The Internet is a global system ofinterconnected computernetworks that use the standardInternet protocol suite (often calledTCP/IP, although not allapplications use TCP) to servebillions of users worldwide.It is a network of networks thatconsists of millions of private,public, academic, business, andgovernment networks, of local toglobal scope, that are linked by abroad array of electronic, wirelessand optical networkingtechnologies.The Internet carries an extensiverange of information resources andservices, such as the inter-linkedhypertext documents of the WorldWide Web (WWW) and theinfrastructure to support email.
As a B-School Graduate and would-be managers of MNCorganizations specializing in IT you should know the following facts about Internet in India
Now answer these questions:Does these numbers look attractive to you?Do you feel we have had great Internetpenetration in India?Do you think we have reached the saturation orthreshold for internet use in India?
I was confused between Internet2 or Internet 2.0?“Internet2: provides the U.S. research and education community witha network that satisfies their bandwidth-intensive requirements. Thenetwork itself is a dynamic, robust and cost-effective hybrid opticaland packet network. It furnishes a 100 Gbit/s network backbone tomore than 210 U.S. educational institutions, 70 corporations and 45non-profit and government agencies”.Internet 2.0 also known as Web 2.0 is a concept that takes thenetwork as a platform for information sharing, interoperability, user-centered design and collaboration on the World Wide Web.A Web 2.0 site allows users to interact and collaborate with eachother in a social media dialogue as creators (prosumers) of user-generated content in a virtual community, in contrast to websiteswhere users (consumers) are limited to the passive viewing of contentthat was created for them.Examples of Web 2.0 include social networking sites, blogs, wikis,video sharing sites, hosted services, web applications, mashups andfolksonomies.
Internet governance is the development and application byGovernments, the private sector and civil society, in their respectiveInternet governance is the development and application byGovernments, the private sector and civil society, in their respectiveroles, of shared principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures,and programmes that shape the evolution and use of theInternetroles, of shared principles, norms, rules, decision-makingprocedures, and programmes that shape the evolution and use of theInternetInternet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), and as it expanded toinclude management of the global Domain Name System (DNS) rootservers, a small organization grew.
Allocation of IP addresses was delegated to four Regional InternetRegistries (RIRs):• American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) for North America• Réseaux IP Européens - Network Coordination Centre (RIPE NCC) for Europe, the Middle East, and Central Asia• Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC) for Asia and the Pacific region• Latin American and Caribbean Internet Addresses Registry (LACNIC) for Latin America and the Caribbean region• In 2004 a new RIR, AfriNIC, was created to manage allocations for Africa.The position of the US Department of Commerce as the controller ofthe Internet gradually attracted criticism from those who felt thatcontrol should be more international.
A hands-off philosophy by the US Dept. of Commerce helped limit thiscriticism, but this was undermined in 2005 when the Bush administrationintervened to help kill the .xxx top level domain proposal.There were also suggestions that individual governments should havemore control, or that the International Telecommunication Union or theUnited Nations should have a function in Internet governance.One such proposal, resulting from a September 2011 summit betweenIndia, Brazil, and South Africa (IBSA), would seek to move internetgovernance into their sphere of dominance.The Indian government itself has come under fire for its clumsy attemptsto block criticism on the web, like YouTube under the broad rubric ofreligious sensitivities.Worst governance in China.
A hands-off philosophy by the US Dept. of Commerce helped limit this criticism, but this was undermined in 2005 when the Bush administration intervened to help kill the .xxx top level domain proposal. There were also suggestions that individual governments should have more control, or that the International Telecommunication Union or theDecision Support System United Nations should have a function in Internet governance. One such proposal, resulting from a September 2011 summit between India, Brazil, and South Africa (IBSA), would seek to move internet governance into their sphere of dominance. The Indian government itself has come under fire for its clumsy attempts to block criticism on the web, like YouTube under the broad rubric of religious sensitivities. Worst governance in China.
