Managing emotions

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Managing emotions

  1. 1. S2GROUP11 MANAGING EMOTIONS Harshavardhan Chinchore (FT 12279) Pranav Gopal Jha (FT 12238) Rajiv Garg (FT 12245) Siddharth Sureka (FT 12258) Smruti Rekha Padhy (FT 12261) |
  2. 2. S2 Group11 2 Managing EmotionsContentsManaging Emotions ....................................................................................................................................... 3Natural Selection in Early Hominids ............................................................................................................... 4Fear loyalty and greedy organizations ............................................................................................................ 6Concept of emotional climate ........................................................................................................................ 6Various Theories of Emotion .......................................................................................................................... 8Cognitive Dissonance ....................................................................................................................................10Emotional Intelligence ..................................................................................................................................10Types of Emotions: .......................................................................................................................................11OB Applications: ...........................................................................................................................................13References....................................................................................................................................................14 2
  3. 3. S2 Group11 3 Managing EmotionsManaging Emotions: Emotions can be very overwhelming. Before children have the vocabulary toexpress feelings, emotions feel larger than life. Often, stimuli associated withnegative emotions are viewed by children as ―scary‖ or even ―bad.‖ There areplenty of instances during which adults fall into a similar predicament, but in suchinstances adults tend to repress or avoid processing emotions. For example, theextremely intense emotions can be brought on by traumatic experiences duringchildhood. The memory is stored at the developmental level during the experience.New experiences which are somewhat related trigger the extreme emotions. Theantidote is to retrieve traumatic memories and translate them with adult vocabulary,making memories less cumbersome to recall. Adults tend to repress or avoidprocessing emotions.If we deal with emotions very objectively we come across one of the theorieswhich say ―Emotions are merely neurochemicals sending nerve impulses downsynapses‖. Various hormones /neurochemicals have been held responsible for theseveral emotions. Few of which are listed below.. 3
  4. 4. S2 Group11 4 Managing EmotionsNatural Selection in Early Hominids:Some possible examples of emotions that were selected for in early hominids. Theseemotions, it is suggested, have been selected to deal with the types of problemsindicated. Robert Plutchik states that emotions are adaptations shared by all animals. As a result of natural selection certain adaptive behavior is caused which in turn has associated emotions. In below table first emotion in each row (e.g., fear, anger, joy) -basic emotion, second is the same emotion except at a greater intensity (that is, terror, rage, ecstasy). 4
  5. 5. S2 Group11 5 Managing EmotionsMany theorists agree to define emotions in the below mentioned way encompassingall possible association with emotions:Emotion - A psychological construction consisting of several aspects of components:  the component of cognitive appraisal or evaluation of stimuli and situations;  the physiological component of activation or arousal;  the component of motor expression;  the motivational component, including behavior intentions or behavioral readiness; and  The component of subjective feeling state. Emotions were first referred to in organizations when early group dynamics theorists introduced the concept of human relations in the workplace. Example: Mayo in his study on the morale of workers and its impact on performance, and Lewin, who worked on social change. ―One has to trigger an emotional upheaval that will play the role of a catharsis, in breaking prejudices and unfreezing habits‖ (Anzieu and Martin, 1994). Arlie Hochschild (1979; 1983) introduced two concepts of emotional work and emotional labor. As per him ―Emotional work‖ is the effort put into ensuring that our private feelings are in tune with socially accepted norms and ―Emotional labor‖ is the commercial exploitation of this principle. It claimed that there is a forced apprenticeship of distinguishing between emotions one feels, and emotions one learns to express. A lot of decisions, although one pretends they are scientifically balanced (e.g. we look at balance sheets, complex financial reports, marketing reports, etc.), are due to a final ―emotional‖ hint from the decision-maker. Emotions are products of socialization and manipulation 5
