Current Trends & Issues in Healthcare
National Patient Safety Initiatives
Globalization of Health
Legal & Ethical Issues
Professional Roles &
Autonomy & Accountability
Manager/Clinical Decision Maker
Autonomy & Accountability
Autonomy is the essential element of
Person is reasonably independent and self-
governing in decision making & practice
Increased autonomy=Increased responsibility
Accountability- nurse is responsible
professionally & legally for type & quality of care
Regulated through Standards of Practice and
Nurse Practice Act
Clinical Decision Maker
thinking skills and
the nursing process
Nurse protects the clients human and legal
Providing information to assist in decision
Patient Bill of Rights
Assist client to
return to optimal
level of functioning
Nurse helps client to
adapt physically and
changes in lifestyle,
Caring for client as a
Role is traditional to
Care is directed to
whole person, not
just a body part
care and concern
Role is central to all other roles
Involves communication with client, family,
healthcare team members, resource
people, and the community
Without clear, concise communication it will
be difficult to give effective care
Explains concepts and facts about health,
demonstrates procedures, reinforces
learning, determines understanding, and
evaluates progress of learning
Unplanned or informal education
Planned or formal education
Nursing Career Roles
Advanced Practice Nurse
Healthcare Team Members
Therapists and Technicians
Case Manager/Social Worker
ACCREDITATION: Official approval given by an
organization stating that organization (nursing college)
has achieved a required standard.
STANDARD: It is an established norm or requirement. It
usually establishes uniform criteria, methods , processes
INDIAN NURSING COUNCIL
The Indian nursing council is an autonomous body under
the government of India, ministry of Health and Family
welfare was constituted by the central government,
under section 3(1) of the Indian nursing council Act-1947
of parliament in order to establish a uniform standard of
training for nurses, midwives and health visitors.
AIMS,OBJECTIVES AND FUNCTIONS OF INC
To establish and monitor a uniform standard of Nursing
education for nurses, midwives, auxiliary nurse-
midwives and health visitors by doing inspection of
To recognize the qualification under section 10(2) (4) of
the Indian nursing council act 1947 for the purpose of
registration and employment in India and abroad.
To give approval for registration of Indian foreign nurses
possessing foreign qualification under section 11(2)(a) of
the Indian nursing council act 1947.
AIMS,OBJECTIVES AND FUNCTIONS OF INC
To prescribe the syllabus and registration
for nursing programmes.
Power to withdraw the recognition of
qualification under section 14 of the act in
case the institution fails to maintain its
standards under section 14(1)(b) that an
institution recognized by state council for
the training of nurse, midwives or health
visitors does not satisfy the requirement of
1.Regulation of training programme of the
diploma, Graduate and Post Graduate
2. Supervision of the practice of the profession
by its Member.
3. Granting recognition to the training institutions
and periodical Inspection there on, as the
Council is governing authority of physical and
clinical facilities in almost all the nursing
courses conducted in the institution.
4. Proscribing syllabus and curriculum for
various nursing courses and conducting
qualifying examination there for.
5. Registration and granting certificate to
qualified persons to practice their
profession and to watch and take action
against practice of profession by quacks
and check mal-practice as well and to take
TRAINED NURESES ASSOCIATION OF
Establishment and Formation
The Association had its beginning in the
Association of Nursing Superintendents
which was founded in 1905, at Lucknow.
The organisation was composed of nine
European Nurses holding administrative
posts in hospitals.
There was a need to develop Nursing as a
profession and also to provide a forum where
professional Nurses could meet and plan to
achieve these ends.
The movement gathered momentum and soon
Nurses, other than Nursing Superintendents,
were seeking to share in:
upholding in every way the dignity and honour
of the Nursing profession;
promoting a sense of esprit de corps among all
enabling members to take counsel together on
matters relating to their profession.
