Indian higher education sector


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Sector Analysis of Indian Higher Education Sector.

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  • The Indian education space is evolving, which has led to the emergence of new niche sectors like vocational training, finishing schools, child-skill enhancement and e-learning among others. Growth is driven by the increasing propensity of the middle class to spend on education and more aggressive initiatives by private entrepreneurs.
  • Post-independence India has witnessed an above average growth in the number of higher educational institutions vis-à-vis its population. While there were just about 20 Universities and 500 Colleges at the time of independence, today these numbers have grown exponentially. Current higher education sector in India: • India has a total of 610 universities. 43 central universities, 299 state universities, 140 private Universities, 128 deemed universities and 5 institutions established through state legislation, 30 Institutions of National Importance • There are 45 technical institutes, 13 management institutes, 4 information technology institutes, 6 science and research institutes and 3 planning and architecture institutes • Currently, the Government spends around 3.8% of its GDP on education • Less than 1% of the $38 bn of the Government spend on education was towards Capex (2008-09) • According to the 2011 census, the total literacy rate in India is 74.04% compared to the world average of 83.4% (2008) • The female literacy rate is 65.46 % and male literacy rate is 82.14 % • FDI inflows in the education sector during May 2012 stood at $31.22 mn
  • *Deemed Universities - Institutions which have been accorded the status of a university with authority to award their own degrees through central government notification **Institutes of National Importance - Prestigious institutions awarded the said status by Parliament. Besides the three principal levels of qualification, there is another qualification called a Diploma. It is available at the undergraduate and postgraduate level. At the undergraduate level, the duration of the course varies between one to three years; postgraduate diplomas are normally awarded after one year course, though some diplomas are awarded after two years of study.
  • The population of India has begun to appreciate the value of education in a global economy and has demonstrated an increased willingness to pay for quality education and more students are now opting for higher education after school. India has the third largest higher education system in the world in terms of enrolments, after China and the US. The number of students enrolled in the universities and colleges (formal system) has been reported to be 16 mn in academic year 2010-11*. This does not include enrolment in higher education offered through ODL(Open & Distance Learning). India is acknowledged to have the largest higher education systems in the world in terms of number of institutes. The university and higher education system comprises 610 universities and in addition, there are 33,023 colleges. An estimated $13bn is spent outside the country. Higher education is the second largest opportunity in the Indian education sector. There has been phenomenal growth of higher education in India since Independence. There were only 20 universities and 500 colleges at the time of independence. These numbers have increased by 26 times in the case of Universities and 66 times in the caseof colleges.
  • Over the past few decades, the global economy has shifted from being manufacturing-centric to a knowledge-driven one and as countries move up the ladder of development, the contributions of hi-tech manufacturing and high value-added services to the GDP increases. Success in leveraging knowledge and innovation is only possible with a sound infrastructure of higher education. A successful education policy forms the foundation of all fields of national development including political, social, economic, technical, scientific, and environmental. Thus, the higher the quality of university education in a country, the more prosperous and competitive are the people.
  • In the 12th plan, the Planning Commission’s focus is on instilling “inclusive growth” in making headway. The plan is expected to be one that encourages the development of India’s education sector through government spending. The emergence of India as a service-based, knowledge driven economy has put the spot light on human capital. Higher education is essential to build a workforce capable of underpinning a modern, competitive economy. The process of broadening access, making higher education inclusive, and promoting excellence initiated during the 11th Plan must be consolidated and expanded further during the 12th Plan. On the whole, with new regulatory arrangements and focused action in key areas, particularly expansion and quality improvement, a robust higher education system must be built such that it would sustain rapid economic growth, promote international competitiveness, while at the same time meet the rising expectations of the young enterprising Indians.
