Biological background Emotions can be very overwhelming. Before children have the vocabulary to express feelings, emotions feel larger than life. Often, stimuli associated with negative emotions are viewed by children as “scary” or even “bad.”
There are plenty of instances during which adults fall into a similar predicament, but in such instances adults tend to repress or avoid processing emotions. For example, the extremely intense emotions can be brought on by traumatic experiences during childhood. The memory is stored at the developmental level during the experience. New experiences somewhat related trigger the extreme emotions. The antidote is to retrieve traumatic memories and translate them with adult vocabulary, making memories less cumbersome to recall. Adults tend to repress or avoid processing emotions. .
Emotions are merely neurochemicalssending nerve impulses down synapses…
Emotions are merely neurochemicalssending nerve impulses down synapses…
Natural Selection in Early Hominids Some possible examples of emotions that were selected for in early hominids. These emotions, it is suggested, have been selected to deal with the types of problems indicated.
Adaptations Shared by All Animals:Plutchik Lists the eight basic emotions in Robert Plutchik theory. left are result of natural selection, right are the emotions associated . First emotion in each row (e.g., fear, anger, joy) -basic emotion, Second is the same emotion except at a greater intensity (that is, terror, rage, ecstasy)
DefinitionA psychological construction consisting of several aspects of components: the component of cognitive appraisal or evaluation of stimuli and situations; the physiological component of activation or arousal; the component of motor expression; the motivational component, including behavior intentions or behavioral readiness; and the component of subjective feeling state.
Early Theories in Organisation Emotions were first referred to in organisations when early group dynamics theorists introduced the concept of human relations in the workplace Example : Mayo in his study on the morale of workers and its impact on performance, and Lewin, who worked on social change. “One has to trigger an emotional upheaval that will play the role of a catharsis, in breaking prejudices and unfreezing habits” (Anzieu and Martin, 1994)
Arlie Hochschild (1979; 1983) “Emotional work” (which is the effort put into ensuring that our private feelings are in tune with socially accepted norms) “Emotional labour” (the commercial exploitation of this principle
There is a forced apprenticeship of distinguishing between emotions one feels, and emotions one learns to express. A lot of decisions, although one pretends they are scientifically balanced (e.g. we look at balance sheets,complex financial reports, marketing reports, etc.), are due to a final “emotional” hint from the decision-maker. Emotions are products of socialisation and manipulation.
Fear, loyalty and greedyorganizations(Flam H)“Fear and anxiety have been underworked inorganisational theorising; obscured, perhaps, by the positive thinking and feeling expected for man‟s work transactions. The fear of loss of face, prestige, position, favour, fortune or job focuses the corporate actor‟s mind and sharpens his or her political vision and skills. Such anxieties are readily transformed into a socially acceptable work enthusiasm or drive, which ambitious organisational members soon learn to display (1994, p. 4).Fear means hiding away, occupying yourself with your professional work. The fear of separateness, fear of being identified, fear stemming from hesitation, from a lack of decision, fear of one‟s own self, of self-defining oneself. Fear ofbeing crossed, of being defined (1994, p. 66)”
Concept of emotional climate The generating conditions (or determinants) of an organization-specific emotional climate are the shared dispositions of its members to evaluate events in a similar fashion and, in consequence, to react in a common way. Members of an organization, because of a shared social environment (e.g. structure of the organization, type of leadership, nature of the networks, and physical working conditions) and common experiences, develop similar values, motivations (goals and needs), and beliefs and attitudes. Shared dispositions are essential components of what is generally called organizational culture or organizational climate
Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning, which is based on the pairing of an unconditional stimulus that is intrinsically agreeable (such as good food) or painful (such as an electrical shock) with a conditioned stimulus. Can have a lasting impact on an individuals behavior Emotion generated by an unconditioned event transferred to the conditioned event or situation Strong behavioral component of emotion—avoidance or approach— is thereby activated
Can companies be compared to salivatingdogs(Pavlovs famous experiments ) Aanswer is yes. . Assume that a company profits several times, by chance, from windfall gains in periods after particular economic policy constellations, such as countercyclical government spending. The company will most likely learn the contingency and upon the next instance of the conditioned stimulus may salivate, may prepare to digest the expected increase in activity and gain. Such reactions are based on affect (hope in the case of positive conditioning,fear in the case of negative conditioning)rather than cold cognitive analysis.
Reinforcement Learning If an organism is rewarded or punished(e.g. receiving unconditioned stimuli such as food that is intrinsically pleasurable or disagreeable, respectively) immediately after having exhibited a particular type of behavior, the frequency of that type of behavior will increase(with rewards) or decrease (with punishments). Examples abound: praise, bonuses, and incentives for good work, and various types of sanctions for unwanted behavior. Numerous Examples exist of reward systems tbat fail to reinforce tbe desired bebavior. Company policy for instance, may discourage behaviors that are informally rewarded by the system and may fail to reward desired behaviors at all (Kerr 1975). For example, it is currently fashionable to talk about the need for teamwork, but employees„ investments in team-building are rarely formally rewarded. On tbe contrary, rewards are generally distributed according to individual performance
Imitation Learning Learner observes and then imitates a model, learning both the nature of the required behavior and the appropriate contingencies purely by tbe cognitive activity of information acquisition. conferral of significance in imitation learning seems to be brought about by tbe attention value, prestige, and perceived success of the model. Prestige suggestion is a household word in advertising, with companies marketing many brand names by using the names and photos, if not live Tvspot appearances, of famous actors or sports stars. Association between the well-known, and often liked, image of tbe star and tbe product confers significance upon the latter tbat it might never gain on its own.
