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Advanced Machining Processes - Unconventional Machining Processes
 

Advanced Machining Processes - Unconventional Machining Processes

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Advanced Machining Processes ...

Advanced Machining Processes

Chemical Machining
Electrochemical Machining
Electrical Discharge Machining
Wire EDM
Laser Beam Machining
Electron Beam Machining
Plasma Arc Cutting
Ultrasonic Machining
Water Jet Machining
Abrasive Jet Machining

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    Advanced Machining Processes - Unconventional Machining Processes Advanced Machining Processes - Unconventional Machining Processes Presentation Transcript

    • 1 Principles of Machining Advanced Machining Processes www.mindsover.com
    • 2 Types of Advanced Machining Processes  Chemical Machining  Electrochemical Machining  Electrical Discharge Machining  Wire EDM  Laser Beam Machining  Electron Beam Machining  Plasma Arc Cutting  Ultrasonic Machining  Water Jet Machining  Abrasive Jet Machining www.mindsover.com
    • 3 The Need for Advanced Machining Processes  Traditional machining processes • Material removal by mechanical means, such as chip forming, abrasion, or micro-chipping  Advanced machining processes • Utilize chemical, electrical, and high-energy beams  The following cannot be done by traditional processes: • Workpiece strength and hardness very high, >400HB • Workpiece material too brittle, glass, ceramics, heat-treated alloys • Workpiece too slender and flexible, hard to clamp • Part shape complex, long and small hole • Special surface and dimensional tolerance requirements www.mindsover.com
    • 4 Typical Parts  Skin panel for missiles and aircraft  Turbine blades, nozzles, sheet metal, small-diameter deep holes, dies, thick metallic and nonmetallic parts www.mindsover.com
    • 5 Chemical Machining (Chem Milling)  Chemicals are used to dissolve material  Masks are used to control attack  Most common use is circuit boards and plates for printing (Sunday comics and rotogravure)  Cutting speed of 0.0025-0.1 mm/minute – very slow www.mindsover.com
    • 6 Chemical Machining www.mindsover.com
    • 7 Electrochemical Machining (ECM)  Combines chemical attack and electrical attack  High material removal rate  Masking is used to control attack  Conforming electrodes are to control shape  Commonly used for aircraft parts such as airfoil shapes  Normally followed by abrasive finishing or laser peening to remove partially adhering particles  Works with a wide variety of metals www.mindsover.com
    • 8 Electrochemical Machining www.mindsover.com
    • 9 Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) www.mindsover.com
    • 10 Electrical Discharge Machining  Successive electric arcs melt tiny droplets from surface of workpiece  Frozen droplets must be flushed away  Electrodes are made from graphite, copper or copper-tungsten alloy  Material removed from electrode by arc  Recast layer of approximately 0.001” in depth left on surface  Secondary process such as chemical machining used to remove recast layer www.mindsover.com
    • 11 Wire EDM www.mindsover.com
    • 12 Wire EDM  Uses fine brass wire  Wire is used once  Easily computer controlled  Cutting path must contain straight lines  Slow cutting speed  Wire breakage is a problem  Shallower recast layer than conventional EDM www.mindsover.com
    • 13 Laser Beam Machining www.mindsover.com
    • 14 Laser Beam Machining  Direct laser beam against surface of workpiece, as in laser welding  Successive pulses from laser gun vaporize tiny bits of workpiece  Location of laser beam controlled by computer  Workpiece need not be conductive  Cuts are tapered  Gotta trap overshoot from laser beam www.mindsover.com
    • 15 Laser Beam Machining (cont)  Produces large remelt zone  Can produce holes as small as 0.0002” diameter  Can produce deep holes  Used to produce cooling holes in blades/vanes for jet engines www.mindsover.com
    • 16 Electron Beam Machining  Workpiece placed in vacuum chamber  High-voltage electron beam directed toward workpiece  Energy of electron beam melts/ vaporizes selected region of workpiece  Electron beam moved by deflection coils  Similar process to EB welding www.mindsover.com
    • 17 Electron Beam Machining www.mindsover.com
    • 18 Plasma Arc Cutting  Plasma is a stream of ionized gas  Typical temperatures are very high  Same process as plasma welding, without filler metal  Torch movement controlled by computer  Power requirements depend on material being cut, plus depth of cut  Recast layer is deeper than with other processes www.mindsover.com
    • 19 Ultrasonic Machining  Abrasive slurry flows over top of workpiece (loose particles)  Cutting tool vibrated by ultrasonic energy  Abrasive particles between tool and workpiece do the machining  Works well with hard, brittle workpieces www.mindsover.com
    • 20 Water Jet Machining  Narrow jet of water directed, at high pressure and velocity, against surface of workpiece  Jet of water erodes surface of workpiece, thereby cutting workpiece  Computer control to achieve shape www.mindsover.com
    • 21 Water Jet Machining www.mindsover.com
    • 22 Abrasive Jet Machining (Dry)  Similar to sand blasting, except that a very narrow jet of air/abrasive particles achieves localized cutting  Computer used to position jet www.mindsover.com
    • 23 Abrasive Jet Machining www.mindsover.com
    • 24 Nanofabrication Methods  Typically used in the semiconductor industry  Combines the lithography technique of chemical machining with an atomic force microscope  May incorporate plasma cutting, reduced to nano scale www.mindsover.com
    • 25 Economics of Advanced Machining Processes  High cost of equipment, which typically includes computer control  May use hard tooling, soft tooling, or both  Low production rates  Can be used with difficult-to-machine materials  Highly repeatable  Typically requires highly skilled operators www.mindsover.com
    • 26 Cincinnati Area Advanced Machining Companies  Graphel – Wire EDM and Electrodes  Sermatech-Lehr Precision – Electrochemical Machining  Andrews Laser Works – Laser Cutting, Welding and Drilling  Meyer Tool – Laser Drilling and EDM  Barnes Aerospace – EDM Grinding of Honeycomb  Cincinnati, Inc – Laser and Plasma Arc Machines  Enginetics – EB Welding  Elano – Electrochemical Machining www.mindsover.com