five workers are Deepak, the former Associate Editor, the present Detective, Ms. Patnaik, and the present Doctor (who is not Nene)
    IV. The personal Assistant, who is neither Deepak nor Ajay, is a former Adviser.
    V. Gautam used to be a Copy Editor. He and Mr.Ojha belong to the same town.
    Among the given clues if clue V were absent, which of the following statements can certainly be inferred on the basis of the remaining clues?
    ( A ) Surname of Ajay is Ojha
    ( B ) Deepak is a former Research Team member
    ( C ) Gautam is now a Detective
    ( D ) None of these

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    Critical reasoning Critical reasoning Presentation Transcript

    • Critical Reasoning
    • Topics To Be Discussed• Deductions• Linear sequencing / Seating Arrangements• Double line up• Ordering• Selections / Conditionality and Grouping
    • Topics To Be Discussed• Family tree• Codes• Series• Direction Sense• Statement Logic
    • Deductions
    • IntroductionDeduction means reducing two or morestatements into one.Types:•Reduce two statements into one•Reduce more than two statements into one
    •  - DISTRIBUTED X - UNDISTRIBUTED SUBJECT PREDICATE UNIVERSAL √ XAFFIRMATIVE UNIVERSAL √ √ NEGATIVEPARTICULAR X XAFFIRMATIVE PARTICULAR X √ NEGATIVE
    • Rules For Deductions• Only three distinct terms.• The middle term must be distributed at least once.• Middle term should not come in the Conclusion.• Two Particular, No Conclusion.• Two Negative, No Conclusion.• One Statement Particular, Conclusion Particular.• One Statement Negative, Conclusion Negative.
    • Rules For DeductionsStat. 1 All No Some All All SomeStat. 2 All No Many Some No No No No SomeConcl All Some No concl concl , Not
    • ShortcutsStat. 1 UA UN PA PN UA UA UNStat. 2 UA UN PA PN PN PA PA No Con UA No Con No Con PN PA PN Con
    • Problem 1All clocks are fans.Some fans are walls
    • DeductionAnswer: No Conclusion
    • Problem 2All shawls are carpetsNo carpet is pullover.
    • DeductionAnswer: No shawl is pullover (or) No Pullover is Shawl
    • Problem 3 All tables are cars.Some dusters are tables
    • DeductionAnswer: Some dusters are cars (or) Some cars are dusters
    • Problem 4Some birds are hensSome hens are trees
    • DeductionAnswer: No Conclusion
    • Problem 5 No scientist is teacherSome teachers are researchers.
    • DeductionAnswer: Some researchers are not scientists
    • Problem 6All fingers are legsSome legs are hands All hands are ears
    • DeductionAnswer: No conclusion
    • Problem 7 No shirt is pant.No pant is a shoe.All shoe are books.
    • DeductionAnswer: No conclusion
    • Problem 8 No month is a yearAll months are hoursSome hours are weeks
    • DeductionAnswer: No Conclusion
    • Problem 9 All huts are bungalows Some bungalows are kitchensAll Kitchens are drawing Room
    • DeductionAnswer: No Conclusion
    • Problem 10 Shoes are socks Shoes are lacesAll laces are pages
    • DeductionAnswer: No Conclusion
    • Linear Sequencing / Seating Arrangement
    • Introduction• Linear fashion means arrangement in a row.• Analyze the problem and arrange it.• Find the direct condition and start to solve, because the remaining conditions are based on the direct condition.• No condition for the particular item, shows their is possibility in answer.• Draw a Shape which is given in the question and arrange them according to the conditions given.
    • Linear Sequencing / Seating ArrangementAnswer:1. a) H G KJ2. b) J3. b) G and L4. e) J and L
    • Problem 1 A, B, C, D, E, F and G are sitting on a wall andall of them are facing east. C is on the immediate rightof D. B is at an extreme end and has E as his neighbour.G is between E and F. D is sitting third from the southend.1.Who is sitting to the right of E?2.Name the person who should change places with Csuch that he gets the third place from the north end?
    • Problem 13. Which of the following pairs of people are sitting at the extreme ends?a) AB b) AE c) CB d) FB4. Immediately between which of the following pairs of people is D sitting?a) AC b) AF c) CE d) CF
    • Linear Sequencing / Seating ArrangementAnswer:1. G2. G3. a) AB4. d) CF
    • Problem 2 In the Olympic Games, the flags of six nationswere flown on the masts in the following way; The flag of America was to the left of Indiantricolour and to the right of the flag of France. The flagof Australia was on the right of the Indian flag but wasto the left of the flag Japan, which was to the left of theflag of china. Find the two flags which are in the centre.a)India and Australia b) America and Indiac) Japan and Australia d) America ad Australia
    • Linear Sequencing / Seating ArrangementAnswer: a) India and Australia
    • Problem 3 In a car exhibition, seven cars of seven differentcompanies viz. Cardilac, Ambassador, Fiat, Maruti,Mercedes, Bedford and Fargo were displayed in a row,facing east such that:1.Cardialc car was to the immediate right of Fargo.2.Fargo was fourth to the right of Fiat3.Maruti car was between Ambassador and Bedford4.Fiat, which was third to the left of Ambassador car,was at one of the ends. Cont…
    • Problem 81. Which of the following was the correct position of the Mercedes? a) Immediate right of Fargo b) Immediate left of Bedford c) Between Bedford and Fargo d) Fourth to the right of Maruti2. Which cars are on the immediate either sides of the Cardilac car?
    • Linear Sequencing / Seating ArrangementAnswer:1. Fourth to the right of Maruti2. On either side of the Cardilac are the Fargo and the Mercedes.