  6. 6. S2 Group11 6 Managing EmotionsFear loyalty and greedy organizations (Flam H, 1994)-Fear and anxiety havebeen underworked in organizational theorizing; obscured, perhaps, by the positivethinking and feeling expected for man‘s work transactions. The fear of loss of face,prestige, position, favor, fortune or job focuses the corporate actor‘s mind andsharpens his or her political vision and skills. Such anxieties are readilytransformed into a socially acceptable work enthusiasm or drive, which ambitiousorganizational members soon learn to display (1994, p. 4).Fear means hiding away,occupying yourself with your professional work. The fear of separateness, fear ofbeing identified, fear stemming from hesitation, from a lack of decision, fears ofone‘s own self, of self-defining oneself. Fear of being crossed, of being defined(1994, p. 66)‖Concept of emotional climate -The generating conditions (or determinants) ofan organization-specific emotional climate are the shared dispositions of itsmembers to evaluate events in a similar fashion and, in consequence, to react in acommon way. Members of an organization, because of a shared social environment(e.g. structure of the organization, type of leadership, nature of the networks, andphysical working conditions) and common experiences, develop similar values,motivations (goals and needs), and beliefs and attitudes. Shared dispositions areessential components of what is generally called organizational culture ororganizational climate.Classical Conditioning - Classical conditioning, which is based on the pairingof an unconditional stimulus that is intrinsically agreeable (such as good food) orpainful (such as an electrical shock) with a conditioned stimulus. It can have alasting impact on an individuals behavior. Emotion generated by an unconditionedevent is transferred to the conditioned event or situation. Strong behavioralcomponent of emotion—avoidance or approach— is thereby activated .Cancompanies be compared to salivating dogs (Pavlovs famous experiments) .Answeris yes. Assume that a company profits several times, by chance, from windfall 6
  7. 7. S2 Group11 7 Managing Emotionsgains in periods after particular economic policy constellations, such ascountercyclical government spending. The company will most likely learn thecontingency and upon the next instance of the conditioned stimulus may salivate,may prepare to digest the expected increase in activity and gain. Such reactionsare based on affect (hope in the case of positive conditioning, fear in the case ofnegative conditioning) rather than cold cognitive analysis.Reinforcement Learning - If an organism is rewarded or punished (e.g.receiving unconditioned stimuli such as food that is intrinsically pleasurable ordisagreeable, respectively) immediately after having exhibited a particular type ofbehavior, the frequency of that type of behavior will increase (with rewards) ordecrease (with punishments).Examples are abound: praise, bonuses, and incentivesfor good work, and various types of sanctions for unwanted behavior. Numerousexamples exist of reward systems that fail to reinforce the desired behavior.Company policy for instance, may discourage behaviors that are informallyrewarded by the system and may fail to reward desired behaviors at all (Kerr 1975).For example, it is currently fashionable to talk about the need for teamwork, butemployees‗investments in team-building are rarely formally rewarded. On tubecontrary, rewards are generally distributed according to individual performanceImitation Learning- Learner observes and then imitates a model, learning boththe nature of the required behavior and the appropriate contingencies purely bytube cognitive activity of information acquisition. Conferral of significance inimitation learning seems to be brought about by the attention value, prestige, andperceived success of the model. Prestige suggestion is a household word inadvertising, with companies marketing many brand names by using the names andphotos, if not live TV spot appearances, of famous actors or sports stars.Association between the well-known, and often liked, image of the star and theproduct confers significance upon the latter that it might never gain on its own 7