  • In case of PPP, the Government is actively considering the following models: • Basic Infrastructure Model: Here, the private sector invests in infrastructure. The government manages the operations of the institution, making annualized payments to the private investor • Outsourcing Model: In this case, the Private sector invests in infrastructure, manages operations in lieu of payment from the Government for specified services. Equity/Hybrid Model: Here the investment in infrastructure is shared between government and private sector while operation and management is vested with the private sector • Reverse Outsourcing Model: As per this model, Government invests in infrastructure and the private sector takes the responsibility of operation and management
  • Multiple regulators and onerous regulations: Education under the Indian Constitution is on the concurrent list, which makes it both a Central and a State subject. Over the years, lack of communication and co-ordination between the two spheres of authority has resulted in creation of multiple regulators in this sector. The complexity is further compounded due to a number of onerous regulations governing investment in this sector. In addition to the education sector regulations mentioned above, there are a few other central regulations applicable across the higher education sector such as IGNOU Act, FDI, FCRA, Indian Companies Act (Section 25 Company), Indian Trusts Act, Societies Registration Act, Income Tax Act etc. Similarly, in case of States, some local regulations are applicable across this sector such as State Public Trusts Act, State Societies Registration Acts etc.
  • In the last 3 years, the education sector has witnessed a number of bills addressing key industry issues such as opening the sector to foreign universities, over-arching regulator, tribunals and unfair trade practices, among others, being tabled in the parliament. Some of these bills have been revised and re tabled in the parliament based on the recommendations of special committees constituted by the Government. Hopefully, we believe that these bills will be approved by the parliament based on consensus approach. Key reforms in the offing include: • NCHER as over-arching regulator to subsume both UGC and AICTE • Accreditation to be made mandatory for every formal education institution. NAAC to register and monitor accreditation authorities • Dispute settlement mechanisms put in place to expedite adjudication of disputes in Education Sector • Universities for Research & Innovation Bill 2012, which envisages setting up of universities of excellence is pending in the parliament. Greater autonomy to be provided to such institutions.
  • While India has made significant progress in ensuring access to primary education, the proportion of students who remain in the education system until higher education is considerably less. Ensuring equitable access to higher education is also a challenge with disparities seen across gender, regions and socio-economic groups. • Enrolment: In terms of GER in higher education, India with a GER of about 15% lags behind to a great extent as compared to the developed world, as well as, other developing countries, as illustrated in the figure below. With the rising levels of enrolments in school education, the supply of higher education institutes is insufficient to meet the growing demand in the country. • Equity: According to data for 2009-101, while the GER in higher education in India was 17.1 for males, it was only 12.7 for females. Additionally, while the overall GER for the population was 15%, the corresponding figures for SCs and STs were 11.1 and 10.3, respectively. There are regional variations too with Uttar Pradesh having a GER of 10.9 while Delhi has a GER of 47.9. These figures reflect some of the significant imbalances within the higher education system.
  • There are various dimensions of quality in education, including content, mode of delivery, infrastructure and facilities, employability, etc. Ensuring quality in higher education is amongst the foremost challenges being faced in India today, with few institutes having achieved global recognition for excellence. • Curriculum and Pedagogy: A key concern cited by higher education institutes is the lack of autonomy with respect to framing course curriculum resulting in a course structure that is often outdated. The curriculum is often not oriented to encourage entrepreneurship and innovation among students. Additionally, the adoption of new modes of delivery, such as technology-enabled learning, has not yet become widespread • Infrastructure: Higher education institutes run by the public sector suffer from poor physical facilities and infrastructure. The higher education system also suffers from misalignment of supply in the sense that while there are courses in which the demand is in excess of the available number of seats, there is excess capacity in others • Faculty: Faculty shortages and the inability of the state educational system to attract and retain well-qualified teachers have been posing challenges to quality education for many years. The quality of teaching is also often poor and there are constraints faced in training the faculty • Accreditation: As per the data provided by the NAAC, as of June 2010, “not even 25% of the total higher education institutions in the country were accredited. And among those accredited, only 30% of the universities and 45% of the colleges were found to be of quality to be ranked at 'A' level”2 • Industry Linkages: There are insufficient levels of meaningful industry participation in aspects like curriculum development, research and faculty exchange programmes. Placement services in many universities are very limited resulting in a lack of co-ordination between employment seeking graduates and prospective employers who are looking for suitably qualified candidates • Employability: The Indian education system on the whole is not aligned to the skill and manpower needs of the market. Skills shortage across sectors is accompanied by high levels of graduate unemployment, highlighting the need to include employment-linked modules in courses. In addition to job-related skills, graduates are often reported to be lacking adequate soft-skills such as communication and inter-personal skills • Research and Innovation: There is inadequate focus on research in higher education institutes. The causes include insufficient resources and facilities, as well as, limited numbers of quality faculty to advice students. According to the data from 2009, enrolment for Ph.D. / M.Phil. constitutes only 0.48% of enrolment in higher education in India.