Different Types of Emotion inOrganizational LearningVarious emotions into five major classes: approach emotions, achievement emotions, deterrence emotions, withdrawal emotions, antagonistic emotions.
Approach emotions affective states like interest, hope, joyful anticipation, or other states fuel the investment of energy into new activities of exploration and development, focusing the attention on areas of major significance to the learner providing the necessary drive to overcome obstacles. Obviously, such motivational- emotional contexts provide optimal conditions for the acquisition of new skills and competencies. Although approach emotions are generally among the most functional states for organizational learning, there can be drawbacks when they are too intense or unrealistic
Achievement emotions generally positive emotions, such as satisfaction, happiness, and pride. celebration of success based either on ones achievement or on unexpected luck and reinforce the contingencies in which the emotion producing experience is rooted. these emotions have very agreeable consequences for both individuals and organizations and serve the highly positive function of reinforcing positive contingencies, Do present dangers, in particular stagnation. Capitalize on past investments emotional climate marked by achievement emotions in an organization is likely to shift the balance to the exploration of old certainties
Deterrence emotion Denote anxiety, fear, distress, pessimism, All other varieties of affective states that all keep the learner from engaging in particular activities or seeking out places or markets. Excessive worry and anxiety can be a formidable block to acquiring new skills, competencies, or opportunities. an emotional climate dominated by deterrence emotionsguarantees the maintenance of the status-quo, for it will not encourage innovation or creativity. Positives: prevent the learner from repeating mistakes, from enterin into overly risky strategies or behaviors, and from disregarding potential threats. Judiciously blending deterrence emotions with approach emotions could provide the proper balance for cautious advancement into new learning environments.
withdrawal emotions including sadness, resignation, shame, and guilt, generally provides a negative context for learning activities. individual or organization characterized by these emotions tends to focus on the inside rather than the outside and lacks the necessary energy to pursue a learning process vigorously or to invest in new venture. In an organizational context, one could conceive of a period of resignation and of focus on intraorganizational matters as a phase of restructuring and regeneration requiring all the organizations energies to be directedinward.
Antagonistic emotions „Such as anger, irritation, hate, and aggression. Hindrances to achieving ones goals and interests universally trigger antagonistic emotions. Emotions obviously have positive consequences, such as enabling one to get what one wants. May also divert focus from what is pertinent, may limit attentiveness, and may have other similarly deleterious effects on essential ingredients of learning Set up new aims and goals such as revenge, which may be quite alien to a productive learning process
WHAT MAKES WOMEN CRYProfessor of organizational psychology and health at Lancaster UniversityCary Cooper explains.To Be Read By Audience :D
What makes women cry. Women actually perform better in confrontational situations because they dont become aggressive. "They have better social skills to deal with it. Its when the confrontational situation is very demeaning and aggressive they have trouble. when someone has cried in the office, that person has to look at what the reasons were and address that. "You have to ask yourself why youve become tearful, what underpins it . Crying can have a positive outcome, he said. "You are showing your emotions and letting someone know you have a problem and therefore it has to be resolved. It forces you to think through whats causing it.
What to do when it all gets too much If you feel youre about to cry, leave the office, go to the toilet or leave the building. Remove yourself from the situation, dont just sit there trying to hold back the tears. If you do cry, deal with it. Go and wash your face, calm down. If you feel you have been wrong in crying, go to the person when you are calm and apologise, and explain the circumstances, for example "Ive had a really bad morning, my husbands ill at home". If you have an Issue with an individual, confront the problem but not on the day it happens as you wont be in the right mood. You need time to think through the problem and decide what to do.
Reference1. http://www.psychologyfitness.com/emotions-not-that-complex-just-biology/2. http://www.iep.utm.edu/emotion/3. Flam, H. (1994), “Fear, loyalty and greedy organizations”, in Fineman, S. (Ed.), Emotion in Organizations, Sage, London.4. Kerr, S. (1975). On the Folly of Rewarding A, while Hoping for B. Academy of Management journal,18: 49-58.5. Effects of Emotion on theProcess of Organizational Learning Klaus R. Scherer and Veronique Tran6. Frijda, N. H. (1986). The Emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Mesquita, B., Sonnemans, J., and Van Goozen, S. (1991). The Duration of Affective Phenomenaor7. Anzieu, D. and Martin, J.-Y. (1994), La Dynamique des Groupes Restreints, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris8. Hochschild, A.R. (1979), “The sociology of feelings and emotions: selected possibilities”,