Presented By: Pranamesh Chakraborty Department of Civil Engineering1st Year M.Tech (Transportation Engineering) Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur
The Manhattan Project A top secret U.S. project Program to develop atom bombs Began December 1941 & ended in 1946 (Source: The Manhattan Project by Diana Galer)
How it startedIn 1933 the charismatic Hitler rose to power causing agreat fear and hatred for him among the Jewish peopleincluding Albert EinsteinIn 1938 Germany was able to split an uranium atomand was getting more aggressive.Physicists Leo Szilard and Eugene Winger becameconcerned with the recent aggression by GermanyLeo and Eugene consulted with Einstein and theywrote a letter to Roosevelt with his signatureRoosevelt received the Letter from Einstein onOctober 11, 1939 from Alexander Sachs.After Roosevelt read the Letter he assigned acommittee of people to study uranium chain reactions.
Albert Einstein Eugene Wigner Leó Szilárd Franklin D. Roosevelt (Source: The Manhattan Project by Diana Galer)
American Involvement in World War II Before 1941, U.S was acting as a supporting role for Britain in World War II. But on 7th Dec 1941, Imperial Japan’s First Air Fleet launched a surprise attack against the United States Navy (USN) based at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. 361 Japanese warplanes attack American airfields and shipyards, disabling 19 ships, destroying 200 planes, and killing over 2300 men. Southeast Asia, Hong Kong, Malaya, Philippines soon fell to Japan On Dec 8, Congress approves entry into war. Germany and Italy declare war on U.S.
Nuclear Programs: Germany Germany started experimenting with Nuclear Fission in 1938. German scientist Otto Hahn, Fritz Strassman, Max Born, Max Planck, Heisenberg were involved in the project.
Otto HahnGerman ChemistRegarded as “the father of theNuclear ChemistryAwarded Nobel Prize in 1944 in Chemistry "for his discovery ofthe fission of heavy atomicnuclei."
Werner HeisenbergGerman physicistAwarded the Nobel Prize for Physicsin 1932 "for the creation of quantummechanics“."He lies here, somewhere."This is a joke about the famousHeisenberg Uncertainty Principle,which implies that one may not knowthe position and momentum of aparticle simultaneously.
Failure of the German Nuclear Program June 1942 – German atomic program slows down because Germany felt victory in WWII was imminent. When Adolf Hitler was in power, Hitler encouraged many top scientists to leave Europe.
The Discovery of Fission Henri Becquerel • Discovered Radioactivity in 1896. • Observed that Uranium salts would expose photographic film even when covered with opaque paper. (Source: The Manhattan Project by Diana Galer)
James Chadwick• Discovered the neutron in 1932.• The neutron is a particle that has the same mass as a proton with zero charge. (Source: The Manhattan Project by Diana Galer)
Frederic and Irene Joliot-Curie • Discovered Artificial Radioactivity in 193427 Al + 13 4 2α → 30 P 15 + 1 n 0 (Source: The Manhattan Project by Diana Galer)
Enrico Fermi• Bombarded almost every element in the Periodic Table with neutrons.• He came to the conclusion that a new element (transuranic element) have been discovered by bombarding Uranium with neutrons. (Source: The Manhattan Project by Diana Galer)
Walter and Ida Noddack They suggested the possibility that "it is conceivable that the nucleus breaks up into several large fragments, which would of course be isotopes of known elements but would not be neighbours of the irradiated element."Ida Noddack But, there were no theoretical basis in support of it and hence the theory was rejected by scientists like Otto Hahn, Ernest Rutherford and others. Source: Biswasghatak by Narayan Sanyal
Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman Fritz StrassmanOtto Hahn In 1939, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman confirmed through their experiments that the element was not a trans-uranic element, but it was Barium only. So, it confirmed that the fission of the nucleus of an atom can be done by Neutron. Source: Biswasghatak by Narayan Sanyal
Ping-pong Ball destroying a FortIn 1919, Rutherford tried for nuclear fission with alpha- particleshaving 3-7 MeV kinetic energyLater on, Sir J. Cockcroft used proton (kinetic energy of the orderof MeV) for nuclear fission. On the other hand, Neutrons have kinetic energy of the order of eV only. Still it is able to produce nuclear fission . The Reason is: Source: physbot.co.uk
The Manhattan Project Who Was In Charge? US physicist Robert Oppenheimer and General Leslie R. Groves served as directors of this project
•Robert Oppenheimer •General Leslie R. Groves •(Photo from U.S. National Archives, RG 77-BT)
The Manhattan Project (Contd.) Secret program from 1942-1946 in the U.S. focusing on building the first atomic bomb Even Harry S. Truman did not know about the project until Roosevelt’s death in 1945. Cost $ 2.2 Billion Employed more than 600,000 peopleApproved by FDR with out directknowledge of CongressFunds came from secret Presidentialaccounts
Cost of Manhattan ProjectIn a meeting, the scientists told the production chief ofManhattan Project, Daniel Bell that they require Silverinstead of Copper for their work as electrical conductivityof silver is higher than that of copper.Mr. Bell asked them how much silver they want?The answer was: “For now, 15 thousand tons.”Mr. Bell was astonished and told that silver ismeasured in ounce, not in tons. Their reply was: “5.4*108 ounce” Source: Biswasghatak by Narayan Sanyal
Nuclear Reactions as an Energy Source •Uranium-235, a source of nuclear power.
