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Protein synthesis
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Protein synthesis

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  • 1. Pranabjyoti Das Protein Synthesis
  • 2. CENTRAL DOGMA OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY DNA transcription RNA translation Protein
  • 3. GROWING CELL Before cell division the cell’s DNA has to duplicate (DNA REPLICATION) While the cell is growing it needs enzymes and extra proteins…
  • 4. TRANSCRIPTION THE INFORMATION FOR PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IS IN THE DNA IN THE NUCLEUS. THE INFO FROM THE DNA IS COPIED INTO m RNA, WHICH CAN LEAVE THE NUCLEUS AND GET TO THE RIBOSOMES IN THE CYTOPLASM. THE PROTEINS ARE MADE IN THE CYTOPLASM IN THE RIBOSOMES DNA INFO COPIED TO mRNA
  • 5. TRANSCRIPTION: the process RNA polymerase: enzyme that initiates transcription by binding to promoter at the 3' end of DNA, unwinds and unzips it. RNA polymerase, binds the RNA nucleotides together to form the mRNA poynucleotide. RNA activated nucleotides pair with the complementary bases of the DNA strand Only 1 strand of DNA in a gene gets transcribed:
  • 6. TRANSLATION DNA transcription DNA info is copied into to RNA code, which is still in the “language” of nitrogenous bases, except that adenine on the DNA pairs with uracil (in place of thymine) on the RNA. HAPPENS IN NUCLEUS. M RNA translation PROTEIN The RNA code is then translated to protein code, which is a different “language.” (nitrogenous bases to aminoacids. This process involves ribosomes and two kinds of RNA: mRNA and tRNA. HAPPENS IN CYTOPLASM
  • 7. INFORMATION IN THE mRNA Codon: sequence of 3 nucleotides on m-RNA that codes for one amino acid. The GENETIC CODE states which codon stands for which aminoacid. 1 aminoacid 1 aminoacid
  • 8. GENETIC CODE Even though there are only 20 amino acids that exist, there are actually 64 possible tRNA molecules: 4 X 4 X 4 = 64 possible combinations 1º NUCLEOTIDE CODON CODON CODON 3º NUCLEOTIDE G C U =Gly 2º NUCLEOTIDE
  • 9. GENETIC CODE (II) The GENETIC CODE can be reffered as well to the DNA, as in this case. How can you tell this GENETIC CODE reffers to DNA? Why can it be reffered to the DNA?
  • 10. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GENETIC CODE  It can be reffered to DNA or RNA.  It is UNIVERSAL. All living organisms share the same code. We can “read” the DNA of a bacterium, a plant or a worm using the same code!! PROOF FOR EVOLUTION!!!  It is DEGENERATE As there are ONLY 20 aminoacids but 64 possible codons Each aminoacid has MORE than ONE codon!  There are codons that code for punctuation (START and STOP)
  • 11. TRANSLATION LOADED tRNA COMPONENTS PRESENT IN THE PROCESS Aminoacid carried anticodon RIBOSOME codon mRNA
  • 12. TRANSLATION The newly made mRNA (transcription) leaves the nuceus and binds with the ribosome in the cytoplasm. ONE codon is exposed at site P and another codon at site A A tRNA with a complementary codon in its anticodon site will bind with the codon at site P, bringing an aminoacid. 1º AMINOACID: Methionine (AUG) in site P.
  • 13. TRANSLATION Even though every protein begins with the Methionine amino acid, not all proteins will ultimately have methionine at one end. If the "start" methionine is not needed, it is removed before the new protein goes to work (either inside the cell or outside the cell, depending on the type of protein synthesized)
  • 14. TRANSLATION 2º AMINOACID: Glycine (only in this case) in site A. A PEPTIDIC BOND IS FORMED
  • 15. TRANSLATION Growing polypeptide STOP codon NO aminoacid is added. Its the END of the polypeptide!
  • 16. POLYSOMES
  • 17. Thanks !