    • Problem 4A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J are ten persons sitting inwaiting hall. J is sitting two table right of F, who is rightside of H. In between E and B two persons are sittingwhere B is sitting left of G. In between E and J eightpersons are sitting.C is sitting immediate right of E and left of B. G issitting four seats left of J. G and F have two persons inbetween where one person is I. I is sitting immediateright of G. H is sitting in seventh seat. Show thearrangement possible.
    • Linear Sequencing / Seating ArrangementAnswer: E C A/D B G I H F D/ A J
    • Problem 5P,Q,R,S,T are 5 people who sit in a round table.P sits two tables to the left of R and Q sits two tables to theright of R.1.If S is in between Q and R what is the arrangement?2.How many different arrangements are possible?3.If S is not sitting between Q and R then who is sitting between Q and S?
    • Linear Sequencing / Seating ArrangementAnswer: Either P is sitting when viewed anticlockwise or T and R when viewed clockwise.
    • Problem 6 6 people A,B,C,D,E and F sit around a table fordinner. Since A does not like C, he doesnt sit eitheropposite or beside C. B and F always like to sitopposite each other.1. If A is beside F then who are the two neighbors of B?2. If D is adjacent to F then who is adjacent to C?
    • Linear Sequencing / Seating ArrangementAnswer:1. D and E2. E and B (or) D and B
    • Problem 7 Six friends A, B, C, D, E and F are sitting along the sides of ahexagonal table for playing a game, thought not necessarily in thesame order. F, who is sitting exactly opposite of A, is to the immediate rightof B. D is between A and B and is exactly opposite to C.1.A is sitting between whom?2.Who is sitting opposite B?
    • Linear Sequencing / Seating ArrangementAnswer: 1. D and E 2. E
    • Problem 8 Mr. A, Miss B, Mr. C and Miss D are sitting around a table and discussing their trades.i) Mr. A sit opposite to cookii) Miss. B sits right to the barberiii) The washer man is on the left of the tailoriv) Miss. D sits opposite Mr. C.1. What are the trades of A and B?a) Tailor and Barber b) Tailor and Cookc) Barber and Cook d) Washer man and Cook
    • Linear Sequencing / Seating ArrangementAnswer:b) Tailor and Cook
    • Problem 9 Eight persons E, F, G, H, I, J, K and L are seatedaround a square table – two on each side. There arethree lady members and they are not seated next to eachother. J is between L and F. G is between I and F. H, a lady member, is second to the left of J. F, amale member is seated opposite E, a lady member.There is a lady member between E and H?1.Who is seated between E and H?2.How many persons are seated between K and F?3.Who is sitting immediate left of F? Cont…
    • Problem 94. Who among the following are the three lady members?a) E, G and J b) E, H and G c) G, H and J5. Which of the following is true about J?a) J is a male member b) J is a female member
    • Linear Sequencing / Seating ArrangementAnswer:1. K2. Three3. J4. E, H and G5. J is a male member
    • Problem 10 Eight friends A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H are sittingin a circle facing centre. B is sitting between G and D.H is third to the left of B and second to the right of A. Cis sitting between A and G and B and E are not sittingopposite to each other.Which of the following statement is not correct?a) C is third to the right of D b) A is sitting between Cand F c) E is sitting between F and D.
    • Linear Sequencing / Seating ArrangementAnswer:1. c) E is sitting between F and D
    • Double Line Up
    • Introduction• Consists of at least two different variables.• Form a table.• More than one Question per passage.• Check the Option for Elimination.
    • Problem 1Five executives of European Corporation hold aConference in RomeMr. A converses in Spanish & ItalianMr. B, a Spaniard, knows English alsoMr. C knows English and belongs to ItalyMr. D converses in French and SpanishMr. E , a native of Italy knows French Cont…
    • Problem 11. Who can act as interpreter if Mr. C & Mr. D wish to converse a) only Mr. A b) Only Mr. B c) Mr. A & Mr. B d) Any of the other three2. If a 6th executive is brought in, to be understood by maximum number of original five he should be fluent in a) English & French b) Italian & Spanish c) English & French d) French & Italian Cont…
    • Double LineupAnswer:1. d) Any of the other three.2. b) Italian & Spanish
    • Problem 2Spelunkers International offers exploring tours in eight caves: Abbott, Benny, Caeser, Dangerfield, Ewell, Fields, Guinness and Hope.(1) Class 1 spelunkers may not attempt cave Ewell, Fields or Hope(2) Class 2 spelunkers may not attempt Hope(3) Class 3 spelunkers may attempt any cave(4) Cave Caesar may be attempted only by spelunkers who have previously explored cave Benny(5) Cave Fields may be attempted only by spelunkers who have previously explored cave Ewell(6) Only two of the caves Benny, Caeser, Ewell, Fields, and Hope may be attempted by any explorer in a single tour. Cont…
    • Problem 21. A class 2 spelunker who has previously explored cave Ewell may be restricted in choosing a tour by which rules? (I) Rule(4) (II) Rule(5) (III) Rule(6)(a) I only (b) II only (c) I and III only(d) II and III only (e) I, II and III
    • Problem 22. In how many different ways may a class 1 spelunker who has never explored any of the eight caves before set up a tour of three caves, if she wishes to explore caves Abbott and Caesar? (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5 (e) 6
    • Double lineupAnswer:1. c) I and III only2. b) 3
    • Problem 3There are six cities A, B, C, D, E and F.A is not a hill station.B and e are not historical places.D is not an industrial city.A and D are not historical cities.A and B are not alike.1. Which two cities are industrial centres?a) A and B b) E and F c) C and D d) B and F
    • Problem 32. Which two cities are historical places?a) A and C b) B and F c) C and F d) B and E3. Which two cities are neither historical places nor industrial centres?a) A and B b) D and E c) F and C d) B and D4. Which city is a hill station and an industrial centre but not a historical place?a) E b) F c) A d) B e) C
    • Double lineupAnswer:1. b) E and F2. c) C and F3. d) B and D4. a) E
    • Problem 4Five friends P, Q, R, S and T traveled to five different cities of Chennai, Delhi, Bangalore and Hyderabad by five different modes of transport of Bus, Train, Aero plane, Car and Boat from Mumbai.i) The person who traveled to Delhi did not travel by boat.ii)R went to Bangalore by car and Q went to Calcutta by aero plane.iii)S traveled by boat whereas T traveled by Train.iv)Mumbai is not connected by bus to Delhi and Chennai. Cont…
    • Problem 41. Which of the following combinations of person and mode is not correct?a) P – Bus b) R – car c) T – Aero plane d) S - Boat2. Which of the following combinations is true for S?a) Delhi – Bus b) Chennai- Bus c) Chennai - Boat3. Who is that person traveled to Delhi?4. The person went to Delhi traveled by?
