Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011
Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 1
Name: - Pranav Ghildiyal
Class: - IX D
Subject: - Sc...
Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011
Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 2
INDEX
Serial
number
Topic Page number
1. Introductio...
Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011
Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 3
INTRODUCTION TO DISEASES
A disease is an abnormal co...
Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011
Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 4
Diseases are classified as communicable and non-comm...
Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011
Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 5
In June 2009, the World Health Organization declared...
Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011
Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 6
During the mid-20th century, identification of influ...
Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011
Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 7
during the early 1950s. Outbreaks of Russian flu occ...
Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011
Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 8
PRECAUTIONS TO PREVENT SWINE FLU
We can have the fol...
Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011
Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 9
Avoid contact with people who are coughing or sneezi...
Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011
Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 10
• When handling or disinfecting anything that might...
Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011
Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 11
• Phones
• Computers (screen, keyboard, mouse)
• De...
Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011
Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 12
continued to be co-circulation of influenza H1N1 (2...
Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011
Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 13
In Southeast Asia, several countries continued to r...
Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011
Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 14
Influenza A(H3N2): Algeria, Argentina, Australia, B...
Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011
Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 15
www.wikipedia.org
www.who.int
www.answers.com
www.g...
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H1 n1 swine flu

  1. 1. Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011 Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 1 Name: - Pranav Ghildiyal Class: - IX D Subject: - Science II term Project work
  2. 2. Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011 Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 2 INDEX Serial number Topic Page number 1. Introduction To Diseases 3 2. Types Of Diseases 4 3. Common Diseases 4 4. H1n1 Swine Flu (Introduction To Swine Flu) 5 5. Swine Flu Outbreaks 7 6.1 Spanish Flu(1918) 7 6.2 Fort Dix Outbreak(1976) 7 6.3 Russian Flu (1977) 7 6.4 Mexician Flu (2009 ) 8 6. Causes Of Swine Flu 8 7. Symptoms Of Swine Flu 8 8. Difference Between Cold And Swine Flu 9 9. Precautions To Prevent Swine Flu 10 10.1 Using Masks 10 10.2 Wearing Gloves 11 10. Treatment 13 11. Latest News About Swine Flu 13 12. Diseases In My Surroundings 16 13. Bibliography 16
  3. 3. Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011 Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 3 INTRODUCTION TO DISEASES A disease is an abnormal condition affecting the body of an organism. It is often construed to be a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs. It may be caused by external factors, such as infectious disease, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions, such as autoimmune diseases. In humans, "disease" is often used more broadly to refer to any condition that causes pain, distress, social problems, and/or death to the person affected, or similar problems for those in contact with the person. In this broader sense, it sometimes includes injuries, disabilities, disorders, syndromes, infections. Isolated symptoms, deviant behaviors, and atypical variations of structure and function, while in other contexts and for other purposes these may be considered distinguishable categories. A diseased body is quite often not only because of some dysfunction of a particular organ but can also be because of a state of mind of the affected person who is not at ease with a particular state of its body. Death due to disease is called death by natural causes. There are four main types of disease: pathogenic disease, deficiency disease, hereditary disease, and physiological disease. Diseases can also be classified as 1. Infectious diseases A. Parasital B. Bacterial C. Viral D. Fungal 2. Environmental diseases A. Nutritional B. Diseases due to unfavorable environmental factors TYPES
  4. 4. Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011 Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 4 Diseases are classified as communicable and non-communicable disease:- Communicable Diseases Disease which get transmitted from an outside source means that it’s carrier is not created in our own body are known as communicable diseases like . It is caused from an infection which came from outside source. It spreads from an infected person to a healthy person by any means like cough, cold, animals, mosquito, housefly etc. Non-communicable disease A non-communicable disease or NCD is a disease which is not infectious. Such diseases may result from genetic or lifestyle factors. A non-communicable disease is an illness that is caused by something other than a pathogen. It might result from hereditary factors, improper diet, smoking, or other factors. Those resulting from lifestyle factors are sometimes called diseases of affluence. Examples include hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and mental health problems, asthma, atherosclerosis, allergy etc. The non-communicable diseases are spread by: heredity, surroundings and behavior. COMMON DISEASES Most common diseases are cough, cold, fever, headache and stomachaches. 1. Cough 2. Cold 3. Fever 4. Headache 5. Stomachache H1N1 SWINE FLU (INTRODUCTION) Influenza A (H1N1) virus is a subtype of influenza A virus and was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009. Some strains of H1N1 are endemic in humans and cause a small fraction of all influenza-like illness and a small fraction of all seasonal influenza. H1N1 strains caused a few percent of all human flu infections in 2004–2005. Other strains of H1N1 are endemic in pigs (swine influenza) and in birds (avian influenza).
