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  • its avery good slide show.I want to see slide about the sericulture , if possible specially in tasar culture.
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  • 1. ERICULTURE - A BIOPROSPECTING FOR SUPPLEMENTING LIVELIHOOD, ENVIRONMENT AND FOOD SECURITY IN RURAL AND SEMI URBAN INDIA Monica Chaudhuri (nee Mukhopadhyay) Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute Berhampore - 742101, West Bengal Email: [email_address] Eri Research Cell December 30 , 2009
  • 2. Introduction
    • India enjoys global distinction in production of all 4 commercially exploited natural silks
    • Indian Sericulture has a labour-intensive agricultural pattern with traditional strengths having capabilities along the entire value chain
    • The eri sector was confined to the North-East and congruent Eastern India till 3 decades ago
    • Now it is a vocation for rural reconstruction in non-traditional areas too since it involves low investment and high output source of employment and income
    • Presently it is practiced in 17 Indian states contributing to 11% of the total raw silk produced in India
  • 3. State wise Eri Raw silk production in India 2038 TOTAL 11.23 West Bengal 1.40 Uttarakhand 5.78 Uttar Pradesh 0.50 Sikkim 8.50 Orissa 160.00 Nagaland 6.00 Mizoram 435.00 Meghalaya 240.00 Manipur 4.00 Madhya Pradesh 0.10 Jharkhand 1.50 Chattisgarh 2.00 Bihar 310.00 BTC 831.00 Assam 14.00 Arunachal Pradesh 7.00 Andhra Pradesh Production (mt) States
  • 4. Objective
    • The commentary is aimed at expounding how naturally existing, specific biological materials are utilized by rural and semi urban communities for supplementary income while conserving the local environment, ecology and improving food security.
  • 5. What is ericulture
    • Ericulture is maintenance/ sourcing of food plants/ leaves, rearing eri silkworm, spinning cocoon shells and weaving endi fabrics
    • 6 broods of polyvoltine Eri silkworm ( Samia ricini D) can be reared indoor in a year producing white, yellowish or brick-red, open ended cocoons
    • Its natural distribution covers North-Eastern part of India, China and Japan.
    • Samia ricini D has its origin in the Brahmaputra valley
  • 6.
    • Found in the sub Himalayan region of N-E and in dense semi-deciduous forests of central and eastern India
    • Polyphagous but feed of leaves of primary host Castor (Ricinus communis L. ) scores the best cocoon harvest
    • About 90% of the Indian eri silk is castor-based and 98% of castor belongs to naturally thriving flora
    • One of the centers of origin of cultivated castor is agriculturally active Gangetic regions
    • Castor grows almost all over India ranging from poor sandy to rich alluvial soil
    • In humid tracks it becomes excessive luxuriant and may assume semi-perennial form
    • Withstands drought and slightly acidic soil but not high alkalinity and water-logging.
  • 7. Ericulture for livelihood
    • Acts as an antidote in providing income to the landless workforce who utilize locally grown castor plants for rearing throughout the year
    • Expert knowledge, high capital investments, costly instruments, established infrastructure facilities, thorough maintenance and professionalism in management are not required
    • Assures a definite return with very little capital investments
    • Activities involved are of light nature and provides opportunities of earning for otherwise idle manpower
    • Women have been predominant in rearing and weaving of eri raw silk and endi textiles
  • 8.
    • The activities help to come out of acute poverty and render these women economic stability and more social empowerment
    • The pupae are used as food in NE India
    • Pupae are also utilized as fish meal. The dead larvae, pupae and moths are used as poultry feeds. The litters can be used for mushroom culture
    • The dead and dried host plants/parts indirectly reduce the pressures for deforestation and forest degradation
    • The litters and leaf excess contribute to soil carbon sequestration
    • The entire shell is utilized for spinning. The silk waste is used for making selvedge
  • 9.
    • It is a low capital investment but high output source of income for rural and semi urban communities
    • Utilization of attention-driven human labour is more in smaller farms
    • The presence of self-employment is more in smallholdings
    • Prevalence of a significant positive relationship between hired labour use and the size of land holding and an inverse relation between the family labour use and the size of land
    • Additional income from by-product: pupae
    • Cocoons are converted into yarn by spinners in the second stage of activity
  • 10.