THE STUDENT NURSES
PURPOSES AND FUNCTIONS
To help students nurses learn how the
professional organizations serve
To promote a close rapport
To furnish student nurses advice in their
coures of study leading up to professional
To encourage leadership ability
To increase the student nurses social
contacts and general knowledge
To encourage both professional and
recreational meeting games and sports
To provide a special section in the nursing
journal of india for the benefit of students
To encourage students to compete for prizes
in the student nurses exihibition and to
attend national and conferences
To help student nurses develop a co
operative spirit with other student nurses
which will help them in future professional
To provide a means of having a voice in
what the association stands for the does
FOR NURSES (I C N)
1. Promote-development strong national
2. Assist national
nurses association- improve the standards
of nursing, competence of nurses.
national nurses associations improve the
FOR NURSES (I C N)
1. Makes policy statements - health and
2. Offers -
variety of seminars
Maintaining and improving the status of
Nursing around the world
1. Promote sharing, better communications
closer relationships- member associations.
2. Expert professional
Ethics is the science relating to moral actions
and one’s value systems.
In a professional practice like nursing, Ethical
decisions is the part of the daily nursing care.
Nursing code of ethics provides the guidelines
for safe and compassionate care.
“Ethics is the study of the good
conduct, character and good
motives. It will also determine what is
good and valuable for nursing”.
Code of ethics: -
An international code of ethics for nurses was
first adopted by the International Council of
Nurses (I C N) in 1953.
Reaffirmed at various times since, most
recently with this review and revision
completed in 2005
In India, nurses are following the International
Council of Nurses Codes for Nurses 1993.
I C N CODE: -
The I C N Code of Ethics for Nurses has
four principal elements
1) Nurses and people,
2) Nurses and practice,
3) Nurses and the profession,
4) Nurses and co-workers.
Veracity refers to telling the truth
It requires the health care provider to tell
the truth & not intentionally deceive or
Fidelity is the duty to keep promises .
It is the individual’s obligation to keep the
commitments he/she has made.
It is the strict observance of promises or duties.
It is the faithfulness to agreements and
responsibilities one has undertaken
It means that information entrusted to professionals
in the line of duty should not be revealed to others.
Share private information on a ‘need to know basis’
In the course of caring for a patient, nurses get to
know many things about that person.
The patient must feel that he or she and the nurse
are in a relationship of trust and confidence for such
information to be shared
“Elevator talk” is the most common spoken breach of
It is the professional obligation to provide
fair, equitable and appropriate treatment to
all individuals regardless of their sex, race,
social class or religion.
Not favouring some individuals/groups over
Acting in a non–discriminatory / non-
Respect for peoples rights
Respect for the law
PURPOSE OF ETHICAL
To establish common ground between
nurse, patient, family, other health care
professionals, and society
To discuss ethical questions and make
To permit people to take a consistent
position on specific or related Issues
To provide an analytical framework by
which moral problems can be evaluated
Ethical principles are rules ,standards or
guidelines for action that are derived from
theoretical propositions about what is good for
Establishes standards for the behavior of nurses
Provides a general guidelines for nursing actions
in ethical dilemmas.
Helps to distinguish between right and wrong at a
Enables to take correct and uniform decision
Helps to protect the rights of individuals
,families ,community and the nurses
Professional Adjustments and Ethics for Nurses in India,
Page no: 232-254.
2. Zerwekh C Laborn,
Nursing Today,Transition and Trends,
Page no: 262-267,401-424.
Leadership and Management,
Page no: 475-476,80,183,376.
Nursing issues in leading and managing change,
Page no: 305-312.
5. Professional Nursing,Concepts and Challenges,
Page no: 393-419.
6. Advanced Nursing Practice,an integrative approach,
Page no: 267-268.
7. Article “Nursing and their professional organisations”
AJN American Journal of Nursing,
April 1946 - Volume 46 - Issue 4 - pages 229-232.
7. Topic Professional Organisations and
Regulatory Bodies at
8. Topic The Current State of Nursing
Empowerment Related to Nursing Care