3g and 4g

1,715 views

Published on

3g vs 4g

Published in: Technology, Business
1 Comment
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • change the background color
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,715
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
183
Comments
1
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

3g and 4g

  1. 1. Third Generation (3G)Third Generation (3G) VsVs Fourth Generation (4G)Fourth Generation (4G) Wireless SystemsWireless Systems Pranay P. TawakePranay P. Tawake CM 3rd year 0813055
  2. 2. CONTENTSCONTENTS  Third Generation (3G)Third Generation (3G)  3G Capabilities3G Capabilities  W-CDMAW-CDMA  UMTSUMTS  CDMA2000CDMA2000  Fourth Generation (4G)Fourth Generation (4G)  Standards for 4GStandards for 4G  Fifth Generation (5G)Fifth Generation (5G)
  3. 3. THIRD GENERATION (3G)THIRD GENERATION (3G) 3G Architecture Model3G Architecture Model 3rd generation mobile technologies focus on to aid deployment of resources by3rd generation mobile technologies focus on to aid deployment of resources by improving the speed and effectiveness of delivery of critical communicationimproving the speed and effectiveness of delivery of critical communication and information.and information.3G is based on 3 standards 1.W-CDMA 2.UMTS(TD-3G is based on 3 standards 1.W-CDMA 2.UMTS(TD- CDMA & TD-SCDMA) 3.CDMA2000.3G provides frequency bandsCDMA & TD-SCDMA) 3.CDMA2000.3G provides frequency bands between 1.6-2.5MHz and bandwidth ranges from 5-20MHz.It supports Highbetween 1.6-2.5MHz and bandwidth ranges from 5-20MHz.It supports High speed Broadband Live streamingspeed Broadband Live streaming Video conferencingVideo conferencing Tele-medicineTele-medicine Location-based services.Location-based services.
  4. 4. 3G Capabilities3G Capabilities  Voice quality comparable to the public switched telephone networkVoice quality comparable to the public switched telephone network  144 Kbps- user in high-speed motor vehicles.144 Kbps- user in high-speed motor vehicles.  384 Kbps- pedestrians standing or moving slowly over small areas.384 Kbps- pedestrians standing or moving slowly over small areas. Up to 2 Mbps- fixed applications like stationary mode.Up to 2 Mbps- fixed applications like stationary mode.  Symmetrical/asymmetrical data transmission rates.Symmetrical/asymmetrical data transmission rates.  Support for both packet switched and circuit switched data servicesSupport for both packet switched and circuit switched data services like Internet Protocol (IP) traffic and real time video.like Internet Protocol (IP) traffic and real time video.  It also provides high degree of connectivity and increasedIt also provides high degree of connectivity and increased networking and most importantly the resistance to noise .networking and most importantly the resistance to noise .  The technology has in fact increased the bit rate thus enabling theThe technology has in fact increased the bit rate thus enabling the service providers to provide high speed internet facilities, increasedservice providers to provide high speed internet facilities, increased call volumes and host of the multimedia applications to theircall volumes and host of the multimedia applications to their customers.customers.  All these services can be provided to the customers on the basis ofAll these services can be provided to the customers on the basis of the amount of data they transmit and not on the time for which theythe amount of data they transmit and not on the time for which they use the service thus making the services cheaper for us.use the service thus making the services cheaper for us.
  5. 5. WCDMA (Wideband Code Division MultipleWCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access)Access)  W-CDMA is the radio access scheme used for third generationW-CDMA is the radio access scheme used for third generation cellular systems which aims to ensure interoperability betweencellular systems which aims to ensure interoperability between different 3G networksdifferent 3G networks  In WCDMA systems the CDMA air interface is combined withIn WCDMA systems the CDMA air interface is combined with GSM based networksGSM based networks  In WCDMA, there are two different modes of operation possibleIn WCDMA, there are two different modes of operation possible  TDDTDD: In this duplex method, uplink and downlink transmissions: In this duplex method, uplink and downlink transmissions are carried over the same frequency band by using synchronizedare carried over the same frequency band by using synchronized time intervals. Thus time slots in a physical channel are dividedtime intervals. Thus time slots in a physical channel are divided into transmission and reception part.into transmission and reception part.  FDDFDD: The uplink and downlink transmissions employ two: The uplink and downlink transmissions employ two separated frequency bands for this duplex method. A pair ofseparated frequency bands for this duplex method. A pair of frequency bands with specified separation is assigned for afrequency bands with specified separation is assigned for a connection. Since different regions have different frequencyconnection. Since different regions have different frequency allocation schemes, the capability to operate in either FDD orallocation schemes, the capability to operate in either FDD or TDD mode allows for efficient utilization of the availableTDD mode allows for efficient utilization of the available spectrum.spectrum.
