Perspectives on Quantum Universal PhilosohyPresentation Transcript
On Quantum Universe By ShripadrajMujumdar [Prasanna] What does Quantum Mechanics, Relativity, Strings, Super Symmetry Say?From Newton to Einstein to Stephen Hawking , Roger Penrose, Feynman and Beyond Philosophical Aspects Of Modern Scientific Endeavour Deep Questions Answered ! Deeper Questions Posed !!
Our Objective is to See beyond the boundary & Reach fundamental level What does this offer - Left to individual intellectual experience Probably - Surprise! Daily Trapping in Space and Time Business, Financial, Market , Inflation, Regulation, Relations
What is the physical reality? What is everything made up of? Where do we stand at Cosmic Level? Is it too Big? Too small? How did it all Start ? What laws govern everything? What and How do we perceive? Are there hidden dimensions which we do not see? Do we have any special position in the Universe ?
“Up to now, most scientists have been too occupied with the development of new theories that describe what the universe is to ask the question why. On the other hand, the people whose business it is to ask why, the philosophers, have not been able to keep up with the advance of scientific theories. However, if we do discover a complete theory, it should in time be understandable in broad principle by everyone, not just a few scientists. Then we shall all, philosophers, scientists, and just ordinary people, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we and the universe exist. If we find the answer to that, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason – for then we would know the mind of God.” Stephen Hawking We are at a special moment in our journey to understand the universe and the physical laws that govern it. More than ever before astronomical discoveries are driving the frontiers of fundamental physics, and more than ever before our knowledge of fundamental physics is driving progress in understanding the universe and its contents. -Committee on the Physics of the Universe [ U.S. Gov] The questions are as old as human curiosity. The answers to many have always seemed beyond the reach of science and reasoning. . .until now!
Perspectives Cosmic Vision Our Huge Planet is approx. 10000000000000000000 Times Smaller Than Visible Universe What is our Home Address Really in the whole Universe?
Across Theuniverse very large and possibly infinite in volume; the observable matter is spread over a space at least 93 billion light years across Seen or Perceived Trough Light, Infrared, Microwave Continuously Expanding Universe in ceaseless motion.
Matter -uniformly throughout
smaller length-scales, matter clustered Atoms are condensed into STARS,
Most stars into GALAXIES
Most galaxies into CLUSTERS, SUPER CLUSTERS
the largest-scale structures such as the Great Wall of galaxies.
Isotropically , same content
Bathed in a highly MICROWAVE RADIATION
Creation and Death of Stars Explosions, Supernova, Merging Black Holes and Cosmic Radiation
Inflation (Big Bang plus 10-34 Seconds) Big Bang plus 300,000 Years light Now gravitational waves Big Bang plus 14 Billion Years Space, time, matter-everything originated in the Big Bang, an incommensurably huge explosion that happened 13.7 billion years ago. incredibly hot and dense but only a few moments after, rise to the building blocks of matter – in particular, the quarks and electrons of which we are all made. A few millionths of a second later, quarks aggregated to produce protons and neutrons, which in turn were bundled into nuclei three minutes later. Took 380,000 years for electrons to be trapped in orbits around nuclei, forming the first atoms. Mainly helium and hydrogen, which are still by far the most abundant elements in the Universe. Another 1.6 million years later, gravity began to take control as clouds of gas began to form stars and galaxies. Since then heavier atoms, such as carbon, oxygen and iron, of which we are all made, have been continuously ‘cooked’ in the hearts of the stars and stirred in with the rest of the Universe
an absolute, three-dimensional space,
independent of the material objects
time as a separate dimension which again is absolute and flows at an even rate.
Space Matter Time Mass and Energy Light Motion Its Not correct!! ? -Only Locally/Reference Frame
Governing Theories Einstein changed the way we think of the Universe The Theory of Relativity:
Einstein recognized that temporal specifications, too, are relative and depend on the observer.
In everyday life, the impression that we can arrange the events around us in a unique time sequence is created by the fact that the velocity of light is so high, compared to any other velocity we experience, that we can assume we are observing events at the instant they are occurring
What is true for lengths is also true for time intervals, This means that clocks in motion run slower; time slows down
Time passes more slowly for observers traveling at high speeds or near a massive body.