A typical fission reaction of U-235. Source: Nuclear Chemistry by Cary R. Wilard
Schematic diagram of the cascading effect of a typical chain reaction initiated by a single neutron. Source: Nuclear Chemistry by Cary R. Wilard
The operation of fission bombs. Source: Nuclear Chemistry by Cary R. Wilard
•The plutonium bomb use chemical explosives arranged around a subcritical mass of plutonium-239. When imploded by the explosives,the increased density makes this mass supercritical. Source: Nuclear Chemistry by Cary R. Wilard
•A subcritical-size cylinder of uranium-235 is firedinto the hole in a subcritical sphere of uranium-235 to make a supercritical mass of uranium-235. Source: Nuclear Chemistry by Cary R. Wilard
Scientists Involved in Manhattan Project Neils Bohr Danish Physicist Won Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922 During World War II, he fled to Copenhagen to escape Nazis prosecution under Hitler. He travelled to Los Alamos, New Mexico to work as a consultant for the Manhattan Project. He worked under the pseudonym of Nicholas Baker in the Manhattan Project. Source: Biswasghatak by Narayan Sanyal
Scientists Involved in Manhattan Project (Contd.) J. Robert Oppenheimer Scientific Director of the Manhattan Project. A physicist at UC Berkeley A strong communist in earlier life. Source: Biswasghatak by Narayan Sanyal
Scientists Involved in Manhattan Project (Contd.) Richard Feynman American theoretical physicist Received Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965 Calculated the yield of the Fission Bomb Source: Biswasghatak by Narayan Sanyal
Scientists Involved in Manhattan Project (Contd.) E.O.Lawrence American Physicist Received Nobel Prize in 1939 in Physics for invention of Cyclotron. Supervised magnetic separation of 235U from 238U in Manhattan Project. Source: Biswasghatak by Narayan Sanyal
Klaus Fuchs Born in Germany and came to Los Alamos as part of the British Mission Worked on the explosive lens Source: Biswasghatak by Narayan Sanyal
Los Alamos Secret City in the Sangre de Christo Mountains in New Mexico. The purpose was to design and build the bombs. •(Photo from U.S. National Archives, RG 77-BT)
The TrinityTest “The Gadget” (code-name for the bomb) was tested on July 16, 1945 in the desert of New Mexico at 5:30 in the morning. After the blast Oppenheimer is remembered to have quoted a portion of the Bhagavad Gita. “I am become Death,” he said, “the destroyer of the worlds.”
•(Photo from U.S. National Archives, RG 77-BT)
After explosion •(Photo from U.S. National Archives, RG 77-AEC)
July, 1945 With the war in Europe over, the Nazis and Hitler defeated, President Truman gives the Japanese an ultimatum. Potsdam Declaration in July 26, 1945
Japanese View of Unconditional Surrender Emperor Hirohito was totally against unconditional surrender. Americans viewed Hirohito as a symbol of military aggression Source: Biswasghatak by Narayan Sanyal
Little Boy Little boy was the codename used for the atomic bomb dropped over Hiroshima on August 6th, 1945.The uranium bomb, 3m (10 ft) long and 0.7 m (2.3 ft) in diameter, was called “Little Boy.” •(Photo from U.S. National Archives, RG 77-AEC)
The Enola Gay On August 6, 1945, the B-29 Enola Gay, under colonel Paul Tibbits left Tinian airbase in the West Pacific. The six hour flight went exactly as expected. The bomb was armed midway and clear weather permitted for accuracy. •(Photo from U.S. National Archives, RG 77-AEC)
Wind force- 980 miles per hour Temperature- 7,000 degrees F Killed immediately- 70,000 people Blast equivalent to 13 kilotons of TNT Buildings destroyed- 62,000 buildings Total deaths -150,000 people
A Shot of the Aftermath of Hiroshima. •(Photo from U.S. National Archives, RG 77-AEC)
Bockscar Sometimes called Bock’s car. B-29 bomber Superfortress, flown by Major Charles W. Sweeney dropped the “Fat Man” on August 9, 1945. The Bockscar didnt have enough fuel to return to Tinian or Iwo Jima, so Major Sweeney flew the aircraft to Okinawa for an emergency landing with practically dry fuel tanks. •(Photo from U.S. National Archives, RG 77-AEC)
Fat Man •(Photo from U.S. National Archives, RG 77-AEC)
What did bomb do? Initial blast killed about 50,000 people almost instantly. By the end of the year the total killed passed 80,000 people. 1 sq. mile of total destruction 2-3 sq. miles of fires
A Shot of the Before & After Effects on Nagasaki. •(Photo from U.S. National Archives, RG 77-AEC)
Truman’s Motivations Many historians believe that a main reason for the use of the bomb was retaliation for the surprise and brutal attack on Pearl Harbor. After the bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, Truman said “This is the greatest thing in history.” and “Nobody is more disturbed over the use of atomic bombs than I am but I was greatly disturbed over the unwarranted attack by the Japanese on Pearl Harbor.