  5. 5. Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011 Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 5 In June 2009, the World Health Organization declared the new strain of swine-origin H1N1 as a pandemic. This strain is often called swine flu by the public media. This novel virus spread worldwide and had caused about 17,000 deaths by the start of 2010. On August 10, 2010, the World Health Organization declared the H1N1 influenza pandemic over, saying worldwide flu activity had returned to typical seasonal patterns. Swine influenza (also called swine flu, hog flu, or pig flu) is an infection by any one of several types of swine influenza virus. Swine influenza virus (SIV) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is endemic in pigs. As of 2009, the known SIV strains include influenza C and the subtypes of influenza A known as H1N1, H1N2, H3N1, H3N2, and H2N3. Swine influenza virus is common throughout pig populations worldwide. Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human influenza, often resulting only in the production of antibodies in the blood. If transmission does cause human influenza, it is called zoonotic swine flu. People with regular exposure to pigs are at increased risk of swine flu infection. The meat of an infected animal poses no risk of infection when properly cooked. Pigs experimentally infected with the strain of swine flu that is causing the current human pandemic showed clinical signs of flu within four days, and the virus spread to other uninfected pigs housed with the infected ones. During the mid-20th century, identification of influenza subtypes became possible, allowing accurate diagnosis of transmission to humans. Since then, only 50 such transmissions have been confirmed. These strains of swine flu rarely pass from human to human. Symptoms of zoonotic swine flu in humans are similar to those of influenza and of influenza-like illness in general, namely chills, fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness and general discomfort. The recommended time of isolation is about five days. Swine influenza (also called swine flu, hog flu, or pig flu) is an infection by any one of several types of swine influenza virus. Swine influenza virus (SIV) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is endemic in pigs. As of 2009, the known SIV strains include influenza C and the subtypes of influenza A known as H1N1, H1N2, H3N1, H3N2, and H2N3. Swine influenza virus is common throughout pig populations worldwide. Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human influenza, often resulting only in the production of antibodies in the blood. If transmission does cause human influenza, it is called zoonotic swine flu. People with regular exposure to pigs are at increased risk of swine flu infection. The meat of an infected animal poses no risk of infection when properly cooked. Pigs experimentally infected with the strain of swine flu that is causing the current human pandemic showed clinical signs of flu within four days, and the virus spread to other uninfected pigs housed with the infected ones.
