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Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
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Epidemiology

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  • 1. tilahunigatu@yahoo.com 2
  • 2.  DEFINITION Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and patterns of health-events, health-characteristics and their causes or influences in well-defined populations. It is the cornerstone method of research and practice, and helps inform policy decisions and evidence based medicine by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive medicine and public policie
  • 3. EpidemiologyIt is the study of frequency, distribution,and determinants of diseases and otherhealth-related conditions in a humanpopulation andthe application of this study to theprevention of disease and promotion ofhealth tilahunigatu@yahoo.com 4
  • 4. Health: A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (WHO,1948)Disease: A physiological or psychological dysfunctionIllness: A subjective state of not being wellSickness: A state of social dysfunction tilahunigatu@yahoo.com 5
  • 5. 1. William Farr (1839): Established application of vital statistics for the evaluation of health problems2. John Snow (1854): tested a hypothesis on the origin of epidemic of cholera3. Alexander Louis (1872): Systematized application of numerical thinking (quantitative reasoning) tilahunigatu@yahoo.com 6
  • 6. The ultimate purpose of Epidemiology isprevention of diseases and promotion ofhealthHow?1. Elucidation of natural history ofdiseases2.Description of health status ofpopulation3. Establishing determinants of diseases4. Evaluation of intervention effectiveness tilahunigatu@yahoo.com 7
  • 7. 1. Studies are conducted on human population2. It examines patterns of events in people3. Can establish cause-effect relationship without the knowledge of biological mechanism4. It covers a wide range of conditions5. It is an advancing science tilahunigatu@yahoo.com 8
  • 8. Four quantitative descriptors Numbers Ratios Proportions Rates tilahunigatu@yahoo.com 9

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