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Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
Agile series - About Lean
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Agile series - About Lean

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This presentation is part of the series of Agile presentations shared as part of the Agile training, workshops and coaching. Focus is on providing wholesome information about using Agile beyond the …

This presentation is part of the series of Agile presentations shared as part of the Agile training, workshops and coaching. Focus is on providing wholesome information about using Agile beyond the skeleton frameworks.

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  • 1. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners.Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Lean Development Speed, Scale, Skills, Simplicity http://www.flowcracker.com 1
  • 2. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Principle Consultant – Durgaprasad B. R 2  Durgaprasad B. R  20+ Years of IT experience  B. E (E & C), Alumni of IIM,Bangalore  Certifications  PMI-PMP, PMI-ACP  SCP from Scaled Agile Academy  Durgaprasad B. R  20+ Years of IT experience  B. E (E & C), Alumni of IIM,Bangalore  Certifications  PMI-PMP, PMI-ACP  SCP from Scaled Agile Academy  Developer, Project/Program Manager, Location Delivery Head, Agile Coach  Industries: Telecom, Healthcare, Consumer Electronics, Automotive  Past few Clients: Avaya, Nortel, ALU, Microsoft, Qualcomm, Intel, Toshiba, Continental  Technologies: Web Technologies, Embedded, Legacy large systems  Developer, Project/Program Manager, Location Delivery Head, Agile Coach  Industries: Telecom, Healthcare, Consumer Electronics, Automotive  Past few Clients: Avaya, Nortel, ALU, Microsoft, Qualcomm, Intel, Toshiba, Continental  Technologies: Web Technologies, Embedded, Legacy large systems  Led large Telecom programs, IP Switches, Voice Messaging System, Contact Center, Consumer Electronics products, Automotive product development  Well versed in new age technologies as well as sun- set technologies  Trained and coached individuals and teams on Agile, Kanban, Scrum and SAFe methodologies  Regular public workshops on PMP, ACP and SAFe Certifications  Led large Telecom programs, IP Switches, Voice Messaging System, Contact Center, Consumer Electronics products, Automotive product development  Well versed in new age technologies as well as sun- set technologies  Trained and coached individuals and teams on Agile, Kanban, Scrum and SAFe methodologies  Regular public workshops on PMP, ACP and SAFe Certifications http://www.flowcracker.in/about-durgaprasad-b-r/ Contact: prasadbr@flowcracker.com. Cell: 9845558474
  • 3. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Lean Development Toward being SAFe™ Agile Scrum Kanban XP – Extreme Programming
  • 4. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. THE OATH OF NON-ALLEGIANCE I promise not to exclude from consideration any idea based on its source, but to consider ideas across schools and heritages in order to find the ones that best suit the current situation. - DURGAPRASADhttp://oathofnonallegiance.com/
  • 5. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Lean Development Toward being SAFe™ Agile Scrum Kanban XP – Extreme Programming
  • 6. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Background Toyota Production System/ Lean AgileManufacturing History
  • 7. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Manufacturing History Craft Production Mass Production Lean Production Lean avoids the high cost of craft and rigidity of the mass manufacturing Uses multiskilled workers. Uses highly flexible, increasingly automated machines to produce volumes of products in enormous variety Lean : Because it uses less of everything compared with mass production Quality goal : Perfection Use narrowly skilled professionals Focus on high volume, standardized products Maintain standard design in production Add extra buffer, workers, space to ensure FLOW Employees find work methods, boring and despirting Consumer gets lower cost at the expense of variety Quality goal: “good enough” After WW-1, Henry Ford & Alfred Sloan (GM), moved world manufacture from craft production led by Europeans into the age of mass production Post WW-II, Eji Toyoda and Taiichi Ohno of Toyota, pioneered the concept of Lean production.