  6. 6. Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011 Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 6 During the mid-20th century, identification of influenza subtypes became possible, allowing accurate diagnosis of transmission to humans. Since then, only 50 such transmissions have been confirmed. These strains of swine flu rarely pass from human to human. Symptoms of zoonotic swine flu in humans are similar to those of influenza and of influenza-like illness in general, namely chills, fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness and general discomfort. The recommended time of isolation is about five days. SWINE FLU OUTBREAKS 1. Spanish flu(1918) The 1918 flu pandemic (the Spanish Flu) was an influenza pandemic that spread across the world. Historical and epidemiological data are inadequate to identify the geographic origin. Most victims were healthy young adults, in contrast to most influenza outbreaks which predominantly affect juvenile, elderly, or weakened patients. The flu pandemic was implicated in the outbreak of encephalitis lethargicain the 1920s. The pandemic lasted from June 1917 to December 1920, spreading even to the Arctic and remote Pacific islands. Around 50 to 100 million died, making it one of the deadliest natural disasters in human history. An estimated 50 million people, about 3% of the world's population (1.8 billion at the time), died of the disease. Some 500 million or 1/3 were infected. 2. Fort Dix outbreak(1976) The 1976 swine flu outbreak, also known as the swine flu fiasco or the swine flu debacle, was a strain of H1N1 influenza virus that appeared in 1976. Infections were only detected from January 19 to February 9, and were not found outside Fort Dix. The outbreak is most remembered for the mass immunization that it prompted in the United States. The strain itself killed one person and hospitalized 13. However, side-effects from the vaccine caused five hundred cases of Guillain–Barré syndrome and 25 deaths. 3. Russian flu (1977) There was a fourth pandemic in the 20th century, an H1N1 strain which appeared in 1977. This was a "benign" pandemic, primarily involving persons born after the 1950, The Russian Flu began in May 1977, when influenza A/H1N1 viruses isolated in northern China spread rapidly, and caused epidemic disease in children and young adults worldwide. Russian, influenza or red flu, first came to attention in November 1977, in the Soviet Union. However, it was later reported as having first occurred in northeastern China in May of that year. In May 1977, influenza viruses in northern China spread rapidly and caused epidemic disease in children and young adults. By January 1978, the virus had spread around the world. From November 1977 through mid-January 1978 the population younger than 25 years in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics experienced a widespread epidemic of mild influenza (Russian flu) caused by an H1N1 virus similar to the virus that circulated worldwide
  7. 7. Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011 Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 7 during the early 1950s. Outbreaks of Russian flu occurred in school populations and military recruits in the United States starting in mid-January. Many other countries reported outbreaks of H1N1 virus in the winter of 1978. 4. Mexician flu (2009 ) Mexician flu started in the year 2009 in May, when a child living in Mexico near a pig farm got infected as it’ first victim was from Mexico It was named Mexician flu. It came to India very late and as t started growing Pune got the maximum number of victims but due to the climate of India it is now very less. CAUSES OF SWINE FLU It is caused by pig or an infected person. Its effect depends on the person it infects. If the person has strong immunity level he would get cured easily and early. The virus can’t remain in air for a long period of time. The only solution to get treated from swine flu is either by Tami flu (its medicine) or by the vaccine. In its earlier waves it affected a large proportion of people as the technology and medicine was not available. but its current wave had less effect as its medicines and vaccine is now available. SYMPTOMS OF SWINE FLU Symptoms of swine flu infections can include: Fever, which is usually high, but unlike seasonal flu, is sometimes absent Cough Runny nose or stuffy nose Sore throat Body aches Headache Chills Fatigue or tiredness, which can be extreme Diarrhea and vomiting, sometimes, but more commonly seen than with seasonal flu Pneumonia DIFFERENCE BETWEEN COLD AND INFLUENZA (SWINE FLU) Symptoms Cold Influenza
  8. 8. Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011 Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 8 PRECAUTIONS TO PREVENT SWINE FLU We can have the following precautions to keep ourselves away from swine flu:- Covering our nose with hankerchief of masks to eliminate the entering of the virus to our body Especially washing hands after touching potentially contaminated objects such as telephones, doorknobs, keyboards, flat surfaces, etc. To protect others, wash after coughing, sneezing, or blowing your nose. Practice “social distancing”. Avoid crowds and try to maintain a distance of at least three feet from other people whenever possible. Postponing non-essential international travel. Fever Rare in adults and older children. Can be as high as 102 o F / 38.9 o C in infants and small children Usually 102 o F / 38.9 o C but can go up to 104 o F / 40 o C or be as low as 37.8°C/100.0°F) and usually lasts 3 to 4 days Headache Rare Sudden onset and can be severe Muscle aches Mild Usual and often severe Tiredness and weakness Mild Often extreme and can last two or more weeks Extreme exhaustion Never Sudden onset and can be severe Runny nose Often Sometimes Sneezing Often Sometimes Sore throat Often Sometimes Cough Mild hacking cough Usual and can become severe
  9. 9. Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011 Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 9 Avoid contact with people who are coughing or sneezing Refrain from touching your face, especially your mouth, nose and eyes Avoid touching potentially contaminated objects and regularly clean surfaces and objects that may have become contaminated. Regular household cleaning products that contain bleach kill the virus. Take care of your health – make sure immunizations are up-to-date, get adequate amounts of sleep and exercise and eat a balanced diet. USING MASKS Only wear a clean mask and do not re-use disposable products PUTTING ON A MASK Wash your hands before putting on your mask. Make sure the person in charge of distributing the masks has washed their hands or is wearing disposable gloves. 1. Place the mask on the face. 2. Secure the ties or elastic band at the middle of the head and the neck. 3. If the mask has a nose seal shape it to the bridge of the nose. 4. Make sure the mask fits snugly around the face. This is especially important for respirators. REMOVING A MASK The front of the mask or respirator may be contaminated – DO NOT TOUCH IT! • Grasp the ties / elastics and remove the mask using these. • Dispose of the mask. • Wash your hands immediately. WEARING GLOVES WHEN TO WEAR GLOVES • When handling or exposed to bodily fluids.