Decision Making as aComponent of Problem Solving• Decision-making phase: first part of problem-solving process – Intelligence stage: potential problems or opportunities are identified and defined – Design stage: alternative solutions to the problem are developed – Choice stage: requires selecting a course of action
How Decision Making Relates to Problem Solving
Decision Making as aComponent of Problem Solving (continued)• Problem solving: a process that goes beyond decision making to include the implementation stage• Implementation stage: a solution is put into effect• Monitoring stage: decision makers evaluate the implementation
Programmed Versus Nonprogrammed Decisions• Programmed decisions – Decision made using a rule, procedure, or quantitative method – Easy to computerize using traditional information systems
Programmed Versus Nonprogrammed Decisions (continued)• Nonprogrammed decisions – Decision that deals with unusual or exceptional situations – Not easily quantifiable
An Overview of Management Information Systems: Perspective• A management information system (MIS) provides managers with information that supports effective decision making and provides feedback on daily operations• The use of MISs spans all levels of management
Inputs to a Management Information System• Internal data sources (TPSs and ERP systems and related databases; data warehouses and data marts; specific functional areas throughout the firm)• External data sources (Customers, suppliers, competitors, and stockholders whose data is not already captured by the TPS; the Internet; extranets)
Outputs of a Management Information System• Scheduled report: produced periodically, or on a schedule• Key-indicator report: summary of the previous day’s critical activities• Demand report: developed to give certain information at someone’s request• Exception report: automatically produced when a situation is unusual or requires management action• Drill-down reports: provide increasingly detailed data about a situation
Characteristics of a Management Information System• Fixed format, standard reports• Hard-copy and soft-copy reports• Uses internal data• User-developed reports• Users must request formal reports from IS department
An Overview Of Decision Support Systems• A DSS is an organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to support problem- specific decision making and problem solving• The focus of a DSS is on decision-making effectiveness when faced with unstructured or semistructured business problems
Characteristics of Decision Support Systems• Handle large amounts of data from different sources• Provide report and presentation flexibility• Offer both textual and graphical orientation• Support drill-down analysis
Characteristics of Decision Support Systems (continued)• Perform complex, sophisticated analysis and comparisons using advanced software packages• Support optimization, satisficing, and heuristic approaches – Simulation – What-if analysis – Goal-seeking analysis
Components of a Decision Support System• Model base: provides decision makers access to a variety of models and assists them in decision making• Database• External database access• Access to the Internet and corporate intranet, networks, and other computer systems
Group Support Systems• Group support system (GSS) – Consists of most elements in a DSS, plus software to provide effective support in group decision making – Also called group support system or computerized collaborative work system
Executive Support Systems• Executive support system (ESS): specialized DSS that includes all hardware, software, data, procedures, and people used to assist senior-level executives within the organization
Executive Support Systems in Perspective• Tailored to individual executives• Easy to use• Drill-down capabilities• Support need for external data
Executive Support Systems in Perspective (continued)• Can help when uncertainty is high• Future-oriented• Linked to value-added processes
Capabilities of Executive Support Systems• Support for defining an overall vision• Support for strategic planning• Support for strategic organizing and staffing• Support for strategic control• Support for crisis management
• The decision-making phase of the problem-solving process includes three stages: intelligence, design, and choice• A management information system (MIS) provides managers with information that supports effective decision making and provides feedback on daily operations• A financial MIS provides financial information to all financial managers within an organization
• The manufacturing MIS subsystems and outputs monitor and control the flow of materials, products, and services through the organization• A marketing MIS supports managerial activities in product development, distribution, pricing decisions, and promotional effectiveness• A human resource MIS is concerned with activities related to employees and potential employees of an organization
• A DSS is an organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to support decision making and problem solving• A group support system (GSS) consists of most elements in a DSS, plus software to provide effective support in group decision making• An executive support system (ESS) is a specialized DSS that includes all hardware, software, data, procedures, and people used to assist senior-level executives within the organization
Intelligence Is…• Capacity to learn from experience• Ability to adapt to different contexts• The use of metacognition to enhance learning
Emotional Intelligence• Mayer & Salovey (1997) “The capacity to reason about emotions, and of emotions to enhance thinking. It includes the abilities to accurately perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth”
Social Intelligence• Ability to get along with others• Knowledge of social matters• Insight into moods or underlying personality traits of others
Artificial Intelligence• The computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world
Nature, Nurture, or Both?• Is intelligence genetic?• Is intelligence acquired?• Is intelligence a combination of both?
Information Processing & Intelligence• Inspection time – How long a stimuli has to be viewed before an accurate judgment can be made – How quickly a person gives their answer is irrelevant, participants are encouraged to take their time
Working Memory & Intelligence• Being able to store and manipulate information in working memory is related to level of intelligence
Artificial Intelligence• The Turing test – Used to refer to a proposal made by Turing (1950) as a way of dealing with the question whether machines can think – Can an observer who has a conversation with a computer and a human figure out which conversationalist is the computer? – Computer passes Turing test if the person cannot
Computer Programs Better than Humans• Deep Blue and Chess – 1,000,000,000,000 positions/sec – 100 - 200 billion moves considered – Able to evaluate moves• Beat world champion in 1997 match
Psychotherapy AI• ELIZA – Weizenbaum (1966) created this program to engage in a dialogue imitative of the style favored in Rogerian psychotherapy – The program can successfully emulate human conversation to a degree that humans often assumed they were communicating remotely over teletype with another human – ELIZAs technique of responding to keyword-matching demonstrated the plausibility of natural language understanding by computers• PARRY – Colby (1963) created a computer simulation of a paranoid human – Psychologists reliably judged PARRYs interactive output as being paranoid schizophrenic and were unable to distinguish transcripts of a session with PARRY from that of a session originating from a human patient
Expert Systems• Telephone network maintenance• Credit evaluation• Tax planning• Detection of insider securities trading• Mineral exploration• Irrigation and pest management• Predicting failure of diesel engines• Medical diagnosis• Class selection for students
Limitations of Expert Systems• Can handle only narrow domains• Do not possess common sense/intuition• Have a limited ability to learn
Summary• To date, no computer AI can match all dimensions of human intelligence• For algorithmic problems, computers can perform faster, however humans still write the programming