  • 8. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Manufacturing History Armour Meat processing plant Early 1900’s Principle - moving products & Stationary workers Ford’s highland park plan by Albert Kahn 1910+ Reduced assembly time for Model T from 728 minutes to 93 minutes Toyota – Motomachi Plant (Japan) 1950+ Toyota Production System – elimination of waste
  • 9. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Lean Thinking Vs. Traditional Thinking • Traditional Thinking – Focus on maximum Utilization of resources • Lean Thinking – Watch the baton, not the runners
  • 10. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Background Toyota Production System/ Lean AgileManufacturing History
  • 11. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Toyota Production System “Only after American carmakers had exhausted every other explanation for Toyota’s success, including better suppliers, cheaper labor, a heavier investment in robots etc., did they finally acknowledge that the true differentiator lay in harnessing the intellect of ordinary employees ” - Mary Poppendick (Lean Software Development)
  • 12. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. About Toyota • Started in 1937, by Toyota family as textile loom manufacturer • In 1950, Eji Toyoda & Taiichi Ohno visited Fords Detroit plant for 3 months • They realized the whole plant was filled with waste – TIMWOOD • Ohno thought assembly workers could do most of the work done by specialists better because of their familiarity with ground situation • Domestic market was tiny, needed variety and was just recovering from war • Toyota had to guarantee its employee in labor settlement • Life time employment • Pay steeply graded by seniority (than productivity) (i.e. employees became members of Toyota community with lifetime employment and Toyota facilities – housing, recreation) • Taiichi Ohno, realized that with this settlement, the work force was not a variable cost but a significant fixed cost. • Toyota to get the best out of this human talents, had to continuously enhance workers skills to gain the benefit of knowledge and experience
  • 13. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. TPS - Timelines 1950’s • Elimination of waste concept, • Reduction in WIP inventory, • Line stop authority to Workers 1960’s • Visual controls/4S, Creative suggestion system, • reduction of batch size and change over time, • kanban implementation, production leveling mixed assembly 1970’s • Pull system, • Kanban implementation company wide, • Average die change time reduced to < 15 minutes 1980’s • US study missions to Toyota to see TPS. • After the oil shock of 1975-77, Toyota profit kept rising and the gap between Toyota and others increased. With this Toyota Production system started drawing attention
  • 14. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Toyota Production http://www.vision-lean.com/lean- manufacturing-in-action/heijunka-flexible- production/ 1. Heijunka on line (Load Balancing) e.g. 2 People carriers, 1 two door, 1 saloon car, 2 people carriers, 1 two door, 1 saloon car 2. Lightened logisitcs, small trains, setting up flows 3. Small Containers, less stock 4. Line side compression (reduced line spaces increases value add), concentration on value add, reduced muda 5. Heijunka flexible multi-product line, better use of production resources 6. Operators creating value
  • 15. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. TPS – Lean Thinking House
  • 16. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. What is Lean? An business management approach that focuses on delivering customer value and creating wealth, through creating products, improving process and developing people while consuming fewest possible resources * Lean goes beyond just process improvement, hence it is a business management approach 16
  • 17. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Lean Thinking • Focus is more on output (value/throughput/cycle time – baton) than the utilization of worker (cost – runner) • Focus on cost results in local optimization at the expense of overall system cycle time resulting in waste/inventory • WIP waste needs time & money resulting in low ROI • High WIP affects our ability to respond to changes
  • 18. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Basics of Lean thinking Key concepts from • Queue Management • Variability and Predictability • Theory of constraints • Ensuring smooth FLOW
  • 19. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Basic Characteristic of Systems • Every system has a Bottleneck • Bottleneck is formed when demand for a service exceeds the capacity to serve it, thus resulting in Queues • Throughput of the system is dependent on the throughput of the bottleneck • For maximum output, the system should keep the bottleneck working at 100% capacity with little or no defects • Non bottleneck processes will be working at 100% capacity, so as not to burden the bottleneck with large number of batches of WIP This is typical characteristic of systems – factory, hospital, software, hotel etc.
  • 20. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Why Queue Management ? • Any process involves activities, handoffs, interaction and waiting time which results in Queue • These Queues are not visible. They manifest as cycle time and wastes (inventory) • Costs increase due to inventory handling, task switching overheads, cost of delay, managing and tracking WIP items, etc. • Knowledge of Queue Management and Psychology of Queues help to understand the impact on customer experience • Managing queues helps in – Better customer experience – Understanding delays – Improve processes, eliminate wastes and reduce costs
  • 21. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Psychology of Queues • Unoccupied time feels longer than occupied time – Once customer requirement is known, deliver it ASAP, before they change their mind – Do not record all customer needs upfront. Record only the “next” most important ones • Pre-process waits feel longer than in-process waits • Anxiety makes wait look longer • Uncertain waits seem longer than known, finite waits – Be transparent and keep customers updated on the WIP and expected end date for the most important ones to the customer • The more valuable the service, the longer the customer is willing to wait – Focus on the most valuable work item to keep the customer engaged • Solo waits feel longer than group waits – Keep the cycle time constant across wait requests. Variability in servicing the requests will make some happy, but many others unhappy – Reduce variability and improve predictability