  • The regulatory environment governing higher education in India has been the subject of much debate. In particular, the envisioned role of the private sector needs to be clearly defined, especially in wake of the need for more financial resources in higher education. The higher education system also suffers from an over-centralized structure. i. Regulatory environment : The regulatory environment governing higher education in India is characterized by uncertainty and conflicts between multiple regulatory authorities. The role of the private sector in higher education is essential, particularly in the context of a shortage of financial resources for this segment. However, as noted by the Working Group for Higher Education in the 12th Five-Year Plan (2012-17), “while almost all major committees and policy documents have accepted the need for increased involvement of private sector in higher education, there is also lack of clarity on funding pattern, incentives, and regulatory oversight”. There also remains regulatory confusion relating to the role that foreign higher education institutes can play in the country. Some of the key regulatory hurdles have been briefly explained below: Philanthropic nature: The “not for profit” tag associated with the higher education sector has been a major roadblock preventing private/foreign investment. The higher education sector is capital intensive in nature with requirement under law for procurement of minimum land, construction of built-up infrastructure/libraries/hostels etc. It would be very challenging for any private entrepreneur/ company to commit a huge investment without any return, unless the goal is to fulfil corporate social responsibility. The planning commission in its approach paper to the 12th Five Year Plan had suggested that given the aggressive GER target of the government in the higher education sector, the authorities must reconsider the “not for profit” character. There are certain apprehensions that permitting ‘for-profit’ institutions would result in commercialisation leading to lack of quality etc However the Government can address this issue by ensuring adequate regulatory checks are put in place to avoid any such situation. Restrictions on fees and course curriculum: The Government, through various committees, has placed restrictions on fees, which can be charged for various courses. The course curriculum of certain technical programs, having close industry linkages, is also being prescribed by the Government. AICTE, for instance, prescribes model curriculum/syllabus for MBA programs Lack of clarity under Foreign Education Bill, 2010: Although the bill is presently pending in the parliament, even in its present form, it does not address certain key issues such as nature of entity permitted, applicability of FCRA provisions, “not for profit” character etc ii. Financial resources – A shortage of financial resources for higher education is amongst the key concerns in this sector. According to the Planning Commission’s Approach to the 12th Five Year Plan document, “State universities and their affiliated colleges that account for more than 90% of the enrolment suffer from severe fund constraints and poor governance leading to poor quality”. The paper notes that only approximately 18% of all government education spending or 1.12% of GDP is spent on higher education, while the requirement is for these levels to increase to 25% of the total education expenditure by the Government and 1.5% of the GDP iii. Structure of higher education - Management of the Indian education faces challenges of overcentralization, bureaucratic structures and lack of accountability, transparency, and professionalism. As a result of increase in number of affiliated colleges and students, the burden of administrative functions of universities has significantly increased and the core focus on academics and research is diluted
  • The number of people entering the Indian higher education sector is growing at a significant rate. According to MHRD data, enrolments have increased from 15.5 mn (GER of 12.4%) in 2006-07 to 17.3 mn (GER of 15%) in 2009-10*. These figures also reflect an increasing number of young working-age people who continue in the education system instead of dropping out. The number of people in the age bracket of 15-24 years enrolled in educational institutes grew from approximately 30 mn in 2004-05 to over 60 mn in 2009-10*. These trends present a huge opportunity for private & foreign sector players looking to provide quality education and services in this sector.