It is important to realize that it makes no sense to ask which is the ‘real’ length of an object, just as it makes no sense in our everyday life to ask for the real length of somebody’s shadow
Space-time instead of Space & Time – 4 Dimensional
E=mc2 --mass (m) is equivalent to energy (E). The recognition that the two quantities are related was Einstein’s stroke of genius. So your car, and virtually all other activity on Earth, is ultimately powered by E=mc2. Flat sheet like rubber [4D] - with deeps and holes -Due to GRAVITY
an absolute, three-dimensional space,
independent of the material objects
time as a separate dimension which again is absolute and flows at an even rate.
Space Matter Time Mass and Energy Light Motion All Integrated Now Its Universally defined!
Hubble discovered the expanding Universe in 1929 Black holes found in our Galaxy and at the centers of most galaxies over the past three decades Evidence for an accelerating Universe was observed in 1998 Einstein’s “Predictions” Three startling outcomes of Einstein’s general relativity: The expansion of the Universe (from a Big Bang) Black holes A Cosmological Constant acting against the pull of gravity 11
Dark matter, Black Holes-(But Are not so black)
As the star collapses and becomes more and more dense, the force of gravity on its surface becomes stronger and stronger, and consequently the space-time around it becomes more and more curved.
Because of the increasing force of gravity on the star’s surface, it becomes more and more difficult to get away from it, and eventually the star reaches a stage where nothing-not even light-can escape from its surface.
At that stage, we say that an ‘event horizon’ forms around the star, because no signal can get away from it to communicate any event to the outside world.
The space around the star is then so strongly curved that all the light is trapped in it and cannot escape.
We are not able to see such a star, because its light can never reach us and for this reason it is called a black hole
Matter accounts for only a tiny 4% of the entire Universe. In a way, it is not so much the visible things, such as planets and galaxies, that define the Universe, but rather the void around them! Most of the Universe is made up of invisible substances known as'dark matter' (26%) and 'dark energy' (70%). Do not emit electromagnetic radiation, and we detect them only through their gravitational effects. We do not know what 95% of the universe is made of!
We and all things around us are made of atoms? Human Hair ~ 50 mm = 50 10-6 m = 0.000050 m Atom ~ 10-10 m = 0.0000000001 m
Atoms Atoms are all similarly made of: - protons and neutrons in the nucleus - electrons orbiting around proton The electron was the first elementary particle to be discovered (JJ Thomson 1897) Protons,neutrons are made up of quarks electron neutron
From the atom to the quark How small are the smallest constituents of matter?
Quarks are fundamental building blocks of matter. They are most commonly found inside protons and neutrons, the particles that make up the core of each atom in the universe.
<10-18 m Based on current experimental evidence, quarks seem to be truly fundamental particles; they cannot be further subdivided. <10-1 8 m Probing the detailed properties of the top may shed light on the origins of mass itself in the universe. ~ 10-14 m ~ 10-10 m ~ 10-15 m Atoms and sub-atomic particles are much smaller than visible light wave-length Therefore, we cannot really See Them. . To learn about the sub-atomic structure we need particle accelerators
-2/3 +2/3 0 0 ne u ne u +1 -1/3 +1/3 -1 e- d e+ d Anti-matter For every fundamental particle of matter there is an anti-particle with same mass and properties but opposite charge Matter Anti-Matter Bar on top to indicate anti-particle positron
Correspondent anti-particles exist for all three families
Anti-matter can be produced using accelerators
n n Every cm2 of Earth surface is crossed every second by more than 10 billion (1010) neutrinos produced in the Sun 1014 neutrinos per second from Sun are zipping through you Is the whole Universe made only of quarks and electrons? No! There are also neutrinos! Neutrinos are the most abundant matter-particles in the Universe! Neutrinos are everywhere! in the outer space, on Earth, in our bodies.. Within each cm3 of space: ~300 neutrinos from Big Bang 1 cm 1 cm
The 4 forces of Nature Weak
e- e+ creation
weak charge Electric charge Strong
Gravity Responsible of Keeping us well-planted on earth strong charge mass
Yet Many Loose ends Is there no mass?!! The Higgs boson, a fundamental particle predicted by theorist Peter Higgs, may be the key to understanding why elementary particles have mass Higgs proposed that the vacuum contains an omnipresent field that can slow down some (otherwise mass less) elementary particles—like a vat of molasses slowing down a high-speed bullet. Such particles would behave like massive particles traveling at less than light speed. Other particles—such as the photons of light—are immune to the field: they do not slow down and remain mass less. Although the Higgs field is not directly measurable, -particles called Higgs bosons. So far, experiments using the world's most powerful accelerators have not observed any Higgs bosons, but indirect experimental evidence suggests that particle physicists are poised for a profound discovery.