  • 22. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Queuing Theory • Clearing the queue takes longer than making it • Mismatch in rate of arrival & processing, creates queue • Processing time is non linear with arrival rate • Cycle time increases with resource utilization – E.g. Cycle time may be lowest < 50% utilization, start increasing at > 50% and increases non- linearly before it reaches 100% The focus on managing queues should be on improving the output, than utilization of the workers/resources (hence watch the baton and not the runner)
  • 23. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Variability and Predictability • The cycle time of processing a work item varies based on multiple factors, such as • Size of the work items • Arrival rate of work item into the queue • Processing time of the work items • Containing the variability of the system is important to maintain a predictable output (cadence) and ensure smooth flow • Steps to reduce variability and improve predictability • Maintain work item sizes which are small and similar in size • Split larger batches into small and similar size work items • Build in safety buffer before the bottleneck, to absorb the variable inflow, to ensure 100% usage of the bottleneck
  • 24. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. About Theory of Constraints • Theory of constraints deals with bottlenecks (constraint), cycle time, batch size and queues • Based on the premise that “There is atleast one primary constraint (bottleneck) that limits the throughput or performance of the system” • Constraint may be “physical constraint”, “skills” or “policy” • To improve the process ‘Focus on reducing/eliminating the primary constraint till it is no more a primary constraint. Then find the next primary constraint and repeat the process.” • Improving performance of the non-primary constraint does not improve the overall system performance. The chain is no stronger than its weakest link
  • 25. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Ensuring Smooth FLOW Lean implementation is about ensuring FLOW
  • 26. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Ensuring Smooth FLOW • Eliminate queue in between process steps • Use automation tools, cross skilled team instead of specialists, reduce batch size • Eliminate multi tasking • Avoid working on multiple work items simultaneously • Reduce variability and improve predictability • Reduce batch sizes and equal/similar sized batches • Average cycle time improves when batch sizes are small and of similar size • Make hidden queues in the process visible and make the bottlenecks explicit, which then needs to be fixed
  • 27. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Ensuring Smooth FLOW • FLOW can be improved by Developing Skills and Challenging them (Continuous Improvement) • Challenging people leads to engagement which in turns results removing distractions • However, – Challenging without skill development leads to anxiety – Developing skills without challenge leads to boredom
  • 28. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Background Toyota Production System/ Lean AgileManufacturing History
  • 29. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. How Software is different ? • Normally built on-time, on budget and do not fall down Reasons: • Extreme design details • Design frozen. Contractors have no flexibility to change specification • When a bridge falls, it is investigated and failure are studied • Software never comes on-time, on-budget and always breaks down Reasons: • Changing business environment, does not allow to freeze design • Failures are covered up, ignored or reasoned out • Same mistakes are repeated over and over again Bridge Construction Software Development Though different, we use same project management methodology (waterfall’ish). Hence the high rate of failure.
  • 30. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Which Process ? “Ad-hoc” process • Most common process • “Just do it” type, common process • Not Chaotic, but not consistent • Ideal for spikes, prototypes, POC’s “Defined” Process • Factory model - One size fits all type • Execution of defined activities • Management by controlling activities to confirm to plan • Approval for every deliverable before starting next step • Change not encouraged Adaptive Processes • Goal based, we know what we want to achieve • But don’t know what steps we will exactly follow to reach there • Customer know something but not everything about what they need • Management by retrospection, learning, adoption, trial and error • Be ready to accept change as both customer and team improve their product and process knowledge as the project evolves
  • 31. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Things To Know • Lean – manufacturing developed by Toyota between 1950’s & 80’s • Developed by – Taiichi Ohno @ Toyota • Lean - reason for Toyota’s consistent success in a stagnant industry • Initial Agile enthusiasts were inspired by lean manufacturing. • Mary Poppendick (Manufacturing) and her husband Tom Poppendick (software developer) mapped Lean principles to Software developments in their books • Lean Software Development term usually refers to contents of these books • Both Mary & Tom are founding members of Agile Alliance • Lean Software Development contains broad set of Lean Principles applied to software industry. You don’t do Agile or Lean. You do both !!!
  • 32. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Things To Know • Both Lean Software Development and Agile have similar viewpoint – emphasize on people involvement and value driven processes • Many Lean manufacturing tools and leadership practices are sill being inherited and helping Agile grow • Lean concepts like treating unfinished work (code, documents) as inventory, reducing cycle time are being adopted into the software world • Understanding Agile based on Lean helps develop Agile mindset. This helps to continuously improve Agile process and develop people
  • 33. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners.Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Flow Cracker #7, 3rd Floor, Srishti Building, 8th Main, Basaveshwar Nagar, Bangalore - 560079 Email : prasadbr@flowcracker.com Or contactus@flowcracker.com Cell: +91 984 555 8474 Thank You 33

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