Environment 12Feb05 at CHRL.pps


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Environment 12Feb05 at CHRL.pps

  1. 1. Environment Dr. P R Arun India Centre for Human Rights and Law
  2. 2. Human Rights & Environment <ul><li>Rights inherent in our nature as human beings and without which we cannot live as human beings </li></ul><ul><li>First Generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political and Civil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social, Economic and Cultural </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third Generation - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to Resources, information </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What is Environment <ul><ul><li>Your environment is the sum total of everything outside you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( Internal environment ?). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It include s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L iving and nonliving things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural and unnatural/artificial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical, Biological, Psychological </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Environmental Damage Today <ul><li>W e are losing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>300 km2 of rainforest, (1 acre / second ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>186 km2 land due to desertification , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40 to 100 species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And we are adding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>250,000 people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2,700 tons of CFC ( chlorofluorocarbons ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 million tons of carbon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tonight the Earth will be a little hotter, its waters more acidic, and the fabric of life more threadbare.&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Global Ecological foot prints
  6. 6. Importance of Environment <ul><ul><li>Natural Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is Responsible for life on earth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evolved through millions of years of evolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides Invaluable Ecosystem services </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Ecosystem services <ul><ul><li>Oxygen and water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detoxification and decomposition of wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conserve soils and their fertility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollination of flowers & Dispersal of seeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection from the ultraviolet rays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance of biodiversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderation of weather extremes and their impacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provision of aesthetic beauty and intellectual and spiritual stimulation for the human spirit </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Threats to Environment <ul><li>Severest threat is from us, humans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air, water, Soil, .. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroy Natural Habitats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deforestation, Hunting, reclamation, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alter the Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Green house Gases, Ozone depleting substances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural calamities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth Quakes, Forest fires, Volcanoes, Cyclones, …. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Residues & Wastes from Humans <ul><li>Factors contributing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>urbanization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>industrialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>human population growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>production and use of disposable products </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Hazardous Waste <ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secured landfill - least expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep well injection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incineration of Hazardous waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazardous Waste Recycling and Neutralization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source Reduction </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Agriculture One of the largest environmental Damage over the last 10,000 years Large Small/medium Scale of Operation Low High Sustainability Low High Genetic Diversity High Low Environmental Pollution Less High Labour High Low Productivity Modern Traditional
  12. 12. Pollution <ul><li>Air/ Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO2, SO2, NO, CFC, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial effluents, Sewage, Pesticides, Fertilizers, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid wastes, Effluents, sewage, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Noise pollution, Radiation </li></ul>
  13. 13. Pollution & Damage to Life <ul><li>Natural Flora and Fauna </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forests, Wildlife </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human beings, domestic animals, plants </li></ul><ul><li>Health impacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical, Mental, Social, Spiritual </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Trade in tiger bone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major factor that threatens survival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for thousands of years in Asian medicine for treatment of rheumatism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ivory trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decimated Indian Elephant populations and skewed sex ratio </li></ul></ul>Hunting/ Poaching Tiger bone wine
  15. 15. Shrinking ranges Siberian Tiger Bengal Tiger Asian Elephant
  16. 16. Endangered Indian Wildlife
  17. 17. Therapeutic pollution
  18. 18. Radiation <ul><li>Danger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roentgen equivalent man - REMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>damage cells & tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USDE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear waste disposal is highly controversial </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Noise Pollution <ul><li>Measure by annoyance factor </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cycles per second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hertz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vibrations per second </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amplitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>decibels (dB) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Noise abatement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy - Noise Control Act of 1972 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental changes </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Environmental Rights <ul><li>Environmental Damages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by the Rich and Powerful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rich/developed Nations, Corporates, Industries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affect the poor and Marginalised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developing countries, laborers, tribals, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental services and ill-effects are disproportionately distributed </li></ul>
  21. 21. Environmental Laws <ul><li>Indian Forest Act 1927 </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife protection Act 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act 1977 </li></ul><ul><li>Forest Conservation Act 1980 </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Protection Act 1986 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CRZ Rules 1992 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EIA Notification 1994 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Article 51(A)g of the Constitution </li></ul>
  22. 22. Tradition of Conservation <ul><li>Animal worship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Snake, Peacock, Rat, Cow, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sacred groves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sthala Vruksha Concept, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sacred flowers, leaves etc for Pooja </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bishnoy Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known to lay down lives for plants/wildlife </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Budhism and Gandhism & Universal Brotherhood concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor Ashoka established Animal Hospitals in 3rd Century BC </li></ul>
  23. 23. Man-Animal Conflicts <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leopard menace at Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Borivili </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>our interference with the wildlife habitats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crop raiding by elephants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Destruction of Wildlife Corridors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Bharatpur (Keoladeo National Park) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrong conservation decisions avoiding people </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Myth and Reality <ul><ul><li>“ Nature conservation is Against development ?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Truth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultimately no development is sustainable without taking care of Nature , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On the other hand people participation is vital </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”* </li></ul></ul>* World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) Our Common Future
  25. 25. How can we help Environment <ul><ul><li>Avoid Wildlife products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid Ivory, Fur, leather, etc, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimise the use of wooden/paper materials. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant trees/plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participate in decision making through EIAs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respond positively to conservation efforts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Join hands with concerned organizations which are working for Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visit Natural forests and Sanctuaries and feel the Environment at its natural state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize everyone's right to have equal share of environmental resources and risks </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Thank You