    • Double lineupAnswer:1. c) T – Aero plane2. c) Chennai – Boat3. T4. Train
    • Problem 5In a school, there were five teachers. A and B wereteaching Hindi and English. C and B were teachingEnglish and Geography. D and A were teachingMathematics and Hindi. E and B were teaching Historyand French.1.Who is teaching maximum number of Subjects?2.More than two teachers were teaching which subjects?3.Which subject were handle by D, B and A?
    • Double LineupAnswer:1. B2. English and Hindi3. Hindi
    • Problem 6Six students A, B, C, D, E and F are sitting in the field. A and B are from Nehru house while the rest belong to Gandhi house. D and F are tall while the others are short. A, C and D are wearing glasses while the others are not.1. Which of the two student, who are not wearing glasses are short?2. Which short student of Gandhi house is not wearing glasses?3. Which tall student of Gandhi house is not wearing glasses?
    • Double LineupAnswer:1. B and E2. E3. F
    • Problem 7 Jayant, Kamal, Namita, Asha and Tanmay are fivemembers of a family. They have their birth dates fromJanuary to May, each member in one of these months. Each one likes one particular item for his/herbirthday out of Bengali sweets, Chocolates, Pastries,Ice cream and Dry fruits. The one who likes Pastries is born in the monthwhich is exactly middle in the months given. Asha doesnot like Ice cream but brings Chocolates for Jayant inFebruary. Tanmay who is fond of Bengali sweets isborn the next month immediately after Namita. Namitadoes not like Dry fruits or Ice cream. Cont…
    • Problem 71. What is the choice of Asha?2. Which combination of month and item is true for Jayant?3. What is the choice of Kamal?4. In which month was Kamal born?
    • Double LineupAnswer:1. Dry fruits2. February – Chocolates3. Ice cream4. January or May
    • Problem 8 In a group of six women, there are four dancers,four vocal musicians, one actress and three violinists.Girija and Vanaja are among the violinists while Jalajaand Shailja do not know how to play on the violin.Shailja and Tanuja are among the dancers. Jalaja,Vanaja, Shailja and Tanuja are all vocal musicians andtwo of them are also violinists. If pooja is an actress,who among the following is both a dancer and aviolinist?a) Jalaja b) Shailja c) Tanuja d) Pooja
    • Double LineupAnswer: C) Tanuja
    • Problem 9 There are six friends A, B, C, D, E and F. eachone is proficient in one of the games, namelyBadminton, Volleyball, Cricket, Hockey, Tennis andpolo. Each owns a different colored car, namely yellow,green, black, white, blue and red. D plays polo andowns a yellow colored car. C does not play eitherTennis or Hockey and owns neither blue nor yellowcolored car. E owns a white car and plays Badminton. Bdoes not play Tennis, he owns a red colored car. A playsCricket and owns a black car.
    • Problem 91. Who plays volleyball?2. Which colored car F owns?3. Which of the following combinations of color of car and game played is not correct?a) Yellow – Polo b) Green – Tennisc) Black – Cricket d) Red – Hockey
    • Double lineupAnswer:1. C2. Blue3. b) Green - Tennis
    • Problem 10 P, Q, R, S, T and U are six students procuringtheir Master‟s degree in six different subjects – English,History, Philosophy, Physics, Statistics andMathematics. Two of them stay in hostel, two stay as payingguest (PG) and remaining two stay at their home. Rdoes not stay as PG and studies philosophy. The students staying Statistics and History do notstay as PG. T studies Mathematics and S studiesPhysics. U and S stay in hostel. T stay as PG and Qstays at home. Cont…
    • Problem 101. Who studies English?2. Which of the following combinations of subject and place of stay is not correct?a) English – Hostel b) Mathematics – PGc) Philosophy – Home d) Physics - Hostel3. Which subject does Q study?4. Which of the following pairs of students stay at home?a) PQ b) QR c) RS d) ST
    • Double LineupAnswer:1. P2. a) English – Hostel3. History or Statistics4. b) QR
    • Ordering
    • Types• Ordering Questions Related to the rank• Elimination Questions related to the extremes More than one Variable use ordering . Only one variable use elimination or ordering.
    • Problem 1There are six steps that lead from the first to the secondfloor. No two people can be on the same step. Mr. A istwo steps below Mr. C. Mr. B is a step next to Mr. DOnly one step is vacant (No one standing on that step)Denote the first step by step 1 and secondstep by step 2etc. Cont….
