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Agile series - Kanban
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Agile series - Kanban

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This presentation is part of the series of Agile presentations shared as part of the Agile training, workshops and coaching. Focus is on providing wholesome information about using Agile beyond the …

This presentation is part of the series of Agile presentations shared as part of the Agile training, workshops and coaching. Focus is on providing wholesome information about using Agile beyond the skeleton frameworks.

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  • 1. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners.Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Kanban Speed, Scale, Skills, Simplicity http://www.flowcracker.com 1
  • 2. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Principle Consultant – Durgaprasad B. R 2  Durgaprasad B. R  20+ Years of IT experience  B. E (E & C), Alumni of IIM,Bangalore  Certifications  PMI-PMP, PMI-ACP  SCP from Scaled Agile Academy  Durgaprasad B. R  20+ Years of IT experience  B. E (E & C), Alumni of IIM,Bangalore  Certifications  PMI-PMP, PMI-ACP  SCP from Scaled Agile Academy  Developer, Project/Program Manager, Location Delivery Head, Agile Coach  Industries: Telecom, Healthcare, Consumer Electronics, Automotive  Past few Clients: Avaya, Nortel, ALU, Microsoft, Qualcomm, Intel, Toshiba, Continental  Technologies: Web Technologies, Embedded, Legacy large systems  Developer, Project/Program Manager, Location Delivery Head, Agile Coach  Industries: Telecom, Healthcare, Consumer Electronics, Automotive  Past few Clients: Avaya, Nortel, ALU, Microsoft, Qualcomm, Intel, Toshiba, Continental  Technologies: Web Technologies, Embedded, Legacy large systems  Led large Telecom programs, IP Switches, Voice Messaging System, Contact Center, Consumer Electronics products, Automotive product development  Well versed in new age technologies as well as sun- set technologies  Trained and coached individuals and teams on Agile, Kanban, Scrum and SAFe methodologies  Regular public workshops on PMP, ACP and SAFe Certifications  Led large Telecom programs, IP Switches, Voice Messaging System, Contact Center, Consumer Electronics products, Automotive product development  Well versed in new age technologies as well as sun- set technologies  Trained and coached individuals and teams on Agile, Kanban, Scrum and SAFe methodologies  Regular public workshops on PMP, ACP and SAFe Certifications http://www.flowcracker.in/about-durgaprasad-b-r/ Contact: prasadbr@flowcracker.com. Cell: 9845558474
  • 3. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Change management process Kanban is a change management process/approach that can be applied to any existing process.
  • 4. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Why Kanban ? • Increases visibility of the project flow to everyone in the team and management • Allows the team to deliver product/services faster and better quality due to WIP limits • Makes hidden problems visible and makes it everyone’s (team) problem to be addressed • Removes waste, reduces effort & brings focus • Limiting the WIP, connects the disconnected process. Connected processes makes the problems visible. Alongside streamlining the process, the changes achieved are sustainable in nature.
