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Carbon
TetravalencyTetravalency
Carbon forms 4 covalent bondsCarbon forms 4 covalent bonds
as itas it
has four valence ele...
ORGANIC COMPOUND STRUCTURAL RPESENTATIONORGANIC COMPOUND STRUCTURAL RPESENTATION
Carbon22 Organic Compounds :: StructuralO...
Here in the Lewis dot
structure of carbon we can
see the tetra-valency of
the carbon .
In general in Lewis dot
structure t...
44 Deriving Lewis DotDeriving Lewis Dot
StructuresStructures
Rule :-1Rule :-1Rule :-1Rule :-1
Rule :-2Rule :-2Rule :-2Rule...
In this structural formula Carbon and hydrogenIn this structural formula Carbon and hydrogen
atoms are not indicated and c...
66 Condensed structureCondensed structure
the bonds in the plane of
the paper are shown in their
normal bond convention
i.e., with a straight line
the bonds away fr...
Primary(1°) – attached to ONE other carbon
Secondary(2°) – attached to TWO other carbons
Tertiary(3°) – attached to THREE ...
Organic Compounds
Homocyclic or
Carbocyclic
compounds
Aromatic
compounds
Acyclic or
open chain
compounds
Heterocyclic
comp...
Functional Group
An Atom or Group of atoms joined in a specific manner
which are responsible for the characteristic chemic...
IUPAC NAMINGIUPAC NAMING
International Union of Pure And Applied ChemistryInternational Union of Pure And Applied Chemistry
Thenamesof these
compoundsarebased on
thenumber of carbonsin
thelongest i.e., parent
chain liketheword root
‘Meth’ for 1 a...
1212 Rules For the IUPAC Naming of Branched ChainRules For the IUPAC Naming of Branched Chain
HydrocarbonsHydrocarbons
Rul...
1313 Functional Groups and Hydrocarbons :- The GroupsFunctional Groups and Hydrocarbons :- The Groups
S. No Class of
Compound
Functional
Group
Prefix Suffix Example
1 Alkane - -ane Methane
2 Alkene - -ene Ethene
3 Alkyl - -y...
Chapter 2 17
1414 .... And Their Structures.... And Their Structures
Carboxylic Acid
1515 Some Specific Rules Related To Functional GroupsSome Specific Rules Related To Functional Groups
Aldehyde
Numbering s...
11
66
IUPAC Nomenclature of poly functional group and the order ofIUPAC Nomenclature of poly functional group and the orde...
11
77
ExamplesExamples
CBSE Class XI Chemistry :- Organic chemistry (Basics)
CBSE Class XI Chemistry :- Organic chemistry (Basics)
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CBSE Class XI Chemistry :- Organic chemistry (Basics)

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CBSE Class XI Chemistry :- Organic chemistry

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Transcript of "CBSE Class XI Chemistry :- Organic chemistry (Basics)"

  1. 1. Carbon TetravalencyTetravalency Carbon forms 4 covalent bondsCarbon forms 4 covalent bonds as itas it has four valence electrons. Ithas four valence electrons. It couldcould gain four electrons to form C4-gain four electrons to form C4- anion or lose four electrons toanion or lose four electrons to formform C4+ cation. Both theseC4+ cation. Both these conditionsconditions would take carbon far awaywould take carbon far away fromfrom achieving stability by the octetachieving stability by the octet rule.rule. To overcome this problem carbonTo overcome this problem carbon undergoes bonding by sharingundergoes bonding by sharing itsits CatenationCatenation The ability of an element toThe ability of an element to catenate is primarily basedcatenate is primarily based on theon the bond energy of the element tobond energy of the element to itself. itself.  Carbon has the ability toCarbon has the ability to form bothform both sigma and pi bonds to itself.sigma and pi bonds to itself. ThisThis Is due to an overlap betweenIs due to an overlap between pi-pi- electron orbitals, allowingelectron orbitals, allowing 11 CARBONCARBON