    • Yarn is made into fabrics by weavers. Eri silk has texture of natural silks, thermal quality of wool and feel of cotton
    • Employment and income generation at each stage of production are summed up to get total income and employment generated in ericulture total
    • Castor, the predominant primary food plants are available plenty in nature
    • On cultivation it provides dual income through ericulture and oil-seeds as well
    • Castor oil has innumerable eco-friendly industrial, pharmaceutical and cosmetic utility.
  • 11. Economics of ericulture with family labour for both castor cultivation and silkworm rearing [Unit:1ac] Contd… 4.88 5.37 4.99 4.29 Cost Benefit ratio 93,945.00 38,695.00 30,945.00 24,305.00 Net Income (Rs.) 1,17,950.00 47,550.00 38,700.00 31,700.00 Gross Income (Rs.) 49,200.00 68,750.00 19,800.00 27,750.00 16,200.00 22,500.00 13,200.00 18,500.00
    • Income from
    • Cut cocoon @ Rs. 300 / kg
    • Pupa @ Rs. 50 / kg
    164 1375 66 555 54 450 44 370
    • Production of
    • Cut cocoon (kg)
    • Pupa (kg)
    24,005.00 8,855.00 7,755.00 7,395.00 Total expenditure (A + B) 14,870.00 5,990.00 4,890.00 3,990.00 Rearing cost in Rs. (B) Dfls, disinfectants (Formalin & bleaching powder), depreciated cost of rearing shed and appliances) 1565 630 515 420 Rearing capacity of eri silkworm (dfl) 18820 7580 6190 5050 Leaf yield (kg) 9,135.00 2,865.00 2,865.00 3,405.00 Total cost of establishment & maintenance in Rs. (A) 8,625.00 2,865.00 2,865.00 2,895.00 Input cost (Rs.) (270 cft FYM, NPK @ 48:16:16 kg/ ac, 2 kg seed, insecticide & fungicide) 510.00 -- -- -- -- -- 510.00 --
    • Operational cost (Rs.)
    • Land preparation
    • Labour cost*
    Total Year 3 Year 2 Year 1 Item
  • 12. * (@ Rs. 80/- per mday) for pit digging, FYM & NPK application, seed sowing and inter-cultural operations. 3.88 4.37 3.95 3.32 Cost Benefit ratio 87,765.00 36,675.00 28,925.00 22,165.00 Net Income (Rs.) 6,180.00 2,020.00 2,020.00 2,140.00 Operational cost (Rs.) Labour cost* In case of hired labour for castor cultivation and family labour for silkworm rearing 1.37 1.43 1.38 1.29 Cost Benefit ratio 32,110.00 14,315.00 10,640.00 7,155.00 Net Income (Rs.) 55,655.00 22,360.00 18,285.00 15,010.00 Rearing cost (Rs.) labour 6,180.00 2,020.00 2,020.00 2,140.00 Operational cost (Rs.) Labour cost* ADDITIONAL COST ON LABOUR @ RS. 80.00 PER MANDAY In case of hired labour both for castor cultivation and silkworm rearing Total Year 3 Year 2 Year 1 Item
  • 13.
    • Adoption of spinning and weaving of raw silk adds more to the family income.
    • Eri, the ‘Ahimsa’ silk is used for robes, made-ups and blending material for wool.
    • High market demand nationally and internationally due to longer durability and multifarious utility of eri silk.
    • High export potential helps in earning foreign revenues.
  • 14. Ericulture for environment
    • India, one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world has 46,000 plant and 81,000 animal species including numerous sericigenous fauna and supporting flora
    • E riculture does not disturb the existing natural ecosystems of 13 biosphere reserves for conservation of biological resources
    • The host plants of eri silkworms are mostly nature grown.
    • Biodiversity and varied ecosystems act as natural defenses against the impacts of climate change. Drought-resistant castor maintains green covers even during scanty rainfall period and checks soil erosion
    • Castor can be maintained as zero tillage, surface seeding crop
    • It reduces input requirements and cost of cultivation, enhances scope for crop diversification and improved soil health.
  • 15.
    • Reduced/zero tillage and timely planting/ self generating seeds result in saving water, fuel, herbicide, and equipment while increasing yields and farmer profits.
    • Castor thrives as road/canal/railway-track plantations. In several sacred groves it flourishes undisturbed.
    • Rural communities engaged in ericulture also increase host plant covers in the form of agroforestry, community forestry, farm forestry, interface forestry, village woodlots, block plantations, strip plantations, improved fallow and alley cropping.
