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Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools
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Chapter 3 PC Support Tech Tools

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  • 1. A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Chapter 3 PC Repair Fundamentals
  • 2. Objectives <ul><li>Learn about tools you’ll need as a PC support technician </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how to develop a preventive maintenance plan and what to include in it </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how to work inside a computer case </li></ul><ul><li>Learn what happens when you first turn on a PC before the OS is loaded </li></ul>
  • 3. Objectives (continued) <ul><li>Learn how to approach and solve a PC problem </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how to troubleshoot a failed boot before the OS is loaded </li></ul>
  • 4. Introduction <ul><li>Basic repair skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing a maintenance plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing a maintenance plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working inside a computer case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Following sequence of events that occur at startup </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advanced repair skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using common-sense guidelines to solve problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewing a user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining if a problem occurs before or after boot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Troubleshooting and solving a problem of a failed boot </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. PC Support Technician Tools <ul><li>Help you maintain a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Help you diagnose and repair computer problems </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria for choosing tools: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of PC support you expect to provide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of money you can spend </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some essential tools: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ground bracelet, ground mat, or ground gloves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Torx screwdriver set </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery CD, DVD, or floppy disk for target OS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Store tools in toolbox for PC troubleshooting </li></ul>
  • 6. Figure 3-1 PC support technician tools
  • 7. Recovery CDs <ul><li>Used to boot a system </li></ul><ul><li>Also used to repair and reinstall Windows </li></ul><ul><li>Primary recovery CD sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PC manufacturer (preferred) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system distributor, such as Microsoft </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some hard drives have a hidden recovery partitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A hidden partition can be used to reinstall Windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A utility for creating recovery CDs may be provided </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access hidden utilities by pressing a Fn key at startup </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. Figure 3-2 Windows Setup CD and Windows Recovery CDs for a notebook computer
  • 9. Loop-Back Plugs <ul><li>Used to test various ports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some port types: serial, parallel, USB, network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How to use a loop-back plug </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plug in the loop-back plug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run the software that comes with the plug </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Figure 3-3 Loop-back plugs used to test serial and parallel ports
  • 11. Cleaning Pads and Solutions <ul><li>Various types are designed for specific uses </li></ul><ul><li>Example: contact cleaner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleans contacts on expansion cards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Warning: solutions may be flammable and/or toxic </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of safety and emergency instructions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Side of the can of solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Material safety data sheet (MSDS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adhere to safety procedures of your employer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: fill out an accident report (if required) </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Figure 3-5 Each chemical you use should have available a material safety data sheet
  • 13. Post Diagnostic Cards <ul><li>Report computer errors and conflicts at POST </li></ul><ul><li>How to use a POST diagnostic card: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Install card in an expansion slot on the motherboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempt to boot your system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record any error codes appearing in LED panel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look up the entry associated with the error code </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples of Post diagnostic cards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PCI Error Testing/Debug Card by Winic Corporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POST card V3 by Unicore Software, Inc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post Code Master by MSD, Inc. </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. Figure 3-6 Post Code Master diagnostic card by MSD, Inc.
  • 15. Personal Computer Preventive Maintenance <ul><li>Preventive maintenance reduces number of problems </li></ul><ul><li>Goals of preventive maintenance plans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent failures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce repair costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce downtimes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goal of disaster recovery plan: manage failures </li></ul><ul><li>Some causes of PC failure: heat, dust, spills, viruses </li></ul>
  • 16. When a PC is your Permanent Responsibility <ul><li>Tasks and procedures to prepare for troubleshooting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep good backups of data and system files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document all setup changes, problems, and solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect the system against viruses and other attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Always use a firewall (software or hardware barrier) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Install and run antivirus software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep Windows Updates current </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physically protect your equipment </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. Figure 3-9 Configure antivirus software to scan e-mail and instant message attachments and to download updates automatically
  • 18. Creating a Preventive Maintenance Plan <ul><li>Plan based on history or pattern of malfunctions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: PCs in dusty areas need more maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goals common to maintenance plans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extend the working life of a PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipate problems that could disrupt service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure data is secure and backed up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide support to PC users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basic steps involved in designing a plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define your overall goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate procedures for achieving goals </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. Dealing with Dust <ul><li>Dust accumulates in layers over components </li></ul><ul><li>Two major problems due to dust blankets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PC components directly overheat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooling fans jam, also resulting in overheating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintenance task: remove the layer of dust </li></ul><ul><li>Two tools used to remove dust: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antistatic vacuum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compressed air </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. Preparing a Computer for Shipping <ul><li>Adverse factors to consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rough handling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure to water, heat, and cold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misplacement or theft of computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some shipping guidelines to follow: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backup the hard drive onto a backup medium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove inserted disks, tape cartridges, or CDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coil and secure all external cords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separately wrap hardware components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase insurance on the shipment </li></ul></ul>