  2. 2. ORGANIC COMPOUND STRUCTURAL RPESENTATIONORGANIC COMPOUND STRUCTURAL RPESENTATION Carbon22 Organic Compounds :: StructuralOrganic Compounds :: Structural RepresentationRepresentation
  3. 3. Here in the Lewis dot structure of carbon we can see the tetra-valency of the carbon . In general in Lewis dot structure the valency electrons are shown Other ExamplesOther Examples 33 Lewis StructureLewis Structure
  4. 4. 44 Deriving Lewis DotDeriving Lewis Dot StructuresStructures Rule :-1Rule :-1Rule :-1Rule :-1 Rule :-2Rule :-2Rule :-2Rule :-2 Rule :-3Rule :-3Rule :-3Rule :-3 Rule :-4Rule :-4Rule :-4Rule :-4 Find the total numberof Valence Electrons (T.V.E’s)Find the total numberof Valence Electrons (T.V.E’s)Find the total numberof Valence Electrons (T.V.E’s)Find the total numberof Valence Electrons (T.V.E’s) To identify the central atomTo identify the central atomTo identify the central atomTo identify the central atom Complete the octet forthe outeratomsComplete the octet forthe outeratomsComplete the octet forthe outeratomsComplete the octet forthe outeratoms Find the formal charge (F )Find the formal charge (F )Find the formal charge (F )Find the formal charge (F ) F = T.V.E – no. of bonds around the atom– no. of lone electronsF = T.V.E – no. of bonds around the atom– no. of lone electrons
  5. 5. In this structural formula Carbon and hydrogenIn this structural formula Carbon and hydrogen atoms are not indicated and carbon chains areatoms are not indicated and carbon chains are indicated by zigzag lines. The line junctions indicateindicated by zigzag lines. The line junctions indicate CHCH22 group and the line terminals indicate CHgroup and the line terminals indicate CH33 groupgroup 55 BondBond lineline structurestructure OCTANE CHLOROCYCLOHEXANE PENTYL CYCLOPROPANE 1,1,2,2-TETRAMETHYLETHANE CYCLOPENTANE
  6. 6. 66 Condensed structureCondensed structure
  7. 7. the bonds in the plane of the paper are shown in their normal bond convention i.e., with a straight line the bonds away from the observer are showed by dashed wedges the bonds away from the observer are showed by dashed wedges 77 3-D Representation Of Organic3-D Representation Of Organic MoleculesMolecules
  8. 8. Primary(1°) – attached to ONE other carbon Secondary(2°) – attached to TWO other carbons Tertiary(3°) – attached to THREE other carbons Quaternary(4°) –attached to FOUR othercarbons 88 Types of CarbonsTypes of Carbons
  9. 9. Organic Compounds Homocyclic or Carbocyclic compounds Aromatic compounds Acyclic or open chain compounds Heterocyclic compounds Benzenoid compounds Cyclic or Closed chain or Ring compounds Alicyclic compounds Non- benzenoid compounds 99 Classification Of Organic Compounds
  10. 10. Functional Group An Atom or Group of atoms joined in a specific manner which are responsible for the characteristic chemical properties of the organic compounds Homologous series A group or a series of organic compounds each containing a characteristic functional group forms a homologous series .The successive members differ from each other in molecular formula by a –CH2 unit. 1010 Functional Group And HomologousFunctional Group And Homologous seriesseries
  11. 11. IUPAC NAMINGIUPAC NAMING International Union of Pure And Applied ChemistryInternational Union of Pure And Applied Chemistry
  12. 12. Thenamesof these compoundsarebased on thenumber of carbonsin thelongest i.e., parent chain liketheword root ‘Meth’ for 1 and so on and theseend with suffix ‘-ane’ 1111 IUPAC Nomenclature of AlkanesIUPAC Nomenclature of Alkanes Number of Carbons Wood Root IUPAC Name Structure 1 Meth Methane CH4 2 Eth Ethane C2H6 3 Prop Propane C3H8 4 But Butane C4H10 5 Pent Pentane C5H12 6 Hex Hexane C6H14 7 Hept Heptane C7H16 8 Oct Octane C8H18 9 Non Nonane C8H20 10 dec Decane C10H22