  • 5. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Kanban Foundation Principle 1. Start with what you know 2. Agree to pursue incremental, evolutionary change 3. Respect current process, role, responsibilities and titles
  • 6. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Kanban Core Practices 1. Visualize 2. Limit WIP 3. Manage Flow 4. Make Process policies explicit 5. Implement feedback loop 6. Improve Collaboratively Shallow implementation Deep implementation
  • 7. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Visualize 1. Workitem Identification / Kanban Cards 2. Value Stream Mapping 3. Kanban Board/Wall Features Spike Bugs User Stories Quality Requests
  • 8. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Workitem types Features Spike Bugs User Stories Quality Requests •Work item types can be different in different work contexts •Work item may have different workflow steps, hence different VSM •Each work item will have a kanban card and of different colors •If the workitem is large and can be split independently, teams should do so, to improve the flow
  • 9. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Kanban Cards • Can add additional data like • Unique ID number • Short Description • Detailed description • Priority : High, Medium, Low • Initial Estimate • Updated Estimate • Acceptance test cases • Requested By • Assigned To • Notes • Capture more date related info as card moves from left to right at each column. • Avatars - Identification (thumnail picture/icon) for team members on the card to indicate assigned to Service Contracts Notify all Service Contract renewals before a pre- configured date (e.g. 15 days) Dates: Request Start Delivered 01/10/2013 14/10/2013 17/10/2013 Cycle Time = Delivery date – Start date Lead time = Delivery date – request date Sample Kanban Card
  • 10. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Kanban Cards • Kanban cards can contain the following (but not limited to) information: • Feature / User story details • Data to collect Metrics • Project teams can define their own kanban cards. No standards exist for the card size, information collected etc. • User story cards, feature cards, epic card format used in Scrum can also be used in Kanban • Teams can use different colors to indicate priority or activity type or class of service or assigned users Service Contracts Notify all Service Contract renewals before a pre- configured date (e.g. 15 days) Dates: Request Start Delivered 01/10/2013 14/10/2013 17/10/2013 Cycle Time = Delivery date – Start date Lead time = Delivery date – request date Sample Kanban Card
  • 11. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Value Stream Mapping • Used to understand visualize current system, future system and eliminate waste
  • 12. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Kanban Board Kanban Board helps to Visualize the work and an area for the team to interact Start with a simple task board with 3 Columns - Backlog(prioritized items) - Work In Progress - Done Each card is a work item. The current work items may be large batches.
  • 13. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Workspace for Kanban board • Use a wall, board (cork board, black board, white board) for your kanban • Ideally it should be visible when you enter/exit team workarea • Plan for enough space for the team to stand in half circle comfortably in front of the board and have discussions 13 Be innovative and design your own Kanban
  • 14. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Kanban Board Ready list In development projects, the Backlog list, should reflect the current understanding of the business needs In operations and support projects, the Backlog list, reflects the pending tasks assigned to the team. In case the backlog list is huge, this can be omitted from the board, when there is a “To Do” or “Waiting” column with selected work items
  • 15. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Kanban Board Problem with simple task board Accumulation of too many WIP work items Results in multitasking which in turn results in context switching Cost of multitasking can be fatal !!! 15 “To do two things at a time is to do neither “ – Publilious Syrus, a Latin writer 100 BC
  • 16. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Kanban Board – Cost of multitasking Problem with multitasking Accumulation of too many WIP work items In knowledge work, we need to keep lot of information is present in temporary memory On context switching, this information is flushed out and new information is loaded. Reloading the flushed out information, needs information to be reconstructed which may be time consuming, error prone and stressful The escalating cost of this switching activity can be high and needs to be avoided 16 Multitasking has multiple impact – time, quality, ability to think deeply (From Gerald Weinberg research)
  • 17. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Kanban Board Solution: Regulate the amount of cards on the board Need the follow “Stop Starting, Start Finishing” rules by every one How to enforce this rule? Define WIP Limits Regulate number of cards on the board This can be done by defining the multitasking limits per stage e.g. Team size = 4 & Multitasking limit = 2, then WIP limit can be 4* 2 = 8 17 Limiting WIP means more valuable work to be completed faster
  • 18. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Kanban Board Stop Upstream Process, if down stream process is not busy. Use upstream efforts to resolve downstream bottlenecks. WIP Limit – What does it mean ? If a particular Queue is filled up, the upstream process will halt. Since, WIP is full, upstream process To Do cannot accept new work items beyond its WIP limit. The team focus, will be to complete items in WIP and move it to Done, to ensure smooth flow.
  • 19. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Kanban Board Pull Work … Not …. Push Work What is “Pull” System ? - The science behind Lean/kanban Suppose Team member “C”, completes a work item, then “C”, the work item will move into Done. “C” can then pull the work item from “To Do” into WIP Another Work item can then get pulled from “Backlog” queue to “To Do” Queue
  • 20. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Kanban Board Problem: If you see no daily progress on the board WIP is the bottleneck and the slowest. There may be multiple subqueues within WIP waiting to be completed Break it down and make it visible Ensure there is a seamless “FLOW” Have the right people at the right place at the right time to ensure the work item gets “Done”
  • 21. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Kanban Board Queue Buffer Teams Organized by specialization. Resulting in handsoffs. Would be wise to consider multiple buffer queues for each task
  • 22. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Kanban Board Increase in WIP or any Queue, means increase in time to deliver in near future The Queues start building up right in front of us immediately following a blockage Blocked up queues will slow down the entire system and flow It is important to see this blockage and immediately attend to it. Limit, Queue size and the age of the work item within the Queue are leading indicators of problem we will encounter Empty neck indicates bottleneck getting formed in the upstream process Kanban systems create a positive tension in the workplace that forces discussion of problems …..
