CBSE Class IX Social Studies ECONOMICS Poverty as a challenge
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CBSE Class IX Social Studies ECONOMICS Poverty as a challenge

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CBSE Class IX Social Studies ECONOMICS

CBSE Class IX Social Studies ECONOMICS
Poverty as a challenge

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CBSE Class IX Social Studies ECONOMICS Poverty as a challenge CBSE Class IX Social Studies ECONOMICS Poverty as a challenge Presentation Transcript

  • POVERTY AS A CHALLENGE
  • Introduction To Poverty  Poverty is the lack of basic human needs, Nutrition, health care education, clothing and shelter, because of the inability to afford them.This is also referred to as absolute. Poverty or destitution. Relative poverty is the condition of having fewer resources or Less income than others within a society or country or world wide averages ($1 per Person per day). About 1.7 billion people live in absolute poverty; before the industrial Revolution, poverty had mostly been the norm. • Poverty reduction has historically been a result of economic growth as increased Levels of production, such as modern industrial technology, made more wealth Available for those who were otherwise too poor to afford them. Also, investments in Modernizing agriculture and increasing yields is considered the core of the antipoverty Effort, given three-quarters of the world's poor are rural farmers.  Today, continued economic development is constrained by the lack of economic Freedoms. Economic liberalization includes extending property rights, especially to Land, to the poor, and making financial services, notably savings, accessible, inefficient Institutions, corruption and political instability can also discourage investment. Aid and Government in health, support education and infrastructure helps growth by Increasing human and physical capital.
  •  Some main reasons for the poverty are :- 1. British era The mughal era ended at about 1760. Jawaharlal Nehru claimed "A significant fact which stands out is that Those parts of India which have been longest under british rule are the poorest today." The Indian economy was Purposely and severely de-industrialized, especially in the areas of textiles and metal-working, Through colonial Privatizations, regulations, tariffs on manufactured or refined Indian goods, taxes, and direct seizures. 2. Neo-liberal policies and their effects Other points of view hold that the economic reforms initiated in the early 1990s are responsible for the collapse Of rural economies and the agrarian crisis currently underway. As journalist and the rural affairs editor for the Hindu, P sainath describes in his reports on the rural economy in India, the level of inequality has risen to Extraordinary levels, when at the same time, hunger in India has reached its highest level in decades. He also Points out that rural economies across india have collapsed, or on the verge of collapse due to the neo-Liberal policies of the government of india since the 1990s. The human cost of the "liberalisation" has been very High. Neo-liberal policies and their effects. 3. Unemployment Unemployment occurs when a person is without a job and has actively looked for work within the past two Weeks. The prevalence of unemployment is usually measured using the unemployment rate, which is defined as The percentage of those in the labor force who are unemployed. The unemployment rate is used in economic Studies and indices including the united state’s conference board's index of leading indicators a macroeconomic measure of the state of the economy. Why is poverty?
  •  ANTI-POVERTY MEASURES 1. PROMOTION OF ECONOMIC GROWTH The growth rate jumped from the average of about 3.5 percent a year in the 1970s to about 6 percent during the 1980s and 1990s. The higher growth rates have helped significantly in the reduction of poverty. Economic growth widens opportunities and provides the resources needed to Invest in human development. This also encourages people to send their children, including girl child, to schools in the hope of getting better economic returns from investing in education. 2. TARGETED ANTI-POVERTY PROGRAMMES AND SCHEMES 1. Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) 2. Started on April 1, 1999. It has replaced the following programs. 3. Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) : Started in 1978 - 79. 4. Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) : Started in 1978 –79 5. Ganga Kalyan Yojana (GKY) : Started in 1997. 6. Million Wells Scheme (MWS) : Started in 1989. Anti-poverty measures
  •  Poverty is the lack of basic human needs, nutrition, health care education, clothing and shelter, because of the inability to afford them. This is also referred to as absolute poverty or destitution. People getting less than $1 per person per day are also considered as people below poveerty line. It is a challenge because of its causes which are (corruption etc. ) are increasing day by day and there is not much development in the poverty related issues. If this would continue the poverty would become a more and more difficult challenge. India is a developing country and steps are being taken to reduce poverty but these efforts are not sufficient, the people of India, government all should make joint efforts to reduce poverty as much as they can. Some efforts which can be taken to reduce poverty are introduction of more and more Schemes to help the poor, increasing job opportunity is also a solution. Why is poverty a challenge?