  13. 13. 1212 Rules For the IUPAC Naming of Branched ChainRules For the IUPAC Naming of Branched Chain HydrocarbonsHydrocarbons Rule :-1 Rule :-2 Rule :-3 Rule :-4Rule :-4 Rule :-5 Rule :-6 Rule :-7 To Identify the longest carbon chain containg largest numberof carbonTo Identify the longest carbon chain containg largest numberof carbon atomsatoms To numberthe carbon chain fromthat end which in nearto the alkyl groupTo numberthe carbon chain fromthat end which in nearto the alkyl group Numbers and letters are separated by small dash.Numbers and letters are separated by small dash. To give the name to the parent chain containing the given numberofTo give the name to the parent chain containing the given numberof carboncarbon atomsatoms Identify the alkyl group and to write theirnames as prefix to that parentIdentify the alkyl group and to write theirnames as prefix to that parent alkyl along with properpositionalkyl along with properposition If different alkyl group are present theirnames are written alphabeticallyIf different alkyl group are present theirnames are written alphabetically along with position as prefixalong with position as prefix If two ormore alkyl group are present then prefixes di, tri etc are used toIf two ormore alkyl group are present then prefixes di, tri etc are used to indicate the numbers and theirpositions.indicate the numbers and theirpositions.
  14. 14. 1313 Functional Groups and Hydrocarbons :- The GroupsFunctional Groups and Hydrocarbons :- The Groups
  15. 15. S. No Class of Compound Functional Group Prefix Suffix Example 1 Alkane - -ane Methane 2 Alkene - -ene Ethene 3 Alkyl - -yne Butyl 4 Haloalkane Cl Chloro Halo - Chloromethane Br Bromo Bromomethane 5 Alcohol Hydroxyl Hydroxyl -ol methanol 6 Aldehyde Formyl -al propanal 7 Ketone Keto -one propanone 8 Carboxylic Acid Carboxy -oic acid Butanoic acid 9 Esters Carbonyl -oate butanoate 10 Ethers Alkoxy 11 Amines Amino Amine 12 Amides carbomoyle -amide 13 Acid Chlorine Halo Carboxyl -olyhalide 14 Nitrocompound 15 Cynides Cyano Nitrite
  16. 16. Chapter 2 17 1414 .... And Their Structures.... And Their Structures Carboxylic Acid
  17. 17. 1515 Some Specific Rules Related To Functional GroupsSome Specific Rules Related To Functional Groups Aldehyde Numbering should be Started From the Carbon Which Contains the Aldehyde Group General RuleGeneral Rule If the letter next to the ‘e’ of alkane is a vowel then ‘e’ is cancelled and if the next letter to ‘e’ of alkane is consonant then ‘e’ is retained
  18. 18. 11 66 IUPAC Nomenclature of poly functional group and the order ofIUPAC Nomenclature of poly functional group and the order of prioritypriority If the compounds contains two or more diff functionalIf the compounds contains two or more diff functional groups then in these compounds one functional group isgroups then in these compounds one functional group is considered as the principal functional group and writtenconsidered as the principal functional group and written as suffix and the remaining functional groups areas suffix and the remaining functional groups are considered as secondary functional groups and writtenconsidered as secondary functional groups and written as prefixes . The priority order is :-as prefixes . The priority order is :- Carboxylic acidCarboxylic acid >> EsterEster >> Acid chlorideAcid chloride >> amideamide >> CyanoCyano >> aldehydealdehyde >> KetoKeto >> HydroxyHydroxy >> amineamine >> double Bonddouble Bond >> tripletriple bondbond >> halogenhalogen
  19. 19. 11 77 ExamplesExamples
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