HYDRO POWER PLANT 
BASIC TERMS, TYPES and 
COMPONENTS 
By 
Prasad Vejendla 
Faculty in Mechanical Engineering 
KHIT, Guntu...
TYPES OF POWER HOUSE 
• Surface. 
• Semi Under Ground 
• Under Ground.
SURFACE POWER HOUSE 
• All components of the Hydro power projects are 
on the natural/excavated ground surface. 
Surface p...
Surface Power House
Surface power house 
GENERATOR 
TURBINE 
EOT CRANE
Semi Underground powerhouse 
Some components of the power house are 
underground, while others are on surface. 
The advant...
UNDER GROUND POWER HOUSE 
• Depending on the topography, a power house may 
have to be located inside a mountain. Such a 
...
Contd--- 
• This is very advantages as it overcomes 
the limitations of head available as per 
topography and provide comp...
Under ground power house with tunnels
Salient Features of Uri Project 
(underground power house) 
Under ground power house of – 4 X 120MW. 
HRT - 10.6 km X 9.5m...
All the equipment are placed inside a Cavern 
Underground Chamera HEP
CH PH
CH PH
TYPE OF HYDRO POWER 
PROJECT 
• Multi-purpose Project 
• Purely Hydro-electric Project 
• Run of river project 
• Storage ...
Multi-purpose Project 
Power generation may be one of the 
benefits along with Flood Control, 
Irrigation, Navigation, Dri...
Run of River Project 
• As the name implies, the project is planned as run of 
the river. 
• Water is diverted from the ri...
Storage Project 
• Storage projects provide storage or 
pondage and thereby, evens out stream 
flow fluctuations and enhan...
Pump Storage project 
• Pump storage projects involve reversible turbines, 
which can generate power from water of upper 
...
HYDRO DEVELOPMENT- IMPORTANT 
TERMS 
• FRL (FULL RESERVOIR LEVEL) 
FRL is the Upper level of the reservoir (selected based...
Hydro Development- IMPORTANT TERMS-Cont 
• DEAD STORAGE 
Reservoir storage which cannot be used for generation 
and is lef...
Hydro Development- IMPORTANT 
TERMS- Cont 
• Peak Energy 
Electric energy supplied during periods of relatively high 
syst...
Hydro Development- IMPORTANT TERMS 
Cont 
• CRITICAL PERIOD 
Most critical period with respect to system load 
requirement...
IMPORTANT TERMS HEAD – Cont. 
• Design Head 
The head at which the turbine will operate 
to give the best overall efficien...
Major components of Hydro 
Power Stations 
• Dam/Barrage 
• Water Conductor System 
• Power House
Dam/Barrage 
• Located on rivers, where rock is 
available at larger depth. 
• The dam/ Barrage is used for 
delivering/di...
DAM KURICHU
BARRAGE AT URI
Water Conductor System 
• Water conductor system consists of 
head race tunnel of suitable size. 
• Water conductor system...
Components of Water 
Conductor System 
• Water intake structure 
• Head Race Tunnel 
• Surge shaft ,Pressure shaft ,gates,...
Water Intake Structure 
• It consists of gated structure at the 
dam/Barrage to control the flow of 
water and provided wi...
Surge Shaft 
• Surge shaft is located at the end of 
tunnel . 
• It is a well type structure of suitable 
height and diame...
Penstock Protection Valve 
The Penstock protection valves are 
provided after the surge shaft to facilitate 
maintenance o...
Pressure Shaft 
• When the water conduits in the Surge 
shaft and Main Inlet valve are not exposed 
to the atmosphere and ...
Penstock 
• Penstocks are the water conductor conduit of 
suitable size connecting the surge shaft to main 
inlet valve 
•...
Main Inlet Valve 
• Main inlet valve works as the gate 
valve/isolating valve in the water 
conductor system. 
• It is loc...
BUTTERFLY VALVE
BUTTERFLY VALVE
SPHERICAL VALVE
Components of MIV 
• Spherical valve/Butterfly valve 
• Bypass valve 
• Oil pumping unit 
Spherical valve consist of plate...
Draft Tube 
• Draft tube is located between lower ring of 
turbine and tail race . It conveys water after 
discharge from ...