  6. 6. W-CDMA Protocol StructureW-CDMA Protocol Structure
  7. 7. W-CDMA Protocol StructureW-CDMA Protocol Structure  The 2 parts are the Core Network (CN) and Radio Access Network (RAN).The 2 parts are the Core Network (CN) and Radio Access Network (RAN).  The physical layer offers information transfer services to the MAC layer.The physical layer offers information transfer services to the MAC layer.  The MAC layer offers Data transfer to RLC and higher layers.The MAC layer offers Data transfer to RLC and higher layers.  The RLC layer offers the following services to the higher layersThe RLC layer offers the following services to the higher layers  Layer 2 connection establishment/release.Layer 2 connection establishment/release.  Transparent data transfer.Transparent data transfer.  Assured and un assured data transfer.Assured and un assured data transfer.  The RRC layer offers the core network the following services:The RRC layer offers the core network the following services:  General control service, used as an information broadcast service.General control service, used as an information broadcast service.  Notification service, which is used for paging & notification of a selectedNotification service, which is used for paging & notification of a selected UE’s.UE’s.  Dedicated control service, which is used for establishment/release of aDedicated control service, which is used for establishment/release of a connection & transfer of messages using the connection.connection & transfer of messages using the connection.  HAND OVER: Intra-mode, Inter-mode, Inter-system.HAND OVER: Intra-mode, Inter-mode, Inter-system.  POWER CONTROL: FastPOWER CONTROL: Fast Closed Loop PC, Inner Loop PC, Open loop pc.Closed Loop PC, Inner Loop PC, Open loop pc.  QoS (Quality of Service)QoS (Quality of Service):: The capability of a network to provide better serviceThe capability of a network to provide better service to selected network traffic over various technologies.to selected network traffic over various technologies.
  8. 8. UMTSUMTS ((Universal Mobile Telecommunications System)Universal Mobile Telecommunications System)  Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTSUniversal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS)) isis one of the (3G) technologiesit is divided into 2 parts 1.TD-one of the (3G) technologiesit is divided into 2 parts 1.TD- CDMA(alternative of W-CDMA) TD-SCDMA.CDMA(alternative of W-CDMA) TD-SCDMA. FrequenciesFrequencies 1885 - 2025 and 2110 - 2200 MHz were provided.1885 - 2025 and 2110 - 2200 MHz were provided.
  9. 9.  A UMTS network consist of three interacting domains; CoreA UMTS network consist of three interacting domains; Core Network (CN), UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access NetworkNetwork (CN), UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) and UE(UTRAN) and UE..  Core network is to provide switching, routing and transit forCore network is to provide switching, routing and transit for user traffic.user traffic.  The basic Core Network architecture for UMTS is based on GSMThe basic Core Network architecture for UMTS is based on GSM network with GPRS.network with GPRS.  The Core Network is divided in circuit switched and packet switchedThe Core Network is divided in circuit switched and packet switched domains. Circuit switched elements are MSC, GMSC, VLR. Packetdomains. Circuit switched elements are MSC, GMSC, VLR. Packet switched elements are SGSN, GGSN.EIR, HLR, AUC,VLR are sharedswitched elements are SGSN, GGSN.EIR, HLR, AUC,VLR are shared by both the domains.by both the domains.  The UTRAN provides the air interface access method for UserThe UTRAN provides the air interface access method for User Equipment. Base Station is referred as Node-B and controlEquipment. Base Station is referred as Node-B and control equipment for node -B is called Radio Network Controllerequipment for node -B is called Radio Network Controller (RNC).(RNC).  Node-b performs air interface transmission, error handling,Node-b performs air interface transmission, error handling, CDMA physical channel coding.CDMA physical channel coding.  RNC performs the following functions.RNC performs the following functions.  Radio Resource ControlRadio Resource Control  Admission ControlAdmission Control  Broadcast SignalingBroadcast Signaling  Channel AllocationChannel Allocation
  10. 10. CDMA2000CDMA2000  CDMA2000 (also known as IMT Multi Carrier) is a family ofCDMA2000 (also known as IMT Multi Carrier) is a family of 3G mobile technology standards, which use CDMA channel3G mobile technology standards, which use CDMA channel access, to send voice, data, and signaling data between mobileaccess, to send voice, data, and signaling data between mobile phones and cell sites.phones and cell sites.  It is a direct spread spectrum sequence design, also backwardIt is a direct spread spectrum sequence design, also backward compatible with IS-95, uses 5 MHz bandwidth but it has notcompatible with IS-95, uses 5 MHz bandwidth but it has not been designed to internetwork with GSM.been designed to internetwork with GSM.  CDMA2000 can support mobile data communications atCDMA2000 can support mobile data communications at speeds ranging from 144 kbps to 2 mbps.speeds ranging from 144 kbps to 2 mbps.  The set of standards includes:The set of standards includes:  1X(60-100 kbps)1X(60-100 kbps)  1X EV-DO(2.4mbps)1X EV-DO(2.4mbps)  1X EV-DV(2mbps)1X EV-DV(2mbps)  CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev.A(140 kbps)CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev.A(140 kbps)