String theory An approach to the construction of a complete unified theory of all fundamental particles and forces. Fundamental constituents of the universe are one-dimensional “strings” rather than point-like particles. What we perceive as particles are actually vibrations in loops of string, each with its own characteristic frequency. String theory originated as an attempt to describe the interactions of particles such as protons six or seven extra dimensions of space, and it contains ways of relating large extra dimensions to small ones. led to the concept of Supersymmetry, which would double the number of elementary particles. Practitioners are optimistic that string theory will eventually make predictions that can be experimentally tested. String theory has already had a big impact on pure mathematics, cosmology and the way particle physicists interpret experiments,.
Supersymmetry A proposed property of the universe. Superpartner. - a heavy replica of a particle, with one other significant difference. All particles are classed as either fermions or bosons. Superpartner - thereby "balancing the books" and making nature symmetric. E.g. the superpartner of an electron (a fermion) is called a selectron (a boson). grand dance of particles through the universe, but we can currently see only one partner from each pair. The unseen particles might be the source of the mysterious "dark matter" in galaxies. Although super partners have not yet been observed in nature, they might soon be produced in particle accelerators on Earth- LHC
Extra Dimensions Extra dimensions sound like science fiction, but they could be part of the real world. And if so, they might help explain mysteries like why the universe is expanding faster than expected, and why gravity is weaker than the other forces of nature. Three dimensions are all we see -- how could there be any more? Einstein's general theory of relativity tells us that space can expand, contract, and bend. If one direction were to contract down to an extremely tiny size, much smaller than an atom, it would be hidden from our view. If we could see on small enough scales, that hidden dimension might become visible. Imagine a balancing act in which a daredevil walks the cable of a suspension bridge, only able to move backward and forward, not left and right, nor up and down. The daredevil experiences only one dimension, but things that live on a smaller scale, such as ants, can move about in an extra dimension -- circularly around the cable, in this analogy. String theory requires the existence of extra dimensions. Perhaps we will be fortunate enough to detect them directly in upcoming experiments, or infer their existence from early-universe cosmology. If so, we will have yet another confirmation of how the universe extends well beyond our everyday experience.
Deeper Questions! 1. What is Dark Matter? 2. What is the Nature of Dark Energy? 3. How Did the Universe Begin? 4. Did Einstein Have the Last Word on Gravity? 5. What are the Masses of the Neutrinos and How Have They Shaped the Evolution of the Universe? 6. How do Cosmic Accelerators Work and What are They Accelerating? 7. Are Protons Unstable? 8. What Are the New States of Matter at Exceedingly High Density and Temperature? 9. Are There Additional Space-Time Dimensions? 10. How Were the Elements from Iron to Uranium Made? 11. Is a New Theory of Light and Matter Needed at the Highest Energies? ? Are there undiscovered principles of nature : New symmetries, new physical laws? How can we solve the mystery of dark energy? Are there extra dimensions of space?Do all the forces become one? Why are there so many kinds of particles? What is dark matter? How can we make it in the laboratory? What are neutrinos telling us? How did the universe come to be? What happened to the antimatter?
The largest machine in the world... The fastest racetrack on the planet... The hottest spots in the galaxy, but even colder than outer space... ALICE ATLAS CMS LHCb TOTEM LHCf We are at a special moment in our journey to understand the universe and the physical laws that govern it -Committee on the Physics of the Universe [ U.S. Gov] The emptiest space in the Solar System... The most powerful supercomputer system in the world...
“Up to now, most scientists have been too occupied with the development of new theories that describe what the universe is to ask the question why. On the other hand, the people whose business it is to ask why, the philosophers, have not been able to keep up with the advance of scientific theories. However, if we do discover a complete theory, it should in time be understandable in broad principle by everyone, not just a few scientists. Then we shall all, philosophers, scientists, and just ordinary people, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we and the universe exist. If we find the answer to that, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason – for then we would know the mind of God.” Stephen Hawking But this is all about Understanding “How” Can someone explain Why the things are -as they are Thank You You can reach me at Shripadraj_Mujumdar@satyam.com