TTUURRBBIINNEE 
• TTuurrbbiinnee ccoonnvveerrttss ppootteennttiiaall eenneerrggyy ooff wwaatteerr ttoo 
mmeecchhaanniiccaa...
Turbines 
• The hydro project are site specific as such 
the use of standard or off the shelf unit may 
not be possible. T...
X-SECTION THROUGH 
KAPLAN TURBINE
PELTON TURBINE 
Nore Doppel - 
NORWAY
KAPLAN
SPIRAL CASING
CUT SECTION SPIRAL CASING
FRANCIS RUNNER 
AGUS-PHILIPINES
FRANCIS RUNNER LIFTING
FRANCIS RUNNER BEING 
HANDLED BY EOT CRANE
GGEENNEERRAATTOORR 
• HHyyddrroo ggeenneerraattoorr iiss ccoouupplleedd ttoo tthhee ttuurrbbiinnee aanndd ccoonnvveerrttss...
UMBRELLA TYPE GENERATOR 
• COMBINED 
LOWER 
THRUST & 
GUIDE 
BEARING
SUSPENDED TYPE GENERATOR 
• UPPER 
THRUST 
BEARING -1 
• UPPER GUIDE 
BEARING -1 
• LOWER GUIDE 
BEARING -1
GEN SEC
STATOR SEGMENT
ROTOR
GGOOVVEERRNNOORR 
• UUsseedd ffoorr ccoonnttrroolllliinngg tthhee gguuiiddee vvaanneess bbyy 
ddeetteeccttiinngg ttuurrbbi...
GOVERNOR 
• The hydraulic turbine governor 
is equipment for controlling the 
guide vanes by detecting turbine 
speed and ...
Thank You
1.What are the component of water 
conductor system 
Ans:Intake structure, Head race tunnel, 
Surge shaft,Penestock, MIV,D...
6.Dewatering system is used to dewater the 
draft tube and other turbine component 
(yes/no) 
7. Surge Shaft is used contr...
• What are the main component on turbine? 
• Why single phase transformers are 
preferred in hydro power plant? 
• Sulfer ...
Basics of  Hydro power plant
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Basics of Hydro power plant

  1. 1. HYDRO POWER PLANT BASIC TERMS, TYPES and COMPONENTS By Prasad Vejendla Faculty in Mechanical Engineering KHIT, Guntur 03.09.2012
  2. 2. TYPES OF POWER HOUSE • Surface. • Semi Under Ground • Under Ground.
  3. 3. SURFACE POWER HOUSE • All components of the Hydro power projects are on the natural/excavated ground surface. Surface power house has the advantage of pre-determined topography ,design and is easy to construct. However, these have the disadvantage of limitation of head available as per the topography. • In such projects the water inlet to the machines could be from a penstock or from a tunnel terminating into a penstock. The water outlet goes into a tail race. • If the power house is located just adjacent to the Dam then it is sometimes called a Dam-toe power house.
  4. 4. Surface Power House
  5. 5. Surface power house GENERATOR TURBINE EOT CRANE
  6. 6. Semi Underground powerhouse Some components of the power house are underground, while others are on surface. The advantages of both surface & underground are clubbed together in a semi-underground powerhouse, provided topography & geology so permit.
  7. 7. UNDER GROUND POWER HOUSE • Depending on the topography, a power house may have to be located inside a mountain. Such a power house is called an under ground power house. • In such power houses the complete power house equipment are located inside Cavern. In such power houses various tunnels such as Head race tunnel for the water inflow to the turbine, Tail race tunnel for water out flow of the turbine and various access tunnel have to be provided inside the hill/mountain. • Such power houses take greater amount of time and capital cost to construct.
  8. 8. Contd--- • This is very advantages as it overcomes the limitations of head available as per topography and provide compact and economical layout. • This requires less land and consequently reduce rehabilitation and resettlement problems(R&R). However, this has the disadvantages of geological uncertainties resulting into indeterminate design and construction problems leading to time and cost over runs
  9. 9. Under ground power house with tunnels
  10. 10. Salient Features of Uri Project (underground power house) Under ground power house of – 4 X 120MW. HRT - 10.6 km X 9.5m dia. Horse shoe Concrete lined TRT - 2.2 km X 9.5m dia Horse shoe Concrete lined Surge Shaft - 22m circular X 90m depth Adits- 4Nos Total1.7km X 6m modified shoe Adits- 6-TRT .471km X 6.5 X 7m modified shoe Main Access -- .630km tunnel Total Tunneling- 19.34km Machine Hall- 127mLx22mBx28mH
  11. 11. All the equipment are placed inside a Cavern Underground Chamera HEP
  12. 12. CH PH
  13. 13. CH PH
  14. 14. TYPE OF HYDRO POWER PROJECT • Multi-purpose Project • Purely Hydro-electric Project • Run of river project • Storage Project • Pump Storage project
  15. 15. Multi-purpose Project Power generation may be one of the benefits along with Flood Control, Irrigation, Navigation, Drinking Water Supply etc. Purely Hydro-electric Project Project is conceived exclusively for power generation.