    • Problem 11. If Mr. A is on the first step, Which of the following is true? (a) Mr. B is on the second step (b) Mr. C is on the fourth step. (c) A person Mr. E, could be on the third step (d) Mr. D is on higher step than Mr. C.2. If Mr. E was on the third step & Mr. B was on a higher step than Mr. E which step must be vacant (a) step 1 (b) step 2 (c) step 4 (d) step 5 e) step 6
    • Problem 13. If Mr. B was on step 1, which step could A be on? (a) 2&e only (b) 3&5 only (c) 3&4 only (d) 4&5 only (e) 2&4 only4. If there were two steps between the step that A was standing and the step that B was standing on, and A was on a higher step than D , A must be on step (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5 (e) 6 Cont…
    • OrderingAnswer:1. (d) Mr. D is on higher step than Mr. C.2. (a) step 13. (c) 3&4 only4. (c) 4
    • Problem 2A series of drama is to be arranged on all the five daysof the week Monday to Friday. Drama contains Fiction,Romance, Horror, Comedy And Tragedy. Horror cannotimmediately precede Romance, Fiction should bescheduled earlier than Romance, Comedy should comeafter tragedy. If Horror is arranged on Friday then whatshould be the sequence of the dramas.
    • OrderingAnswer: Fiction, Romance, Tragedy, Comedy , Horror
    • Problem 3 Miss Dean wants to renovate her house. She hires aplumber, a carpenter, a painter, an electrician and aninterior decorator. The work is to be finished in onestretch (Monday-Friday). Each worker will take full dayto do his job. Miss Dean permits only one person towork each day.I. The painter can work only after the plumber and the carpenter have finished their jobsII. The interior decorator must do his job before the electrician.III. The carpenter cannot work on Monday or Tuesday Cont…
    • Problem 81. If the painter work on Thursday, which one of thefollowing alternatives is possible?(a) The electrician works on Tuesday.(b) The electrician works on Friday.(c) The interior decorator works after the painter does.(d) The painter works on consecutive days.(e) Miss Dean cannot fit all of the workers in the schedule Cont…
    • Problem 32. If the painter works on Friday which of the following must be false?(a) The carpenter may work on Wednesday(b) The carpenter and the electrician may work on consecutive days(c) If the carpenter works on Thursday, the electrician has to work on Wednesday(d) The plumber may work before the electrician does(e) The electrician may work on Tuesday
    • OrderingAnswer:1.(b). The electrician works on Friday.2.(c). If the carpenter works on Thursday, the electrician has to work on Wednesday
    • Problem 4The cricket ball is lighter than the hockey ball, and thevolleyball is lighter than the football. The hockey ball islighter than the football but heavier than the tennis ball.Which is the heaviest?
    • OrderingAnswer: Football
    • Problem 5Six students A, B, C, D, E, and F participated in a self- evaluation test of Quants and Data Interpretation (D.I). The total marks of A in Quants was just above C and in D.I. just above F.B was just above C in D.I. but he scored less than D in Quants. F got more marks than D and E in D.I. but did not perform as well in Quants as D.I. No one is in between C and D in Quants and C and A in D.I.1. Who got the highest marks in D.I.?2. Who was just below D in Quants?
    • OrderingAnswer:1. B2. Data Inadequate
    • Problem 6Six plays A, B, C, D, E and F are to be staged, one oneach day from Monday to Saturday. The schedule of theplays is to be in accordance with the following.i) A must be staged a day before E.ii) C must not be stages on Tuesdayiii) B must be staged on the day following the day onwhich F is staged.iv) D must be staged on Friday only and should not beimmediately preceded by B.v) E must not be staged on the last day of the schedule. Cont…
    • Problem 61. Which of the following plays immediately follows B?a) A b) C c) D d) E e) F2. Which of the following plays is on Monday?a) E b) F c) C d) B e) A3. Play D is between which of the following pairs of plays?a) B and E b) E and F c) A and E d) E and C e) C and F
    • OrderingAnswer: a) A b) F d) E and C
    • Problem 7At the end of a cricket series, when five players werearranged in the ascending order of runs scored by them,O was fourth while N was first. When they werearranged in descending order for wickets taken by them,K replaces O while O replaces L. M‟s position remainsuncharged. K has scored more runs than M. L is havingfirst rank in one ranking and fifth in another.1.Who has scored the highest runs in the series?2.Who has taken the lowest number of wickets?
    • OrderingAnswer: 1. L 2. O
    • Problem 8A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H are eight friends. Three of them play cricket and table tennis and two of them play football. Each one of them has a different height.The tallest does not play football and the shortest does not play cricket.F is taller than A and D but Shorter than H and B. E who does not play cricket, is taller than B and is second to the tallest. G is shorter than D but taller than A. H, who is fourth from top, plays table tennis with D. G does not play either cricket or football. B does not play football. Cont…
    • Problem 81. Who is the tallest?2. Who is the Shortest?3. What is F‟s position from the top when they are arranged in descending order of their height?4. Which of the following group of friends play cricket? a) CAE b) CBF c) CBA d) None of these
    • OrderingAnswer:1. C2. A3. Fifth4. b) CBF
    • Problem 9i) A, B, C, D, E and F are six students in a classii) B and C are shorter than F but heavier than Aiii) D is heavier than B and taller than Civ) E is shorter than D but taller than Fv) F is heavier than Dvi) A is shorter than E but taller than F.1. Who is the tallest?2. Who is third from the top when they are arranged in descending order of height? Cont…
    • Problem 93. Who among them is the lightest?4. Which of the following groups of friends is shorter than A?a) B, C only b) D, B, C only c) E, B, C only d) F, B, C only e) None of these
    • OrderingAnswer:1. D2. A3. Data inadequate4. F, B, C only
    • Problem 10 A sales representative plans to visit each of sixcompanies M, N, P, Q, R and S exactly once during thecourse of one day. She is setting up her schedule for theday according to the following conditions.i)She must visit M before N and R.ii)She must visit N before Qiii)The third company she visits must be P.1.If the sales representative visits S first, whichcompany must she visit second? Cont…
    • Problem 102. The sales representative could visit any of the following companies immediately after P except:a) S b) R c) Q d) N e) M3. Find the order in which the sales representative visits the six companies?4. If sales representative visits Q immediately before R and immediately after S, she must visit Q:a) First b) second c) fourth d) fifth e) sixth
    • OrderingAnswer:1. M2. e) M3. M, S, P, N, R, Q4. d) fifth
    • Selections / Conditionality And Grouping
    • Introduction• Selecting a part out of whole.• Infer from the statements without Assumptions• Apply condition and select,• Conditions are given based on which the action takes place.• There are four basic conditions. Based on them the decisions are made.• Based on this conditions the groups are formed.