  11. 11. Fourth Generation (4G)Fourth Generation (4G)  4G refers to the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards.4G refers to the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards.  4G, which refers to all-IP packet switched networks, mobile ultra-4G, which refers to all-IP packet switched networks, mobile ultra- broadband (gigabit speed) access and multi carrier transmissionbroadband (gigabit speed) access and multi carrier transmission..  An IMT-Advanced cellular systems have target peak data rates of up toAn IMT-Advanced cellular systems have target peak data rates of up to approximately 100 MBPS for high mobility such as mobile access and upapproximately 100 MBPS for high mobility such as mobile access and up to approximately 1 GBPS for low mobility such as nomadic/local wirelessto approximately 1 GBPS for low mobility such as nomadic/local wireless access.access.  Scalable bandwidths up to at least 40 MHz should be provided.Scalable bandwidths up to at least 40 MHz should be provided. , but, but currently applicable between 5-20MHz.currently applicable between 5-20MHz.  The 4G adoption of concatenated FEC (Forward Error Correction) willThe 4G adoption of concatenated FEC (Forward Error Correction) will allow much larger data packets to be transmitted and at the same timeallow much larger data packets to be transmitted and at the same time reduce the bit error rate. This will increase the overall data through-put.reduce the bit error rate. This will increase the overall data through-put.  In the context of 4G, IPv6 support is essential in order to support a largeIn the context of 4G, IPv6 support is essential in order to support a large number of wireless-enabled devices. By increasing the number ofnumber of wireless-enabled devices. By increasing the number of IPaddresses , IPv6 removes the need for Network AddressIPaddresses , IPv6 removes the need for Network Address Translation(NAT), a method of sharing a limited number of addressesTranslation(NAT), a method of sharing a limited number of addresses among a larger group of devices, and that is the reason to move towardamong a larger group of devices, and that is the reason to move toward Ipv6.Ipv6.  4G provides support for Ubiquitous mobile access, Diverse user devices,4G provides support for Ubiquitous mobile access, Diverse user devices, Autonomous networks.Autonomous networks.
  12. 12. Standards for 4GStandards for 4G  The existing 3G W-CDMA standard will be replaced in 4G byThe existing 3G W-CDMA standard will be replaced in 4G by VSF-OFCDM and VSF-CDMA.VSF-OFCDM and VSF-CDMA.  VSF-OFCDM (Variable Spreading Factor OrthogonalVSF-OFCDM (Variable Spreading Factor Orthogonal Frequency and code Division Multiplexing)Frequency and code Division Multiplexing)  VSF-OFCDM will have the power to enable transmission atVSF-OFCDM will have the power to enable transmission at exceptional speeds of up to 100 Mbps outdoors and up toexceptional speeds of up to 100 Mbps outdoors and up to 1Gbps indoors.1Gbps indoors.  VSF-CDMA : (Variable Spreading Factor Code DivisionVSF-CDMA : (Variable Spreading Factor Code Division Multiple Access)Multiple Access)  VSF-CDMA provides high-efficiency, high-speed packetVSF-CDMA provides high-efficiency, high-speed packet transmissions for the uplink. Ttransmissions for the uplink. The peak throughput of greaterhe peak throughput of greater than 100 Mbps and 20 Mbps is achieved by the implementedthan 100 Mbps and 20 Mbps is achieved by the implemented base station and mobile station transceivers using the 100-base station and mobile station transceivers using the 100- MHz and 40-MHz bandwidths in the uplink.MHz and 40-MHz bandwidths in the uplink.
  13. 13. Fifth Generation (5G)Fifth Generation (5G)  5th generation wireless systems is Future of mobile internet5th generation wireless systems is Future of mobile internet accessaccess  Expected to be finalized between approximately 2011 andExpected to be finalized between approximately 2011 and 2013.2013.  Real wireless world with no more limitation with access andReal wireless world with no more limitation with access and zone issueszone issues  Wearable devices with AI capabilitiesWearable devices with AI capabilities  Pervasive networks providing ubiquitous computing.Pervasive networks providing ubiquitous computing.  It is based on Beam Division Multiple Access (BDMA) andIt is based on Beam Division Multiple Access (BDMA) and group cooperative relay techniques. IT is expected in terms ofgroup cooperative relay techniques. IT is expected in terms of data streams, a 5th generation standard would have peakdata streams, a 5th generation standard would have peak download and upload speeds of more than 1GBPSdownload and upload speeds of more than 1GBPS..
  14. 14. THANK YOUTHANK YOU

×