  8. 8. S2 Group11 8 Managing Emotions Various Theories of Emotion: Following are the various theories of emotions as evolved with time: James-Lange Theory Neurobiological Theories Cognitive Theories Cannon-Bard Theory Schachter –Singer Theory (Two-Factor Theory) Affective Events Theory Few of the important theories are explained below:James–Lange theory William James, in the article "What is an Emotion?‖. [9] argued that emotional experience is largely due to the experience of bodily changes. The Danish psychologist Carl Lange also proposed a similar theory at around the same time, so this position is known as the James–Lange theory. This theory is supported by experiments in which by manipulating the bodily state, a desired emotion is induced. Such experiments also have therapeutic implications (for example, in laughter therapy, dance therapy).Cognitive theories Several theories argue that cognitive activity—in the form of judgments, evaluations, or thoughts—is necessary for an emotion to occur. An influential theory here is that of Lazarus: emotion is a disturbance that occurs in the following order: 1.) Cognitive appraisal—the individual assesses the event cognitively, which cues the emotion. 2.) Physiological changes—the cognitive reaction starts 8
  9. 9. S2 Group11 9 Managing Emotions biological changes such as increased heart rate or pituitary adrenal response. 3.) Action—the individual feels the emotion and chooses how to react. For example: Jenny sees a snake. 1.) Jenny cognitively assesses the snake in her presence, which triggers fear. 2.) Her heart begins to race faster. Adrenaline pumps through her blood stream. 3.) Jenny screams and runs away. Lazarus stressed that the quality and intensity of emotions are controlled through cognitive processes. These processes underlie coping strategies that form the emotional reaction by altering the relationship between the person and the environment.Affective events theory This a communication-based theory developed by Howard M. Weiss and Russell Cropanzano (1996) that looks at the causes, structures, and consequences of emotional experience (especially in work contexts). This theory suggests that emotions are influenced and caused by events which in turn influence attitudes and behaviors.Two-factor theory Another cognitive theory is the Singer–Schachter theory. This is based on experiments purportedly showing that subjects can have different emotional reactions despite being placed into the same physiological state with an injection of adrenaline. Subjects were observed to express either anger or amusement depending on whether another person in the situation displayed that emotion. Hence, the combination of the appraisal of the situation (cognitive) and the participants reception of adrenaline or a placebo together determined the response. 9
  10. 10. S2 Group11 10 Managing EmotionsCognitive Dissonance:There are times when even if we can‘t think of a logical reason still we formcertain judgments .Here logical analysis can‘t support the automatic emotionalreaction. Ex. Review of movie, when there is a conflict between cognitions andemotions conflict, this state is cognitive dissonance.It is a state of anxiety that occurs when an individual‘s beliefs, feelings andbehaviors are inconsistent with one another. Most common when behavior is:a) known to others b) done voluntarily c) can‘t be undoneEmotional Intelligence:After this comes the notion of emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligenceincludes knowing your feelings and using them to make good decisions; managingyour feelings well; motivating yourself with zeal and persistence; maintaininghope in the face of frustration; exhibiting empathy and compassion ; interactingsmoothly; and managing your relationships effectively.Those emotional skills matter immensely - in marriage and families, in career andthe workplace, for health and contentment. Emotional intelligence is the ability toperceive and express emotions, assimilate emotions in thoughts, understand andreason with emotions, regulate emotions in oneself and in others.Persons having EI exhibit the following common attributes.1. Impulse control2. Self-esteem3. Self-motivation4. Mood management5. People skills 10
  11. 11. S2 Group11 11 Managing EmotionsTypes of Emotions: Various emotions can be classified into five major classes (Scherer,Tran):  Approach emotions,  Achievement emotions,  Deterrence emotions,  Withdrawal emotions,  Antagonistic emotions. Approach emotions denotes the affective states like interest, hope, joyful anticipation, or other states fuel the investment of energy into new activities of exploration and development, focusing the attention on areas of major significance to the learner providing the necessary drive to overcome obstacles. Obviously, such motivational- emotional contexts provide optimal conditions for the acquisition of new skills and competencies. Although approach emotions are generally among the most functional states for organizational learning, there can be drawbacks when they are too intense or unrealistic. Achievement emotions are generally positive emotions, such as satisfaction, happiness, and pride. Celebration of success based either on ones achievement or on unexpected luck and reinforce the contingencies in which the emotion producing experience is rooted. These emotions have very agreeable consequences for both individuals and organizations and serve the highly positive function of reinforcing positive contingencies. They do present dangers, in particular stagnation as they capitalize on past investments. Emotional climate marked by 11
