Chapter 1 Introducing Hardware
You Will Learn… <ul><li>That a computer requires both hardware and software to work </li></ul><ul><li>About the many diffe...
Hardware Needs Software to Work <ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical components of a computer </li></ul></ul><u...
Functions of a Computer
Binary Communication Between Hardware and Software
Binary Number System
PC Hardware Components <ul><li>Outside computer case: input/output devices </li></ul><ul><li>Inside the case: processing a...
Hardware Used for Input and Output <ul><li>Connects to computer case by ports (eg, serial, parallel, USB, game, keyboard, ...
Ports
Input Devices
Output Devices
Hardware Inside the Case
Motherboard Components <ul><li>Processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CPU (most important) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chip set  ...
The Motherboard
The Motherboard ( continued )
The CPU
The Chip Set <ul><li>Controls most activities on the motherboard </li></ul><ul><li>Includes several device controllers </l...
The Chip Set ( continued )
Storage Devices <ul><li>Temporary (primary storage, or memory) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporarily holds data and instructio...
Primary and Secondary Storage
Primary Storage Devices <ul><li>Memory, or RAM, located on motherboard and other circuit boards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vola...
RAM Chips
Types of RAM Modules
Secondary Storage Devices <ul><li>Hard drives </li></ul><ul><li>CD-ROM drives </li></ul><ul><li>DVD drives </li></ul><ul><...
Hard Drive
EIDE Technology <ul><li>Used by most hard drives, CD-ROM drives, and DVD drives </li></ul><ul><li>Can accommodate up to fo...
IDE Connectors on a Motherboard
IDE Connectors on a Motherboard ( continued )
IDE Connectors on a Motherboard
Hard Drive’s Power Supply
Floppy Drive Connection
Floppy Drive Connection ( continued )
CD-ROM Drive Connection
Motherboard Components Used for Communication Among Devices <ul><li>The data bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System of pathways ...
The Bus and Bus Lines
Data Bus
System Clock
Clock Speed <ul><li>Of motherboard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in megahertz (MHz) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Of CPU </li></...
Expansion Slots
Types of Expansion Slots
Interface (Expansion) Cards
Interface (Expansion) Cards ( continued )
The Electrical System <ul><li>Power supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important component of computer’s electrical system ...
The Electrical System ( continued )
The Electrical System ( continued )
Instructions Stored on the Motherboard <ul><li>ROM BIOS (most are flash ROM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System BIOS </li></ul><...
ROM BIOS Chip
Motherboard Configuration Settings <ul><li>CMOS chip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores setup (configuration) information </li><...
CMOS Configuration Chip
Setting Jumpers
Using DIP Switches
Summary <ul><li>Introduction to hardware components of a computer system </li></ul><ul><li>Initial insight into how hardwa...
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Chapter01Introducing Hardware

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Chapter01Introducing Hardware

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Introducing Hardware
  2. 2. You Will Learn… <ul><li>That a computer requires both hardware and software to work </li></ul><ul><li>About the many different hardware components inside and connected to a computer </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hardware Needs Software to Work <ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical components of a computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visible part of a system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set of instructions that directs hardware to accomplish a task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The intelligence </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Functions of a Computer
  5. 5. Binary Communication Between Hardware and Software
  6. 6. Binary Number System
  7. 7. PC Hardware Components <ul><li>Outside computer case: input/output devices </li></ul><ul><li>Inside the case: processing and storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CPU – most important component </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requirements of a hardware device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Method for CPU to communicate with it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software to instruct and control it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electricity to power it </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Hardware Used for Input and Output <ul><li>Connects to computer case by ports (eg, serial, parallel, USB, game, keyboard, mouse) </li></ul><ul><li>Popular input devices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Popular output devices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printer </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Ports
  10. 10. Input Devices
  11. 11. Output Devices
  12. 12. Hardware Inside the Case
  13. 13. Motherboard Components <ul><li>Processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CPU (most important) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chip set </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temporary storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cache memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electrical system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power supply connections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication with other devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion slots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System clock </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Programming/setup data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash ROM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CMOS setup chip </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Motherboard
  15. 15. The Motherboard ( continued )
  16. 16. The CPU
  17. 17. The Chip Set <ul><li>Controls most activities on the motherboard </li></ul><ul><li>Includes several device controllers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USB controller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory controller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IDE controller </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Chip Set ( continued )
  19. 19. Storage Devices <ul><li>Temporary (primary storage, or memory) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporarily holds data and instructions while processing them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster to access than permanent storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Permanent (secondary storage) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data and instructions must be copied into primary storage (RAM) for processing </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Primary and Secondary Storage
  21. 21. Primary Storage Devices <ul><li>Memory, or RAM, located on motherboard and other circuit boards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volatile versus nonvolatile (or ROM) memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of boards that hold memory chips </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SIMMs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DIMMs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RIMMs </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. RAM Chips
  23. 23. Types of RAM Modules
  24. 24. Secondary Storage Devices <ul><li>Hard drives </li></ul><ul><li>CD-ROM drives </li></ul><ul><li>DVD drives </li></ul><ul><li>Zip drives </li></ul><ul><li>Floppy drives </li></ul>
  25. 25. Hard Drive
  26. 26. EIDE Technology <ul><li>Used by most hard drives, CD-ROM drives, and DVD drives </li></ul><ul><li>Can accommodate up to four EIDE devices on one system </li></ul>
  27. 27. IDE Connectors on a Motherboard
  28. 28. IDE Connectors on a Motherboard ( continued )
  29. 29. IDE Connectors on a Motherboard
  30. 30. Hard Drive’s Power Supply
  31. 31. Floppy Drive Connection
  32. 32. Floppy Drive Connection ( continued )
  33. 33. CD-ROM Drive Connection
  34. 34. Motherboard Components Used for Communication Among Devices <ul><li>The data bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System of pathways used for communication and the protocol and methods used for transmission </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. The Bus and Bus Lines
  36. 36. Data Bus
  37. 37. System Clock
  38. 38. Clock Speed <ul><li>Of motherboard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in megahertz (MHz) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Of CPU </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in gigahertz (GHz) </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Expansion Slots
  40. 40. Types of Expansion Slots
  41. 41. Interface (Expansion) Cards
  42. 42. Interface (Expansion) Cards ( continued )
  43. 43. The Electrical System <ul><li>Power supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important component of computer’s electrical system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Converts/reduces electricity to voltage the computer can handle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Runs a fan directly from electrical output voltage to cool inside of computer case </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. The Electrical System ( continued )
  45. 45. The Electrical System ( continued )
  46. 46. Instructions Stored on the Motherboard <ul><li>ROM BIOS (most are flash ROM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System BIOS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Startup BIOS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CMOS setup </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motherboard BIOS supports ACPI, APM, and Plug and Play technologies </li></ul>
  47. 47. ROM BIOS Chip
  48. 48. Motherboard Configuration Settings <ul><li>CMOS chip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores setup (configuration) information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Powered by a battery on motherboard when power is off </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Setup information can also be set by jumpers and DIP switches </li></ul>
  49. 49. CMOS Configuration Chip
  50. 50. Setting Jumpers
  51. 51. Using DIP Switches
  52. 52. Summary <ul><li>Introduction to hardware components of a computer system </li></ul><ul><li>Initial insight into how hardware works </li></ul>
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