  • 23. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Kanban Board Expose Sub queues to understand the exact status of the work items. Kanban exposes bottleneck thus throwing up opportunities to fix and improve. Makes it easy to see problems, improve and learn from.
  • 24. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Flow – specialized vs. cross functional In Kanban, cross functional teams are optional. In case of specialist teams, the task are assigned column wise In case of cross-functional team, the task is assigned to a developer or a feature set team, row wise end to end and WIP limits defined row wise.
  • 25. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. • As a thumb rule (and when clueless), • start with an average WIP Limit of 2x • (x = number of team members). • When the understanding of WIP limit improves, slowly change the WIP limit.
  • 26. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Limit WIP - Summary •Focus should be on completing the work in hand than picking up new work. Hence “Stop Starting. Start Finishing” •Avoids multi-tasking : discourages team members to keep aside problematic work item and pickup another work item •In case of major obstacles, the team needs to put all-heads-together and bail out the team member from the current obstacle •Delivery value as fast as possible at regular interval. Avoids piling up of WIP inventory •Context switch from one task to another decreases productivity (~20%+) •Avoids Procrastination: Forces the organization in removing the impediments (obstacles) Stop and fix problems Pull Work … Not …. Push Work
  • 27. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Advanced Kanban Board http://leansoftwareengineering.com/wp- content/uploads/2009/04/kanban_matrix.png
  • 28. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Decision making in Kanban When deciding on what to do next …… Start form the right side of the board and go left. See if you can help expedite any of the items nearer to the DONE column It is not about you, it is about succeeding as a “TEAM” Stop Starting, Start Finishing Class of Service Ready Analyze Design Code Test Done WIP Done WIP Done WIP DONE Expedite Fixed Delivery Date Standard Intangible 8 5 Stop Starting, Start Finishing 1 3 9 3
  • 29. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Decision making in Kanban What if a work item is too big ? Break it down into parts and continue working. Don’t worry about the work affecting the WIP limits. Remember “Value” over “Flow” If the work parts are independent, move it back to the To Do/Backlog queue Class of Service Ready Analyze Design Code Test Done WIP Done WIP Done WIP DONE Expedite Fixed Delivery Date Standard Intangible 8 5 Stop Starting, Start Finishing 1 3 9 3
  • 30. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Key Metrics Data • Lead time = Delivery date – request date • Cycle time = Delivery date – start date Approximate average Lead time - used to predict and inform outside world on how long it will take to deliver * Approximate average Cycle time – used to predict and inform outside world on how long it will take to deliver the prioritized or urgent user story/feature/any service* CFD Charts help to calculate approximate average Lead and Cycle time. • Assumed that user stories of similar size. In case work items are of varied size then weighted method is used by estimating the story points for each work item. • Why “Approximate” – the items that started on the left side are not the items that gets delivered on the right side, when we calculate lead time. New requirements being added Requirements being dropped CycleTime WIP Lead Time
  • 31. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Bottlenecks • Bottlenecks in a process are not easy to spot. With CFD, would need to stand near each process area and measure times with stop watches • Breaking down the WIP into multiple activities and plotting the CFD helps in getting details about the process flow • To find the bottleneck in the process look out for a widening area. This widening generally happens above the process which progressing slowly. • Bottleneck is the activity below the widening band * Assumed that user stories of similar size. In case work items are of varied size then weighted method is used by estimating the story points for each work item. Widening area Bottleneck Lead Time
  • 32. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Make Process Policies Explicit 1. Define Class of Service 2. Define Policies 3. Make policies explicit
  • 33. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Class of Service (Not all work items are equal) Not all work items are same. Some work items are of different types (bugs, features, queries) and of different priorities (urgent, normal, nice to have) etc. The Urgent work items needs to be prioritized by keeping the current WIP aside” Use “Class of Service” with different “swim lanes” to represent those work items