  16. 16. Run of River Project • As the name implies, the project is planned as run of the river. • Water is diverted from the river, routed through the water conductor system and finally water after generation of power is thrown back to the river at a lower level on down stream. • It takes advantage of the drop in elevation that occurs over a distance in the river and does not involve water storage. • Power generation fluctuates with the river flow and the firm power is considerably low, as it depends on the minimum mean discharge. • Canal power projects are also run-of-river projects.
  17. 17. Storage Project • Storage projects provide storage or pondage and thereby, evens out stream flow fluctuations and enhances the water head. • It increases firm power and total power generation by regulating the flow. • Providing storage is complicated and costly as it involves construction of dam.
  18. 18. Pump Storage project • Pump storage projects involve reversible turbines, which can generate power from water of upper reservoir during peak hours and pump back water from lower reservoir to the upper reservoir during off peak hours. • These projects are advantageous in power system of mix type, which have thermal and nuclear power houses in addition to hydro power projects. • Pump storage project utilizes the off peak surplus power of the grid in lifting the water from lower reservoir to higher reservoir and generates power during peak hours thus flattening the load curve.
  19. 19. HYDRO DEVELOPMENT- IMPORTANT TERMS • FRL (FULL RESERVOIR LEVEL) FRL is the Upper level of the reservoir (selected based on techno-economic& submergence considerations) • MDDL (MINIMUM DRAWDOWN LEVEL) Lowest level up to which the reservoir level could be drawn down to withdraw waters for energy generation (selected from considerations of silt & turbine operational limits) • GROSS STORAGE Total storage capacity of the reservoir
  20. 20. Hydro Development- IMPORTANT TERMS-Cont • DEAD STORAGE Reservoir storage which cannot be used for generation and is left for silt deposition( below MDDL) • LIVE STORAGE The storage in the reservoir which is available for power generation (between FRL & MDDL) • FIRM POWER Continuous power output in the entire period of hydrological data at 90% dependability • FIRM ENERGY Energy generated corresponding to firm power
  21. 21. Hydro Development- IMPORTANT TERMS- Cont • Peak Energy Electric energy supplied during periods of relatively high system demands. • Off-peak Energy Electric energy supplied during periods of relatively low system demands. • Load Factor Ratio of the average load over a designated period to the peak-load occurring in that period • DIURNAL STORAGE Storage required to meet daily variations in load demand. It depends upon the minimum flows and peak discharges.
  22. 22. Hydro Development- IMPORTANT TERMS Cont • CRITICAL PERIOD Most critical period with respect to system load requirements, begins when reservoir begins delivering water for generation from full i.e the available storage is fully drafted at one point during the period; and the critical period ends when the storage has completely refilled. • CRITICAL DRAW DOWN PERIOD That portion of the critical period in which reservoir live storage is completely drafted while meeting firm energy requirements
  23. 23. IMPORTANT TERMS HEAD – Cont. • Design Head The head at which the turbine will operate to give the best overall efficiency under various operating conditions. • Gross Head The difference of elevations between water surfaces of the forebay/ dam and tailrace under specified conditions. • • Net Head The gross head chargeable to the turbine less all hydraulic losses in water conductor system.
  24. 24. Major components of Hydro Power Stations • Dam/Barrage • Water Conductor System • Power House
  25. 25. Dam/Barrage • Located on rivers, where rock is available at larger depth. • The dam/ Barrage is used for delivering/diverting the water to the water conductor system. • The barrage is used to regulate the water for power generation.