    • High CO 2 concentration in the air increases its assimilation in castor leaves uniquely from 18-20 to 59-78 mg CO 2 /dm/2/hr. acting towards climatic conservation
    • Ericulture can ideally be termed as one of Permaculture practices
  • 16. Ericulture for food security
    • Govt. supported forward and backward linkages ensuring buying power of food
    • Being health friendly, eri silk powder is also added to food, medicines, cosmetics and soft drinks.
    • Proteins, vitamins, HDL fats and amino-sugar enriched pupae have been dietary delicacy almost all over NE India since time immemorial.
  • 17. Present thurst
    • Making use of otherwise unutilized foliage of the crop without affecting economic yield.
    • Strengthening 50 Eri farm-cum-grainages, supporting 2,000 rearing house construction, free start-up tools for 1,25,000 Eri farmers and augmenting eri perennial food plants in 11,850 acres during the XI Plan under CDP targeting 2390 mt of eri raw silk
    • Establishing cocoon markets and Eri spun mills, supplying 5,000 improved motorized eri spinning wheels and providing market support to Eri silk products.
    • 3 Eri spun silk mills at Hindupur. Kokrajhar and Guwahati are established.
    • Collaborative project flushed 100 apparel products, receiving a good market response
  • 18. Conclusion
    • In Ericulture each and every product or by-product has potential utility and scope for adding to livelihood.
    • Simultaneously, silk aficionados get new ranges of eco-friendly and natural products.
    • Higher employment potential is well suited to utilize the abundant human resources in rural India.
    • Secured earning ensures upward socio-economic mobility of the practicing communities.
    • The activities synergistic with climate resilient growth in varied eco zones ensure improved food security.
  • 20. References 1.Anonymous. Annual and Adminitrative Reports of Dept. of Textile (Sericulture), Govt. of West Bengal . 2008. 2. Bell, Graham. The Permaculture Way. Permanent Publications . 2 nd Ed. UK 2004. 3. Benchamin, K. V. and Jolly, M. S. Employment and Income Generation in theRural Areas through Sericulture. Indian Silk , 1987;June: 9. 4. Bindroo, B.B. Singh, N.T. Sahu, A.K.and Chakravorty, R. Eri Silkworm Host Plant. Indian Silk. 2007;May: 13-17. 5.Chowdhury, S. N. Eri Silk Industry , Directorate of Sericulture and Weaving,Government of Assam, Guwahati. 1982; 64-65. 6. De, Utpal Kumar and Das, Manjit. Ericulture as a Remedy of Rural Poverty in Assam: A Micro Level Study in Barpeta District. Munich Personal Archive No. 6259. 2007.
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    • 8. Hesketh, J.D. (Crop Science.1963;3: 6 ) In Castor edited by V.A. Moshkin, Oxford Univ, Press.1988; 66.
    • 9, John, Baker, Saxton, K.E. Ritchie, W. R. Chamen, W.C.T..Reicosky, D.C Ribeiro, M.P.S. Justice, S. E. and Hobbs, P.R. Zero Tillage Seeding in Conservation Agriculture. FAO Pulication. Rome. 2007.
    • 10. Jolly, M. S. Sen, S. K. Sonwalker, T. N. and G. K. Prasad, G. K. Non-
    • mulberry silks. In Manual on Sericulture, Food and Agriculture
    • Organization of the United Nations. Rome. 1979; 1–178
    • 11. Joshi, Namita,P.C. Biodiversity and Conservation. Aph Publishing House.
    • 2009.
    • 12. Peigler, R.S. Wild Silks of the World. American Entomologist. 1993;
    • 39:151-161.
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    • Employment in Sericulture- an empirical study in Andhra Pradesh,
    • Indian Journal of Sericulture. 1992; 34(2): 92.
    • Sarkar, D.C. Ericulture in India. Published by Central Silk Board. 1980; 1-50
    • 15. Singh, K. C., and Benchamin, K. V. Biology and ecology of the eri
    • silkmoth Samia ricini (Donovan) (Saturniidae): a review. Bulletin of
    • Indian Academy of Sericulture 2002; 6:20–33.
    • 16. Sinskaya, E.N.(1969) Historical Geography of cultivated flora.In
    • Castor edited by V.A. Moshkin. Oxford Univ, Press. 1988: 7.
    • 17. Weiss, E.A.(1971) Castor, Seasame and Sunflower In Castor
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