  12. 12. S2 Group11 12 Managing Emotionsachievement emotions in an organization is likely to shift the balance to theexploration of old certainties.Deterrence emotion - Denote anxiety, fear, distress, pessimism. All othervarieties of affective states that all keep the learner from engaging in particularactivities or seeking out places or markets. Excessive worry and anxiety can be aformidable block to acquiring new skills, competencies, or opportunities. Anemotional climate dominated by deterrence emotions guarantees the maintenanceof the status-quo, for it will not encourage innovation or creativity. Positives- itprevents the learner from repeating mistakes, from entering into overly riskystrategies or behaviors, and from disregarding potential threats. Judiciouslyblending deterrence emotions with approach emotions could provide the properbalance for cautious advancement into new learning environments.Withdrawal emotions include sadness, resignation, shame, and guilt, generallyprovides a negative context for learning activities. Individual or organizationcharacterized by these emotions tends to focus on the inside rather than the outsideand lacks the necessary energy to pursue a learning process vigorously or to investin new venture. In an organizational context, one could conceive of a period ofresignation and of focus on intraorganizational matters as a phase of restructuringand regeneration requiring all the organizations energies to be directed inward.Antagonistic emotions are anger; irritation, hate, and aggression .Hindrances toachieving ones goals and interests universally trigger antagonistic emotions. Theseemotions obviously have positive consequences, such as enabling one to get whatone wants. It may also divert focus from what is pertinent, may limit attentiveness,and may have other similarly deleterious effects on essential ingredients oflearning. Also may set up new aims and goals such as revenge, which may be quitealien to a productive learning process. 12
  13. 13. S2 Group11 13 Managing EmotionsOB Applications:Understanding emotions can improve our ability to explain and predict the following1. Decision making2. Motivation3. Leadership4. Interpersonal conflict5. Customer service6. Deviant Workplace BehaviorsA person having EQ are better decision makers. It helps them to be calm and poiseeven in difficult situations. It helps people to be motivated and focused towards goal.Having a greater understanding of interpersonal emotion, people will have a greaterinfluence on others. It helps in resolving interpersonal conflict as well as a goodwillwith others. And in all helps in building a better, healthier organization. 13
  14. 14. S2 Group11 14 Managing EmotionsReferences: 1. http://www.psychologyfitness.com/emotions-not-that-complex-just-biology/ 2. http://www.iep.utm.edu/emotion/ 3. Flam, H. (1994), ―Fear, loyalty and greedy organizations‖, in Fineman, S. (Ed.), Emotion in Organizations, Sage, London. 4. Kerr, S. (1975). On the Folly of Rewarding A, while Hoping for B. Academy of Management journal,18: 49-58. 5. Scherer and Tran, Effects of Emotion on the Process of Organizational Learning Klaus 6. Frijda, N. H. (1986). The Emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Mesquita, B., Sonnemans, J., and Van Goozen, S. (1991). The Duration of Affective Phenomenon 7. Anzieu, D. and Martin, J.-Y. (1994), La Dynamique des Groupes Restreints, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris 8. Hochschild, A.R. (1979), ―The sociology of feelings and emotions: selected possibilities‖, 9. James, William. 1884. "What Is an Emotion?" Mind. 9, no. 34: 188-205 10. Schachter, S., & Singer, J. (1962). Cognitive, Social, and Physiological Determinants of Emotional State. Psychological Review, 11. Robbins,Stephen P.,&Judge,Timothy A.& Vohra,Niharika,Organizational Behaviour. 12. http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologytopics/a/theories-of-emotion.htm 14
  15. 15. S2 Group11 15 Managing Emotions13. http://Www.sfsu.edu/~nschultz/documents/knowledge/organizational.commitm ent.pdf 15

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