  • Indian higher education sector

    1. 1. Indian Higher Education Sector Pranav Kadam - 11 Raj Padhiyar - 18
    2. 2. History • Brahmin gurus imparted education by means of donations and not through charging fees or funds from the students or their guardians. • Later, temples were also centres of education. • Religious education was compulsory but secular subjects were also taught. • Students were required to be brahmacharis or celibates.
    3. 3. • The priest class, the Brahmins, were imparted knowledge of religion, philosophy, and other ancillary branches • The warrior class, the Kshatriya, were trained in the various aspects of warfare. • The business class, the Vaishya, were taught their trade • The working class of the Shudras was generally deprived of educational advantages. • The book of laws, the Manusmriti, and the treatise on statecraft the Arthashastra were among the influential works of this era which reflect the outlook and understanding of the world at the time.
    4. 4. Current Scenario • Education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: central,state, and local • Education in India falls under the control of both the Union Government and the State Governments, with some responsibilities lying with the Union and the states having autonomy for others. • The various articles of the Indian Constitution provide for education as a fundamental right. • India has made progress in terms of increasing the primary education attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately three quarters of the population • The private education market in India was 5% and in terms of value was estimated to be worth US$40 billion in 2008 but had increased to US$68–70 billion by 2012.
    5. 5. Industry Growth & Size The Indian Education sector is characterized by a unique set of attributes:- • Huge market size both in terms of number of students and annual revenues • A potential growth rate of 16% is expected over the next 5 years • Significant activity in terms of new foreign entrants and participation is expected to be witnessed in the years ahead • Accreditation is still not mandatory, however, reforms are in the pipeline to address this issue
    6. 6. Higher Education - Overview • The Indian education sector has been recognized as a “Sunrise Sector” for investment in the recent past. • Post-independence India has witnessed an above average growth in the number of higher educational institutions vis-à-vis its population. • The higher education sector, owing to its huge potential, holds very promising prospects. • With an estimated 150 mn people in the age group of 18-23 years, the sector offers one of the most attractive yet highly complex market for the private/foreign players. • The Planning Commission in its approach paper to 12th Five Year Plan had suggested that the current “not-for-profit” approach in the education sector should be re-examined in a pragmatic manner so as to ensure quality without losing focus on equity
    7. 7. Higher Education in India: Current State of Play • There are three principal levels of qualification within the higher education system in the country: 1. Graduation level 2. Post-graduation level 3. Doctoral degree. • The institutional framework consists of Universities established by an • Act of Parliament (Central Universities) or of a State Legislature (State Universities) • Deemed Universities* • Institutes of National Importance** • Institutions established State Legislative Act • Colleges affiliated to the University (both government-aided and unaided)
    8. 8. Structure of Indian Education Sector
    9. 9. Structure of Indian Higher Education Sector Formal EducationFormal Education Technical & Professional Education Technical & Professional Education Skill DevelopmentSkill Development Vocational Training Vocational Training Higher Education Sector Higher Education Sector
    10. 10. Formal EducationFormal Education CompositionComposition Key RegulatorsKey Regulators Accreditation Bodies Accreditation Bodies Key PlayersKey Players Institutes of national importance •Universities • Colleges • Polytechnics Institutes of national importance •Universities • Colleges • Polytechnics • UGC • State Government • IGNOU • UGC • State Government • IGNOU •NAAC•NAAC •Ruia College •St Xavier’s College •Ruia College •St Xavier’s College