  26. 26. DAM KURICHU
  27. 27. BARRAGE AT URI
  28. 28. Water Conductor System • Water conductor system consists of head race tunnel of suitable size. • Water conductor system may consist of tunnel, channel, cut and cover as per the topography involved. • At end of tunnel there is surge shaft. • The water conductor system conveys water to penstock.
  29. 29. Components of Water Conductor System • Water intake structure • Head Race Tunnel • Surge shaft ,Pressure shaft ,gates, gates and hoisting mechanism • Penstock Protection Valve • Penstock • Main inlet Valve • Tail Race Tunnel
  30. 30. Water Intake Structure • It consists of gated structure at the dam/Barrage to control the flow of water and provided with gates along with hoisting arrangement. • Normally these gates remain open and allows water to flow to the tunnel /channel as the case may be until and unless water conductor system is taken under shut down for repair and maintenance.
  31. 31. Surge Shaft • Surge shaft is located at the end of tunnel . • It is a well type structure of suitable height and diameter to absorb the upcoming and lowering surges in case of tripping and starting of the machine in the power house. • The surge shaft is provided with gates to stop flow of water to the penstock if repairs are to be carried out in the penstock or inlet valves.
  32. 32. Penstock Protection Valve The Penstock protection valves are provided after the surge shaft to facilitate maintenance of the penstocks. The valves are of butterfly type. The BF valve are operated hydraulically with provision of pressure accumulators in case of power failure.
  33. 33. Pressure Shaft • When the water conduits in the Surge shaft and Main Inlet valve are not exposed to the atmosphere and buried in the ground/concrete due to its high pressure, these are called Pressure shaft.
  34. 34. Penstock • Penstocks are the water conductor conduit of suitable size connecting the surge shaft to main inlet valve • It allows water to the turbine through main inlet valve. • At the end of the penstock a drainage valve is provided which drains water from penstock to the draft tube. • In case of long penstock and high head, butterfly valve is provided just before the penstock. • It takes off from the surge shaft in addition to spherical valve at the end of the penstock acting as the main inlet valve.
  35. 35. Main Inlet Valve • Main inlet valve works as the gate valve/isolating valve in the water conductor system. • It is located before turbine and allows water flow from penstock to turbine. • MIV acts as closing valve and cuts the flow of water during an emergency trip. • They are of following type. • Butterfly valve (upto 200 m head) • Spherical valve (more than200m head)
  36. 36. BUTTERFLY VALVE
  37. 37. BUTTERFLY VALVE
  38. 38. SPHERICAL VALVE
  39. 39. Components of MIV • Spherical valve/Butterfly valve • Bypass valve • Oil pumping unit Spherical valve consist of plate which is in line with the flow of water when in open condition and in totally vertical direction when in closed position. Bypass valve acts as a means to charge the spherical valve and balance the pressure on either side of valve I,e penstock and turbine Oil pumping unit is used to pump the oil to operate the valve.
  40. 40. Draft Tube • Draft tube is located between lower ring of turbine and tail race . It conveys water after discharge from runner to tail race tunnel. • Draft tube (DT) gates are provided for isolating the Power house and tail pool before taking maintenance of the turbine. • The DT gates are provided with hoisting mechanism. • The DT gate may be a single piece or a combination of more than one piece