    • Conditions• If A occurs then B also will occur• If A occurs then B will not occur• If A has not occurred then B will occur• If A has not occurred then B also will not occur
    • Problem 6 From a group of six boys M, N, O, P, Q, R andfive girls G, H, I, J, K a team of six is to be selected.Some of the criteria of selection are as follows: M and J go together O cannot be placed with N I cannot go with J N goes with H P and Q have to be together K and R go together Cont…
    • Problem 11. If the team consists of two girls and I is one of them, the other members are?a) GMRPQ b) HNOPQ c) KOPQR d) KRMNP2. If four members are boys, which of the following cannot constitute the team?a) GJMOPQ b) HJMNPQ c) JKMNOR d) JKMPQR3. If the team has three girls including J and K, the members of the team are?a) GHNR b) MNOG c) MORG d) NHOR
    • Selections / Conditionality And GroupingAnswer:1. c) KOPQR2. c) JKMNOR3. c) MORG
    • Problem 2Final year students plan to go for project which consist of 5 members ( 3 from A group and 2 from B group) based on the condition. There are two groups, group A consist of 6 members M N O P Q R and group B consist of 5 members V W X Y Z. conditions for selection are,i) M does not come , Z & O should comeii) X and Y remains togetheriii) R and V cannot go togetheriv) N is always go with Zv) Q always go with W Cont….
    • Problem 2vi) O can go with Vvii) O and P are together1. If M is not there in the team, the team consist of?2. If Q is there, who cannot be there in that team?a) X & Y b) R & V c) V & W
    • Selections / Conditionality And GroupingAnswer:1. OPNZV2. a) X & Y
    • Problem 3From a group of 6 boys A,B,C,D,E,F and 5 girlsL,M,N,O,P a group of 6 is to be selected based on thefollowing conditions:1.O and P have to be together2.C cannot go with O3.A and D have to be together4.D cannot go with L5.C and M have to be together6.Band N have to be together7.B and E cannot be together Contd..
    • Problem 31. If the team consists of four girls the members of the team are:i) BELNOP ii) EFLNOP iii) BFLNOP2. If the team consist of 5 boys and 1 girl that girl would be:i) L ii) M iii) N iv) O
    • Selections / Conditionality And GroupingAnswer:• D and A cannot be there. So (iii)BFLNOP• If B is selected, you cannot select E, without E you cannot form 5 boys team. So reject B, then you have A, C, D, E, F. If C is selected M will be there in that team. ii) M.
    • Problem 4Coach balkishan is trying to put together a team of fourplayers for a tennis tournament. He has seven playersavailable: males A, B, C and females M,N, O and P. Allplayers are of equal ability, and there must be at leasttwo males in the team. For a team of four, all playersmust be able to play with each other player. Cont…
    • Problem 4Player B cannot play with player M, player C cannotplay with player P, player M cannot play with player O.1.If player O is selected and player B is rejected, the team will consist of which foursome?2.If player M is in the team, which other players must be in the team as well?
    • Selections / Conditionality And GroupingAnswer:1. A, C, O and N.2. A, C and N.
    • Problem 5From amongst 5 boys P, Q, R, S,T and 4 girls A, B, C,D a team of five should be selected. Conditions given:a)P and S are to remain together.b)Q cannot remain together with B or Cc)R and A have to remain together.d)T cannot remain with A or D. Cont…
    • Problem 51. If Q is selected, then the other members are? a) APRS b) ADRS c) BCPT d) ABCDR2. If three members are girls the team is? a) ABCRT b) ACDRS c) BCDRS d) BCDPS3. If the four members are to be boys and one member is A, then the remaining members of the team are?
    • Selections / Conditionality And GroupingAnswer:1. a) APRS2. d) BCDPS3. PQRS
    • Problem 62 collectors, Frank and Gloria are each selecting a groupof three wildlife prints from a group of 7 prints T, U, V,W, X, Y and Z. No print can be in both groups. Theselections made by Frank and Gloria are subject to thefollowing restrictions.a)If U is in Frank‟s group, W must be in Gloria‟s groupb)If X is in Frank‟s group, Z must be in Gloria‟s group.c)T and Z cannot be in the same group.d)W and Y cannot be in the same group. Cont…
    • Problem 61. If X is in Frank‟s group, of the following could be in Gloria‟s group except a) T b) U c) V d) W e) Z2. Which of the following pairs of groups selected by Frank and Gloria conform to the restrictions? a) Fr – TUV Gl - WXY b) Fr - TUZ Gl – VWX c) Fr – UXZ Gl – TWY d) Fr – VWX Gl – UYZ3. If U is in Frank‟s group, which of the following is true? a) T must be in Frank‟s group b) Y must be in Frank‟s group c) Y cannot be in Frank‟s group
    • Selections / Conditionality And GroupingAnswer:1. a) T2. d) Fl – VWX Gl – UYZ3. b) Y must be in Frank‟s group.