VJ-Day Japan surrenders unconditionally on Aug. 14, 1945. Surrender signed in Tokyo Harbor on Sept. 2. •(Photo from U.S. National Archives, RG 77-AEC)
The TreacheryOn 14th Sept 1945, Truman received a letter from WilliamLyon Mackenzie King, the President of Canada, informingthat the secrets of Manhattan Project and Atom Bomb hasbeen transferred to Soviet Union.All necessary information were briefed in microfilm(foolscap 8 pages only) and transferred within a CIGARETTEPACKET.It was transferred by Dexter(pseudonym) to Raymond(pseudonym) on 11th August,1945.Truman after receiving the letter told Henry L. Stimson,the then Secretary of War, “This also requires action”The investigation committee was headed by Col. Pash. Source: Biswasghatak by Narayan Sanyal
The Atomic SpiesDavid GreenglassConfessed that he gave crude schematics of labexperiments to the Russians.He was sentenced to 15 years inprisonment.Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Alleged to have been communist sympathizers They were executed in the electric chair at Sing Sing Prison
Klaus FuchsGerman-born British scientist and an integral part of theManhattan ProjectSentenced to 14 years imprisonment, but was released after9 years.
Why?The Manhattan Project made U.S.A. the sole owner ofthe most disastrous weapon in world history, the ATOMBOMB.But the scientists who contributed in its discoverywere mostly foreigners, not Americans (except few likeLawrence, Compton,etc).But, the entire capital was invested by U.S.Agovernment.Russia after getting information from Fuchs madesuccessful atom bomb test on 23rd Sept, 1949.They were followed by Britain (1957), France (1960),China (1964), India (1974).This reduced the dominancy of U.S.A. to a greatextent.
Why?After Fuchs was released, his fathertold:“Neither he nor I have ever blamed theBritish people for his sentence. Heendured his fate bravely, withdetermination and a clear conscience.He said to himself ’If I don’t take thisstep, the imminent danger to humanitywill never cease.’ I can only havegreatest respect for the decision hetook.” Source: Biswasghatak by Narayan Sanyal
The monetary value of this treachery The monetary value of this treachery can be found out by solving a simple mathematical equation for the unknown X (in $) X*(X-10 )=0 9 Then X=?
Bibliography•Sanyal Narayan, 1974, Viswasghatak (Traitor), Deys Publishing, Calcutta•"Archival Milestones". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved2011-03-31•Galer,D. The Manhattan Project.•Cary R. Wilard. Nuclear Chemistry•American Nation in the Modern Era. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2005.•"The Manhattan Project: An Interactive History." Department of Energy - CFOHome. 20 Apr. 2009. <http://www.cfo.doe.gov/me70/manhattan/index.htm>. •"Key Issues: Nuclear Weapons: History: Pre Cold War: Manhattan Project."Nuclear Files - From nuclear proliferation to nuclear testing, from Hiroshima toNorth Korea, Nuclear Files offers the A to Z on nuclear issues. 26 Apr. 2009.<http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapons/history/pre-cold-war/manhattan-project/>.•"The Manhattan Project." Travel and History. 26 Apr. 2009. <http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1644.html>.•http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB162/index.htm•America: Pathways to the Present, Prentice Hall•http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB162/index.htm•http://www.loc.gov/index.html?gclid=CIrKuOifg4kCFQ2uSAod7irfAA