  10. 10. Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011 Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 10 • When handling or disinfecting anything that might be contaminated with influenza virus (a sick person’s clothes, blankets, desk, car, etc.). • When you have any cuts or broken skin on your hands. • When touching someone who might be infected. HOW TO PUT GLOVES Pull them on and extend to cover the wrist HOW TO REMOVE GLOVES Remember, the outside of gloves may be contaminated! 1. Grasp outside of glove with opposite gloved hand; peel off. 2. Hold removed glove in gloved hand. 3. Slide fingers of ungloved hand under remaining glove at wrist. 4. Peel glove off over first glove. 5. Discard gloves in waste container. Wash your hands immediately. Keep It Clean! Reduce the risk of spreading influenza by following these guidelines. Use normal supplies • Most detergents or disinfectants kill influenza – no special solutions required! • Use regular household detergents like hand soap or dish/laundry detergent. • Bleach or alcohol also works to disinfect and sanitize. Clean often Wipe shared objects and work areas daily or more often if you think they’ve been contaminated.
  11. 11. Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011 Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 11 • Phones • Computers (screen, keyboard, mouse) • Desks and counters • Chairs and arm rests • Light switches • Temperature controls (thermostat) • Buttons on photocopier, fax machine • Door handles • Conference room equipment • Toilet flush buttons TREATMENT Swine flu can only be treated in two ways :-  taking Tami flu (Oseltamivir)  vaccine LATEST NEWS ABOUT SWINE FLU Worldwide, influenza activity remained low, except in areas of South Asia and central and western Africa, which have seen recent surges in influenza H1N1 (2009) virus detections. As the northern hemisphere winter approaches, with few exceptions, most countries in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere continued to report low levels of ILI and influenza virus detections. Except for a few countries in Southeast Asia, most countries in the tropics of the Americas and Asia have recently reported low levels of influenza activity. Globally, there
  12. 12. Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011 Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 12 continued to be co-circulation of influenza H1N1 (2009), A (H3N2), B viruses, with the latter two being predominant. Countries in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere In North America, overall influenza activity and levels of ILI remained below baseline. Notably, however, in the southeastern part of the United States, influenza activity has steadily increased over the month of November 2010; in the southwestern region, as of the third week of November, approximately 17% of respiratory specimens tested positive for influenza, including both influenza A (H3N2) and B viruses, with the later being predominant. Most countries of the European region continued to report low overall levels of ILI and low to sporadic levels of influenza virus detections. In Bulgaria and the Russian Federation, a medium intensity of respiratory diseases activity was reported, however, it is not yet known if these increases were associated with circulation of influenza viruses. In East Asia, overall influenza activity remained low across China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea. In northern China, the number of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza (primarily influenza A(H3N2)) increased between late October and mid-November 2010, however, the increase in the detection rate was associated with only a small rise the levels of ILI. In Mongolia, during mid to late November 2010, reported an increase in the detection rate of influenza A(H3N2) viruses which was associated with an increase in the rate of ILI above the seasonal threshold, suggesting that local winter influenza season has begun. Countries in the temperate zone of the Southern Hemisphere Overall, little influenza activity is being reported as the summer months approach in countries of the temperate Southern Hemisphere. Late season and regionally variable epidemics of influenza A (H3N2) virus in Chile and Argentina now appear to have largely subsided. In South Africa, influenza activity has also largely subsided after a period of low level springtime circulation of influenza B and H1N1 (2009) viruses detected in the sentinel ILI surveillance system during November 2010. Countries in the tropical zone In South Asia, only Sri Lanka reported a recent surge of influenza H1N1 (2009) virus detections during mid-October through late November 2010, however, to date there have not been reports of unusual clinical severity of cases. In India and Bangladesh, influenza activity observed during recent months has now largely subsided.