    • Problem 12Mr. Pict must accommodate seven tour grouppassengers in two four – person cabins on the S.S.Gallia. Each passenger in a cabin must be able toconverse with at least one passenger, though notnecessarily in the same language•A, an Etruscan, also speaks Gothic and Hittite•B and F are Hittites and speak only that language•C, an Etruscan also speaks Gothic•D and G are Goths and speak only Gothic•E, an Etruscan also speaks Hittite•Hittites refuse to share rooms with Goths Cont…
    • Problem 71. Which combinations of passengers in one of the cabins will result in a rooming arrangement that satisfies all conditions for both cabins? a. B, C, F b. D, E, G c. C, D, E, G d. B, D, F, G2. How many different combinations of cabin mates satisfy all conditions? a. 2 b. 3 c. 4 d. 5 e. 6
    • Selections / Conditionality And GroupingAnswer:1. c. C, D, E, G2. a. 2
    • Problem 8From amongst six boys A, B, C, D, E and F and five girls P, Q, R, S and T, a team of six is to be selected under the following conditions:i) A and D have to be together.ii) C cannot go with S.iii) S and T have to be together.iv) B cannot be teamed with E.v) D cannot go with P.vi) B and R have to be together.vii) C and Q have to be together. Cont….
    • Problem 81. If there be five boys in the team, the lone girl member is?2. If including P, the team has three girls, the member are?3. If four members have to be girls, the members of the team are?4. If the team including C consist of four boys, the members of the team other than C are?
    • Selections / Conditionality And GroupingAnswer:1. Q2. B C F Q R3. B F P R S T4. A B D Q R
    • Problem 14There are five men A, B, C, D and E and six women P, Q, R, S, T and U. A, B and R are advocates; C, D, P, Q and S are doctors and the rest are teachers. Some teams are to be selected from amongst these eleven persons subject to the following conditions;i) A, P and U have to be togetherii) B cannot go with D or R.iii) E and Q have to be togetheriv) C and T have to be togetherv) D and P cannot go togethervi) C cannot go with Q. Cont…
    • Problem 91. If the team is to consist of two male advocates, two lady doctors and one teacher, the members of the team are?2. If the team is to consist of one advocate, two doctors, three teachers and C may not go with T, the members of the team are?a) A E P Q S U b) A E P Q T U c) B E Q S T U3. If the team is to consist of one advocate, three doctors and one male teacher, the member of the team are?
    • Selections / Conditionality And GroupingAnswer:1. A B P U S2. b) A E P Q T U3. D E Q R S
    • Problem 10Company plan to do a new project which is consist of 2engineers, 3 managers and 1 executives from 4engineers ( A B C D), 5 managers ( P Q R S T ), 3executive ( X Y Z).i)Engineer A does not work with P and Xii)Manager S and Executive Y work togetheriii)Engineer B does not work with manager Tiv)Manager Q does not work with manager Sv)R does not work with Z, X works with Qvi)B and D remains togethervii)D does not work with Q and T Cont….
    • Problem 101. State the possibilities of forming team?2. Who must be there in the team what ever may be the possibilities?
    • Selections / Conditionality And GroupingAnswer:1. i) A C R S T Y ii) B D P R S Y2. R, S & Y
    • Family Tree / Blood Relations
    • Introduction• Hierarchical structure of a family.• It is called as Blood relations problems.• Identify genders by different notation.
    • Problem 1A man shows his friend a woman sitting in a park andsays “She is the daughter of my grandmothers onlyson”. What is the relation between the two members? (Infosys)
    • Family Tree / Blood RelationsAnswer: Man and Woman are Brother and Sister
    • Problem 2Ram is the brother of shyam and Mahesh is the father ofRam. Jagat is the brother of Priya and Priya is thedaughter of Shaym. Who is the uncle of Jagat?
    • Family Tree / Blood RelationsAnswer: Ram
    • Problem 3A, B, C, D, E and F is a group of six persons of afamily. The number of gents is the same as the numberof ladies. A and E are sons of F. D is the mother of Twochildren of whom one is a boy and the other is a girl. Bis the son of A. in this group there is only one pair ofmarried persons.
    • Problem 31. Find females in the family?2. Who is the uncle of C?3. Who is the husband of D?4. Who are all the children of D?5. Who is the grand daughter of F?
    • Family Tree / Blood RelationsAnswer:1.CDF2. E3. A4. BC5. C.
    • Problem 4A family consists of five members A, B, C, D and E. Ehas two sons and unmarried daughter and a daughter –in – law. The daughter in law is an officer and herbrother in law A is an engineer. C is a doctor. The sisterof B is a violinist who has learned to play violin fromB‟s wife?Who is the daughter of E?How is A related to D?Who is the wife of B?
    • Family Tree / Blood RelationsAnswer:1. C2. A is the brother in law of D3. D.
    • Problem 5Looking at a portrait of a man, Harsh said,“His mother is the wife of my father‟s son.Brothers and sisters I have none”. At whoseportrait was Harsh looking?
    • Family Tree / Blood RelationsAnswer: His Son
    • Problem 6Rahul told Anand, „Yesterday I defeatedthe only brother of the daughter of mygrandmother‟. Whom did Rahul defeat?
    • Family Tree / Blood RelationsAnswer: Father
    • Problem 7Deepak said to Nitin, “that boy playingwith the football is the younger of the twobrothers of the daughter of my father‟swife”. How is the boy playing footballrelated to Deepak?
    • Family Tree / Blood RelationsAnswer: Brother
    • Problem 8Neelam, who is Deepak‟s daughter, says toDeepika, “your mother Rekha is theyounger sister of my father who is the thirdchild of Ramlal”. How is Ramlal related toDeepika?
    • Family Tree / Blood RelationsAnswer: Grandfather
    • Problem 9A is the son of B. C, B‟s sister has a son Dand a daughter E. F is the maternal uncle ofD.1.How is A related to D?2.How is E related to F?3.How many nephews does F have?