  41. 41. TTUURRBBIINNEE • TTuurrbbiinnee ccoonnvveerrttss ppootteennttiiaall eenneerrggyy ooff wwaatteerr ttoo mmeecchhaanniiccaall eenneerrggyy aanndd ttrraannssmmiittss iitt ttoo tthhee ggeenneerraattoorr.. • TTuurrbbiinneess ccaann bbee ooff:: • KKaappllaann ttyyppee • FFrraanncciiss ttyyppee • PPeellttoonn ttyyppee • BBuullbb ttyyppee • MMaaiinn ccoommppoonneennttss ooff tthhee ttuurrbbiinnee iinncclluuddee:: • Runner • Labyrinths • Shaft Seal • Guide Bearing • Top Cover • Lower Ring • Guide Vanes
  42. 42. Turbines • The hydro project are site specific as such the use of standard or off the shelf unit may not be possible. The selection of type of turbine is made on the basis of “Head”. The broad classification is given below. • Low head(upto60 m)– Kaplan Turbine • Medium head(30to600m)—Francis Turbine • High head (more than300m) Pelton
  43. 43. X-SECTION THROUGH KAPLAN TURBINE
  44. 44. PELTON TURBINE Nore Doppel - NORWAY
  45. 45. KAPLAN
  46. 46. SPIRAL CASING
  47. 47. CUT SECTION SPIRAL CASING
  48. 48. FRANCIS RUNNER AGUS-PHILIPINES
  49. 49. FRANCIS RUNNER LIFTING
  50. 50. FRANCIS RUNNER BEING HANDLED BY EOT CRANE
  51. 51. GGEENNEERRAATTOORR • HHyyddrroo ggeenneerraattoorr iiss ccoouupplleedd ttoo tthhee ttuurrbbiinnee aanndd ccoonnvveerrttss tthhee mmeecchhaanniiccaall eenneerrggyy ttrraannssmmiitttteedd bbyy tthhee ttuurrbbiinnee ttoo eelleeccttrriiccaall eenneerrggyy • GGeenneerraattoorrss ccaann bbee ooff:: • SSuussppeennddeedd ttyyppee • UUmmbbrreellllaa ttyyppee • MMaaiinn GGeenneerraattoorr ccoommppoonneennttss iinncclluuddee:: • SSttaattoorr • RRoottoorr • UUppppeerr BBrraacckkeett • LLoowweerr BBrraacckkeett • TThhrruusstt BBeeaarriinngg && GGuuiiddee BBeeaarriinnggss • SSlliipp RRiinngg && BBrruusshh AAsssseemmbbllyy • AAiirr CCoooolleerrss • BBrraakkeess && JJaacckkss • SSttaattoorr HHeeaatteerrss
  52. 52. UMBRELLA TYPE GENERATOR • COMBINED LOWER THRUST & GUIDE BEARING
  53. 53. SUSPENDED TYPE GENERATOR • UPPER THRUST BEARING -1 • UPPER GUIDE BEARING -1 • LOWER GUIDE BEARING -1
  54. 54. GEN SEC
  55. 55. STATOR SEGMENT
  56. 56. ROTOR
  57. 57. GGOOVVEERRNNOORR • UUsseedd ffoorr ccoonnttrroolllliinngg tthhee gguuiiddee vvaanneess bbyy ddeetteeccttiinngg ttuurrbbiinnee ssppeeeedd && iittss gguuiiddee vvaannee ooppeenniinngg iinn oorrddeerr ttoo kkeeeepp ttuurrbbiinnee ssppeeeedd ssttaabbllee oorr ttoo rreegguullaattee iittss oouuttppuutt.. • TThhee ppeerrffoorrmmaannccee ooff tthhee ggoovveerrnnoorr ddoommiinnaatteess tthhee ccoonnttrroollllaabbiilliittyy ooff tthhee ppoowweerr ppllaanntt aanndd qquuaalliittyy ooff eelleeccttrriiccaall ppoowweerr pprroodduucceedd ..
  58. 58. GOVERNOR • The hydraulic turbine governor is equipment for controlling the guide vanes by detecting turbine speed and its guide vane opening in order to keep the turbine speed stable or to regulate it's output • Governors are provided with the following features;  Quick Response and Stable Control  Guide Vane Opening Detection with High Accuracy  Speed Detection with High Accuracy  High Reliability  Easy Maintenance
  59. 59. Thank You
  60. 60. 1.What are the component of water conductor system Ans:Intake structure, Head race tunnel, Surge shaft,Penestock, MIV,Draft tube and Tail RaceTunnel 2.True/falls MDDL-Minimum draw down level(yes/no) 3.FRL- Full reservoir level (yes/no) 4.RUN OF RIVER have pondage (yes/no) 5. Pumped storage scheme are generally used for peaking power (yes/no)
  61. 61. 6.Dewatering system is used to dewater the draft tube and other turbine component (yes/no) 7. Surge Shaft is used control upsurge/lower Surge in the hydro power station (yes/no) 8.Under ground power station is installed w here there is scarcity of land(yes/no) 9.GIS stands for Gas insulated Switchgear (yes/no) 10.What are advantages of GIS over Conventional switchgear.
  62. 62. • What are the main component on turbine? • Why single phase transformers are preferred in hydro power plant? • Sulfer Hexafluoride gas(SF6) is used in GIS. (yes/no) • Rotor is the heaviest part of hydro generating machine.(yes/no)
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