  13. 13. Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011 Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 13 In Southeast Asia, several countries continued to report low to moderate levels of influenza A (H3N2) virus detections. In Sub-Saharan Africa, overall influenza activity remained low in most countries, except in Cameroon and Ethiopia, which as of early to mid-November 2010, reported a recent surge in the numbers of specimens testing positive for H1N1 (2009) virus [18(69%) of 26 specimens testing positive in Ethiopia and 18(23%) of 79 specimens testing positive in Cameroon]. The extent to which these increased detections of influenza virus have been associated with increased ILI in the community is not yet known. Across the rest of the region, low to moderate levels of influenza A (H3N2) virus circulation continued to be detected in Kenya and Ghana, respectively. In the tropical zone of the Americas, overall influenza activity remained low to sporadic in most areas. In Costa Rica, influenza A (H3N2) and B viruses continued to co-circulate at low levels during November 2010. In Columbia, small numbers of influenza H1N1 (2009) viruses were detected during November 2010. In Bolivia, sustained active circulation of influenza A (H3N2) viruses has been observed since mid-September 2010. In Cuba, there has been a fluctuating low to moderate level circulation of influenza A (H3N2) viruses since early August 2010. In southern Mexico, influenza activity has largely subsided after a period of active influenza A (H3N2) circulation spanning August to mid-November 2010. Virological surveillance In general, influenza virus activity remained low worldwide, with influenza A (H3N2) predominating. Flu Net reports During weeks 45 to 46 (7 to 20 November 2010), National Influenza Centres (NICs) from 52 countries reported data to FluNet. A total of 1,299 specimens were reported as positive for influenza viruses, 932 (71.7%) were typed as influenza A, 367 (28.3%) as influenza B. Of the sub- typed influenza A viruses reported, 29.5% were influenza H1N1 (2009) and 69.6% were influenza A (H3N2). In addition, very few old seasonal A (H1N1) viruses were detected and one A (H5N1) virus infection in human was confirmed by laboratory. Influenza virus detection by type/subtype in countries: Influenza H1N1 (2009): Algeria, Australia, Brazil, Cambodia, Cameroon, China, Denmark, Ethiopia, Georgia, Ghana, Japan, Kenya, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Madagascar, Netherlands, Oman, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, South Africa, Sri Lanka, United States of America.
  14. 14. Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011 Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 14 Influenza A(H3N2): Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, French Guiana, Ghana, Guadeloupe, Iran, Japan, Kenya, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Madagascar, Mongolia, Oman, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Slovenia, South Africa, United States of America. Influenza A (H1N1): Canada, China. Influenza B: Algeria, Armenia, Australia, Belgium , Brazil, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, France, Guadeloupe, Iran, Kenya, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Luxemburg, Madagascar , Norway, Oman, Russian Federation, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States of America. No influenza activity were reported in: Albania, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, El Salvador, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Greece, Honduras, Hungary, India, Italy, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Martinique, Mexico, Poland, Portugal, Rwanda, Serbia, Spain, Tunisia, Turkey, and Ukraine. DISEASES IN MY SURROUNDINGS Family 1 Family 2 Number of family members 05 04 Family members having acute diseases 03 Nil Name of acute disease Cough and cold Nil Family members having chronic diseases Nil Nil Name of chronic disease Nil Nil BIBLIOGRAPHY
  15. 15. Science project work (II Term) 2010 -2011 Diseases (H1N1 Swine Flu) 15 www.wikipedia.org www.who.int www.answers.com www.google.com www.yahoo.com

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