    • Family Tree / Blood RelationsAnswer:1. Cousin2. Niece3. Two (A&D)
    • Problem 10Shobha is the niece of Ashish. Ashish‟smother is Priya. Kamala is Priya‟s mother.Kamala‟s husband is Hari. Krishna is themother – in – law of Hari. How is Shobharelated to Hari?
    • Family Tree / Blood RelationsAnswer: Great Granddaughter
    • Codes
    • Introduction• Codes may be numerical or alphabets.• To decode – find the format of arrangement.• The arrangement can be any one of the following 1. Reversed order 2. Gaps in between 3. +1and-1 format 4. Tree format
    • CodesAnswer: SNOW can be coded as QLMU.
    • Problem 1If the word "CODING" is represented asDPEJOH , then the word "CURFEW" canbe represented? (MBT)
    • CodesAnswer: dvsgfx
    • Problem 2If "segment" is coded as rffndou, what isthe code for “ritual”. (Wipro)
    • CodesAnswer QJSVZM
    • Problem 3? : BGLQ : : YDIN : VAFK (Wipro)
    • CodesAnswer: EJOT
    • Problem 4In a certain code each letter is coded asA = D, B=E, C=FWhat is the code for SHOOT? (BAAN)
    • CodesAnswer: VKRRW
    • Problem 5If DBMDVUUB = CALCUTTA ThenBOMBAY = ? (BAAN)
    • CodesAnswer: ANLAZX
    • Problem 6In a certain code, TRIPPLE is written asSQHOOKD. How DISPOSE can be writtenin that code?
    • CodesAnswer: CHRONRD
    • Problem 7If the word PEARL is written as MBXOI,then how the word DIAMOND would bewritten in that code?
    • CodesAnswer: AFXJLKA
    • Problem 8In a certain code, SOLVED is writtenas LOSVDE. How WEIGHT will bewritten in that code?
    • CodesAnswer: IEWGTH
    • Problem 9If in a language INDIA is coded asJMEHB then in that languageSOURAV will be coded as ?
    • CodesAnswer: TNVQBU
    • Problem 10In a certain code DUPLICATE iswritten as MRVFJFVBE. How isCARTOUCHE written in that code?
    • CodesAnswer: UTBEPFJDW
    • Problem 1If in a certain code "RANGE" is coded as 12345and "RANDOM" is coded as 123678, then thecode for the word "MANGO" would be? (MBT & Wipro)
    • Number CodingAnswer: 82347
    • Problem 2If the word FADENCOMT equals 345687921 then1. What is FEAT?2. Find representation of 2998? (Wipro)
    • Number CodingAnswer:1. 36412. MOON
    • Problem 3If Raman is written as 12345 and Dineshas 675894, how will Mahaan be written?
    • Number CodingAnswer: 324225
    • Problem 4If H = 8, HE = 13, then “Hen” will beequal to?
    • Number CodingAnswer : HEN = 27
    • Problem 5If “Rose” is coded as 6821, “Chair” iscoded as 73456 and “Preach” is codedas 961473, what will be the code for“search” ?
    • Number CodingAnswer: 214673
    • Problem 6In certain code RAIL is written as5796 and TAPE is written as 3748.how is PAIR written in that code?
    • Number CodingAnswer: 4795
    • Problem 7In a certain code language, GRAPE iswritten as 27354 and FOUR is writtenas 1687. How is GROUP written inthat code?
    • Number CodingAnswer: 27685
    • Problem 8If FEED is coded as 4, what will be thecode for BREAD?
    • Number CodingAnswer: 30/5 = 6
    • Problem 9If MACHINE is coded as 19-7-9-14-15-20-11, how will you codeDANGER?
    • Number CodingAnswer: 10 -7-20-13-11-24
    • Problem 10If MASTER is coded as 411259, thenPOWDER will be coded as?
    • Number CodingAnswer:A=1, B=2, C=3, D=4, E=5, F=6, G=7,H=7, I=9, J=1, K=2, L=3, M=4, N=5,O=6, P=7, Q=8, R=9, S=1… 765459
    • Series
    • Introduction• Series involves the numbers or alphabetic, that are arranged in a particular sequence.• The sequence can be any of the following; 1.ascending 2.descending 3.gap 4.squares and cubes 5.+/- order series
    • Problem 15, 20, 24, 6, 2, 8, __ (Infosys)
    • SeriesAnswer: 12 (5*4=20, 20+4=24, 24/4=6, 6-4=2, 2*4=8, 8+4=12).
    • Problem 20, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 15, 17, 24, 26,__ (MBT)
    • SeriesAnswer: 35
    • Problem 3___, ayw, gec, mki, sqo (MBT)
    • SeriesAnswer: usq
    • Problem 42, 5, 9, 19, 37,__ (MBT)
    • SeriesAnswer: 75
    • Problem 54, 11, 30, 67, __ (TCS)
    • SeriesAnswer: 128
    • Problem 64832, 5840, 6848……
    • SeriesAnswer:Add 1008= 6848 + 1008= 7856
    • Problem 7Find the number which is not matchedproperly in the above series?1, 3, 5, 10, 17, 26…..a) 10 b) 17 c) 3 d) 26
    • SeriesAnswer: C) 3
    • Problem 813, 32, 24,43,35, ?, 46, 65
    • SeriesAnswer:13, 24, 35, 46….( added with 11)32, 43, 54, 65…..( added with 11)= 54
    • Problem 98, 9, 8, 7, 10, 9, 6, 11, 10, ?, 12….
    • SeriesAnswer: 8 9 8 7 10 9 6 11 10 ? 12 = 5 ( add 1 in each)
    • Problem 102/ √5, 3/5, 4/5√5…..