  • Vulnerability to poverty is the extent to which a community, person, society , country etc. can be affected by the impact of the poverty. Women’s, less paid workers, beggars, people living in less developed area, people living in slums, farmers (to a little extent), farm labourers Schedule Cast People, Schedule Tribe People are most vulnerable to poverty. To decrease poverty government is introducing many schemes to decrease poverty some are given below :- 1. Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojna (April, 1999) 2. Jawahar Gram Samriddhi Yojna (launched on 1st April, 1999) 3. Indira Aawas Yojna (in effect from 1st April, 1999.) Vulnerability
  • rural urban  Rural poverty refers to poverty found in rural areas, but more important, to factors of rural society, rural economy and rural political systems that give rise to the poverty found there. A widely shared assumption is that rural poverty in the modern era operates on somewhat different dynamics than class-based urban poverty, although social science analyses since the 'rediscovery ' of poverty in the 1960s have often tended to conflate the two. Marxism, unlike other contemporary theories of poverty ,tends to write off the rural problem without further examination.  Urban poverty is not just a collection of characteristics, it is also a dynamic condition of vulnerability or susceptibility to risks. In order to provide a richer understanding of urban poverty, this site presents these two analytical frameworks (i) A dynamic framework of poverty (vulnerability and asset ownership) and (ii) the multiple characteristics of poverty and its cumulative impacts. Urbanization contributes to sustained economic growth which is critical to poverty reduction. The economies of scale and agglomeration in cities attract investors and entrepreneurs which is good for overall economic growth. Types Of Poverty
  • We can fight poverty very easily, to fight poverty people and the government has to make joint efforts. The government should try to introduce more and more schemes and job opportunity for the youths of the country and the people should try to help the government as much as they can. The government should/can try to reduce it by trying to remove/solve/find a solution to its causes. Some schemes already introduced by government are given below :- 1. District Rural Development Agency Administration(introduced from 1st April, 1999) 2. Basic Minimum Services (1997 ) 3. Community Development (1980-81) How To Fight Poverty
  •  Below Poverty Line is an economic benchmark and poverty threshold used by the government of India to indicate economic disadvantage and to identify individuals and households in need of government assistance and aid. It is People getting less than $1 per person per dayare considered as below poverty line.  The poverty line was originally fixed in terms of income/food requirements in 1978. It was stipulated that the calorie standard for a typical individual in rural areas was 2400 calorie and was 2100 calorie in urban areas. Then the cost of the grains (about 650 grams) that fulfill this normative standard was calculated. This cost was the poverty line. In 1978, it was Rs. 61.80 per person per month for rural areas and Rs. 71.30 for urban areas. Since then the Planning Commission calculates the poverty line every year adjusting for inflation. The poverty line in recent years is as follows - (Rs. per month per head) Example of mis-use of BPL Schemes If you have a pucca house a two-wheeler, a fan… you are ineligible. The pucca house could have been in your family for generations and is not necessarily a reflection of your present situation. There was a government scheme once in which girls were given cycles to ensure they went to schools. Because the girls had a cycle they were not counted as BPL. The opposite of BPL is APL (above poverty line) Poverty line (BPL) Year India rural India urban 2000–2001 328 454 2005–2006 368 560
  • Graphs
  •  Poverty is the lack of basic human needs, such as clean water, nutrition, health care education, clothing and shelter, because of the inability to afford them. This is also referred to as absolute poverty or destitution. It is a challenge because of its causes which are (corruption etc. ) are increasing day by day and there is not much development in the poverty related issues. Vulnerability to poverty is the extent to which a community, person, society ,country etc. can be affected by the impact of the poverty. We can fight poverty very easily, to fight poverty people and the government has to make joint efforts. Below Poverty Line is an economic benchmark and poverty threshold used by the government of India to indicate economic disadvantage and to identify individuals and households . Conclusion