  • 34. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Class of Service – Priorities Kanban as defined by David Anderson has four predefined Class of Service – Expedite Fixed Delivery Date Standard Intangible These are predefined and teams are free to define or modify with their own CoS which suit their context
  • 35. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Define Policies Define policies for each class of service to aid prioritization decisions Policies can include - Pull decisions (Definition of Done, Condition of Satisfaction) - WIP Limits - Queue replenishments - Cycle time - Guidance to team member to choose the next workitem - Explicit over-ride and authority - Risk constraints Anyone in the team should be able to make a decision based on the policies Policies should strike a balance between priority, business value, cost of delay etc. E.g. FDD should enter swimlanes based on cycle time + buffer WIP limit for Expedited COS = 2 Expedited and FDD takes precedence over Standard COS Class of Service is a set of policies that determine the order in which work is pulled through a system
  • 36. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Make Process Policies Explicit CoS Type Description Example Policies Expedite The immediate business value of this work item outweighs all other considerations to treat it with highest priority. (Urgent work.)  Card Type: White  WIP Limit: 1  Qualified team member should be assigned immediately by keeping the current workitem on Hold  Ontime: 100%  Delivery Time : < 3 days (bugs) Fixed Delivery Date This CoS is used when the workitem has to be delivered before a delivery date. (Deadline Driven work.)  Card Type: Purple  WIP Limit: 3  Can be pulled in preference over less CoS workitems  Priority upgraded to “Expedite”, if delayed  “T” shirt sized estimate will be done to schedule the work to be picked up for implementation  Release : Immediate  Ontime: 95%  Delivery Time: < 7 days (bugs)
  • 37. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Class of Service – Examples CoS Type Description Example Policies Standard Bread and butter work for the team. (Increasingly urgent work.)  Card Type: Yellow  Queuing policy: FIFO  WIP Limit: 9  Ontime: 95%  Delivery Time: < 15 days  No estimation will be done. However, if the workitem is large, it can be broken down into smaller workitems Intangible Workitems that does not directly add value to the customer, but is of immense value to the system like production bug fixes, technical debt servicing, refactoring, backup, tools and scripts etc. (Important but not urgent work.)  Card type: Green  Queuing Policy: Cost of Delay and FIFO  Release: Next scheduled release  Picked up for implementation as some capacity is available and no high priority work items are available  WIP limit: 3  Ontime: 50%  Delivery Time : 40 days (not guarantee)
  • 38. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Implement Feedback Loop Daily Standup Meeting Pairing / Pair Programming Operational Review Continuous Integration Supervisor Coaching Customer Review/Demos Regular Retrospectives Continuous Planning
  • 39. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Kanban Board (Other Improvements) Have Goal column to have a target: e.g Cycle time is 14 days (Done – Todo) Goal cards help to define focus and prioritize Reduce columns by moving Ready items below Use a separate track for high priority items Use Avatars (sticker or magnatic card) to identify the person assigned to easily
  • 40. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Kanban Board (Other Improvements) Always try to keep Expedite swimlane empty Use tapes to indicate a slot is available
  • 41. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Different Kanban modes Ready Analyze Design Code Test Done WIP Done WIP Done WIP Done Ready Analyze Wip AnalyzeD one Design WIP Design Done Code WIP Code Done Test Done Ready Analyze Design Code Test Done Ready Doing Ready Doing Ready Doing Ready Done Pull - WIP limits per Stage Pull – WIP limits for WIP & done Routing done by upstream process
  • 42. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Kanban Board (Other Improvements) D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
  • 43. Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners.Copyright © Flow Cracker 2014. All other trademarks held by their respective owners. Flow Cracker #7, 1st cross, 1st Main, Samrat Layout, Bannerghatta Road, Arekere, Bangalore - 76 Email : prasadbr@flowcracker.com Or contactus@flowcracker.com Cell: +91 984 555 8474 Thank You 43

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