    • SeriesAnswer: = 1/5
    • Direction Sense
    • Introduction• This gives the path followed to reach the required destination.• The basic thing necessary here is the NORTH,SOUTH,EAST,WEST directions to find the path. N W E S
    • Problem 1A man walks east and turns right and thenfrom there to his left and then 45 degrees tohis right. In which direction did he go? (Infosys)
    • Direction SenseAnswer: North west
    • Problem 2A person travels 6km towards west, thentravels 5km towards north, then finallytravels 6km towards west. Where is he withrespect to his starting position?
    • Direction SenseAnswer: 13km northwest
    • Problem 3A starts from his office and walks 3 km towards north.He then turns right and walks 2km and then turns rightand walks 5km then turns right and walks 2 km and thenagain turns right and walks 2 km. In which direction ishe from the starting point?
    • Direction SenseAnswer: South
    • Problem 4A‟s office is situated 5 km North from B‟s office. Bstarts from his office and walks 2 km towards A‟soffice. He then turns right and walks 3 km and thenturns left and walks 3 km. To which direction will heturn to reach A‟s office?
    • Direction SenseAnswer: West Direction
    • Problem 5Pradeep walks 10 metres westward, then turns left andwalks 10 mtrs. He then again turns left and walks 10mtrs. He takes a 45 degree turn rightwards and walksstraight. In which direction is he walking now?
    • Direction SenseAnswer: West
    • Problem 6I am facing east. I turn 100 degree in theclockwise direction and then 145 degree in theanticlockwise direction. Which direction am Ifacing now?
    • Direction SenseAnswer: North - East
    • Problem 7Radha moves towards South east a distance of 7 m, thenshe moves towards west and travels a distance of 14 m.From here, she moves towards North west a distance of7 m and finally she moves a distance of 4 m towardsEast and stood at that point. How far is the starting pointfrom where she stood?
    • Direction SenseAnswer: = 10 metres
    • Problem 8One evening before sunset two friendsSumit and Mohit were talking to eachother face to face. If Mohit‟s shadowwas exactly to his right side, whichdirection was sumit facing?
    • Direction SenseAnswer: South
    • Problem 9If south – east becomes North, North –east becomes West and so on, whatwill West become?
    • Direction SenseAnswer: South - east
    • Problem 10Lokesh‟s school bus is facing North when it reaches hisschool. After starting from Lokesh‟s house, it turns righttwice and then left before reaching the school. Whatdirection was the bus facing when it left the bus stop infront of Lokesh‟s house?
    • Direction SenseAnswer: West
    • Statement logicsAnalysis and interpretation of data in the statementsare necessaryThis helps in inferring the answersTypes: 1) Conclusions 2) Assumptions 3) Arguments
    • Statement-ConclusionsIn question has a statement and two conclusions.Analyse the conclusions and give answers.a) if conclusion 1 followsb) if conclusion 2 followsc) if neither 1 nor 2 follows.d) both 1 and 2 follows
    • Example 1Statement: Quality has a price tag. India is allocating lotof funds for educationConclusions:1)Quality of education in India would improve soon2) Funding alone can enhance Quality of education
    • Example 2Statement: No new taxes are proposed in the revised budget.Conclusions:1)The country has a balanced economy.2) The country has a surplus
    • Example 3Statement: No country is self-sufficient in absolute terms in the present era.Conclusions:1) It is not possible to grow and produce all the things that a country needs.2) Efficiency of people has decreased worldwide.
    • Example 4Creating employment opportunities is the best way tomake people out of poverty in India.Conclusions:1)Unemployment is a cause of poverty in India2) Employment opportunities are few and far in India
    • Example 5It cannot be doneConclusions:1) It is impossible2) We can do nothing
    • Statement- ArgumentsEach questions given below has 1 statement and twoarguments.we should decide which of the arguments isstrongGive answer:a)If only 1 is strongb)If only 2 is strongc)If neither 1 or 2 is strongd)If both 1 and 2 is strong
    • Example 1Should Private sector be permitted to operatetelephone services?Arguments:1)Yes, they are operated in advanced westerncountries2) No, It is risky to put them in private hands
    • Example 2Should the political parties be banned?Arguments:1) Yes, it is necessary to teach a lesson to the politicians2) No, it will lead to an end of democracy
    • Example 3Traditional culture is better than the new culture.Arguments:1) Both have their good points as well as weak points.2) The new culture is ruining society.
    • Example 4Every institution should be state – owned.Arguments:1) It will kill private enthusiasm.2) People will not be serious to work hard.
    • Example 5Should there be one government for the whole world?Arguments:1) Yes, it will lead to a better control of wars in the world.2) No, because the weaker nations will be devoured by the strong nations.
    • Statement- AssumptionsEach question contains 1 statement and 2assumptions. Check the data and answer.Give answer: a) If only 1 implicit b) If only 2 implicit c) Both 1 and 2 implicit d) Neither 1 nor 2 implicit
    • Example 1Statement: The pen is mightier than the swordAssumptions:1) The pen is made up of stronger metal than the sword2) The power of the mind is much stronger than brute physical power
    • Example 2Statement: Go and get the file, an officer ordershis subordinateAssumptions:1) The file is confidential2) The subordinate knows where the file is
    • Example 3Statement: One cant get to the top overnight. Perseverance and patience are required.Assumptions:1) People aim to get to the top.2) Sustained efforts can get one to the top.
    • Example 4Statement: If you are beautiful we will catch your beauty. If you are not beautiful, we will make you look beautiful. -Advertisement of a photo- studioAssumptions:1) People like to be considered beautiful.2) A photograph can make one look beautiful even if the person is not so.
    • Example 5Statement: Happiness is to be shared. Unhappy people suffer.Assumptions:1) Unhappy people share sufferings.2) Happy people do not suffer.