    11. 11. Technical & Professional Education Technical & Professional Education CompositionComposition Key RegulatorsKey Regulators Accreditation Bodies Accreditation Bodies Key PlayersKey Players • Engineering colleges • Management Schools • Law, Medical, Pharmacy etc. • Engineering colleges • Management Schools • Law, Medical, Pharmacy etc. • AICTE • Bar Council of India • Medical Council of India • ICAI • AICTE • Bar Council of India • Medical Council of India • ICAI •NBA•NBA •K J Somaiya •VJTI •K J Somaiya •VJTI
    12. 12. Skill DevelopmentSkill Development CompositionComposition Key RegulatorsKey Regulators Accreditation Bodies Accreditation Bodies Key PlayersKey Players • ITIs • ITCs • Private Skill Development Centers • ITIs • ITCs • Private Skill Development Centers • DGET incase of ITIs/ITCs • Unregulated for others • DGET incase of ITIs/ITCs • Unregulated for others •None•None • ITIs/ITCs • Private centers • ITIs/ITCs • Private centers
    13. 13. Vocational TrainingVocational Training CompositionComposition Key RegulatorsKey Regulators Accreditation Bodies Accreditation Bodies Key PlayersKey Players • Finishing schools • English training • Air hostess Academies • Finishing schools • English training • Air hostess Academies •No Regulator•No Regulator •None•None •Frankfin •VETA •Frankfin •VETA
    14. 14. Size of Indian Higher Education Sector CAGR 12%
    15. 15. Factors acting as growth drivers to the Higher education sector • A booming economy and growing middle class • Low GER in higher education (~15%) – the target GER of 30% by 2020 would mean 24 mn new enrollments • Increasing share of the services sector further emphasizes the role of education in developing manpower to global standards • Several reforms by the government including the Education Bill are on the anvil to give a push to the education sector • Foreign investment likely to come in with the passing of the Education Reforms Bill
    16. 16. Recent trends in the Higher Education sector • Higher Education in India is decentralized under the DHE with separate councils (e.g. AICTE, MCI etc.) responsible for the regulation of different streams • The UGC has allocated a general budget of Rs.5,244 crores for the year 2011-2012 to be distributed under eight broad categories • Private institutions in India are focusing more on professional courses such as engineering, medical and MBA • GER has increased to 15% in 2009-2010 from 11.5% in 2005-2006. GER for 2010-2011 has been estimated at 16%*
    17. 17. • Faculty-wise the figure of enrolment of higher education for the year 2006-2007 & 2010- 2011 has been increased in certain streams. These include arts, science, commerce/management, medicine and agriculture. • It has increased by 17.88%, 31.68%, 38.89%, 77.82% and 38.33% respectively • Estimated population in 18-23 age group: 150 mn with GER of around 15%
    18. 18. 12th 5 year plan and scope for Public Private Partnership The 12th Fiver Year Plan focuses on Expansion, inclusion and quality to achieve the national goals in education. • During the 12th-Plan period, a target enrollment of 10 mn additional seats equivalent to 3 mn seats for each age cohort is aimed at in the higher education system. • This would significantly increase the GER bringing it broadly in line with the global average • There is unanimous agreement of the fact that the private sector needs to be involved to complement and supplement the efforts of the Government
    19. 19. The PPP Model
    20. 20. Regulatory Environment
    21. 21. Stakeholder Mapping
    22. 22. Education Value Cycle
    23. 23. Reforms in the pipeline NCHERNCHER UGC/AICTE/OtherUGC/AICTE/Other Indian & Foreign Institutions Indian & Foreign Institutions Accreditation Agencies Accreditation Agencies National Accreditation Regulatory Authority National Accreditation Regulatory Authority National Educational Tribunal National Educational Tribunal State Educational Tribunal State Educational Tribunal Appeals Proposed Structure Exsisting Structure
    24. 24. Challenges Facing Growth • Low GER
    25. 25. Challenges Contd.. • Quality i. Curriculum and Pedagogy ii.Infrastructure iii.Faculty iv.Accreditation v.Industry Linkages vi.Employability vii.Research and Innovation
    26. 26. Challenges Contd.. • Management & Governance i. Regulatory environment ii. Financial resources iii. Structure of higher education
    27. 27. Opportunities • Public expenditure not enough to meet the burgeoning requirements • Growing role of private sector
    28. 28. Existing & Future Opportunities for Private & Foreign Sector Participation
    29. 29. Future..
    30. 30. Thank You