  • 21. Disposing of Used Equipment <ul><li>Various guidelines for disposing of equipment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Table 3-2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturer documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local environmental regulators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Danger posed by monitors and power supplies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Residual charge in capacitors can cause shock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern devices discharge if unplugged for 60 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Older devices may require discharge with a probe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Destroy secondary storage devices with sensitive data </li></ul>
  • 22. Table 3-2 Computer parts and how to dispose of them
  • 23. How to Work Inside a Computer Case <ul><li>Objective: dismantle a computer, put it back together </li></ul><ul><li>Some safety precautions to follow: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make notes that will help you backtrack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep screws and spacers orderly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not stack boards on top of each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not touch the chips on circuit boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not use a graphite pencil to change DIP settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn off the power, unplug and ground the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not remove covers of monitors or power supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep components away from hair and clothing </li></ul></ul>
  • 24. Static Electricity <ul><li>Build-up of charge due to absence of conductors </li></ul><ul><li>Electrostatic discharge (ESD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to dissimilar electrical surfaces making contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 10 volts of ESD can damage PC components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walking across carpet generates up to 12,000 volts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two types of damage: catastrophic and upset failure </li></ul><ul><li>Tool and methods for grounding yourself and the PC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ground bracelet, ground mats, static shielding bags, antistatic gloves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If working inside a monitor, do not ground yourself </li></ul>
  • 25. Figure 3-13 A ground bracelet, which protects computer components from ESD, can clip to the side of the computer case and eliminate ESD between you and the case
  • 26. Steps to Take Apart a Computer <ul><li>Essential tools: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ground bracelet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phillips-head screwdriver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat-head screwdriver, paper, and pen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Follow safety precautions at all times </li></ul><ul><li>Summary of Steps 1 - 4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Enter CMOS and write down customized settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Power down the system, unplug all components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Put the computer on a good-sized table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Remove the cover of the PC </li></ul></ul>
  • 27. Figure 3-19 Removing the cover
  • 28. Steps to Take Apart a Computer (continued) <ul><li>Summary of steps 5 - 11 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Diagram cable connections and switch settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Identify cables connecting drives to motherboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. Remove the cables to all drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8. Remove the expansion cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9. Remove the motherboard (or drives) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10. Remove the power supply from the case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11. Remove each drive (if not already removed) </li></ul></ul>
  • 29. Figure 3-33 Remove the motherboard from the case
  • 30. Steps to Put a Computer Back Together <ul><li>1. Install power supply, drives, motherboard, cards </li></ul><ul><li>2. Connect all data and power cables </li></ul><ul><li>3. Plug in the keyboard, monitor, and mouse </li></ul><ul><li>4. Ask instructor to check work (if in a classroom) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Turn on the power and check PC functions </li></ul>
  • 31. Understanding the Boot Process <ul><li>Key learning objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know how to boot a PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand what happens first when a PC is turned on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand how an operating system is loaded </li></ul></ul>
  • 32. Booting a Computer <ul><li>Process that drives a computer to a working state </li></ul><ul><li>Hard (cold) boot: turn the power switch on </li></ul><ul><li>Soft (warm) boot: allow the OS to reboot </li></ul><ul><li>How to soft boot Windows XP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click Start </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click Turn Off Computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click Restart </li></ul></ul>
  • 33. Choosing Between a Hard Boot and a Soft Boot <ul><li>Hard boots are more stressful on machines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power surges through system when PC is turned on </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reasons to choose a soft boot over hard boot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less stressful on the machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster due to skipping initial steps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some computers have a soft and hard power switch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft power switch shuts down and restarts Windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard power switch cuts power and restarts machine </li></ul></ul>
  • 34. The Startup BIOS Controls the Beginning of the Boot <ul><li>The startup BIOS gets a system up and running </li></ul><ul><li>Four phases of the boot process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BIOS runs the POST and assigns system resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>POST: power-on self test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BIOS searches for and loads an OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OS configures system and completes its own loading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application software is loaded and executed </li></ul></ul>
  • 35. Figure 3-40 Boot Step 1: The ROM BIOS startup program surveys hardware resources and needs and assigns system resources to satisfy those needs
  • 36. Changing the Boot Sequence <ul><li>BIOS looks to CMOS RAM to locate the OS </li></ul><ul><li>Boot sequence: order of drives checked for an OS </li></ul><ul><li>Change boot sequence using CMOS setup utilities </li></ul><ul><li>Access CMOS setup utilities when PC is turned on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: press F8 before Windows screen appears </li></ul></ul>
  • 37. Figure 3-42 Numbered steps show how BIOS searches for and begins to load an operating system (in this example, Windows NT/2000/XP is the OS)
  • 38. How to Troubleshoot a PC Problem <ul><li>Assume the attitude of an investigator </li></ul><ul><li>Do not compound the problem by your own actions </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the problem as a learning opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions until you understand the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Believe that you can solve the problem </li></ul>
  • 39. Steps to Solving a PC Problem <ul><li>Key advice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask good questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document the process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four-step problem solving process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1: Interview the user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2: Back up data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 3: Solve the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 4: Verify the fix and document the solution </li></ul></ul>
  • 40. Figure 3-44 General approach to troubleshooting
  • 41. Troubleshooting a Failed Boot <ul><li>It takes time to acquire troubleshooting skills </li></ul><ul><li>Hands-on training: troubleshooting a failed boot </li></ul>
  • 42. My Computer Won’t Boot <ul><li>First step: maintain your calm </li></ul><ul><li>Second step: develop a game plan </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 3-45 provides a procedure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan is driven by a set of yes-no questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Does the PC boot properly? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If no, troubleshooter is directed to another question </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If yes, troubleshooter is directed to stop (for now) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 43. Figure 3-45 Use this flowchart when first facing a computer problem
  • 44. Troubleshooting Major Subsystems Used For Booting <ul><li>Categories of troubleshooting steps in Figure 3-45 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The electrical subsystem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential hardware devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The motherboard, memory, and the CPU </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading from the hard drive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key aides: tables identifying error codes </li></ul>
  • 45. Table 3-4 Beep codes and their meanings
  • 46. Summary <ul><li>Some PC repair tools: recovery CDs, screwdrivers, POST, cleaning pads and solutions, diagnostic cards </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive maintenance plans extend the life of a PC </li></ul><ul><li>Follow an organization’s preventive maintenance plan, or develop one if it does not exist </li></ul><ul><li>Computers present chemical and electrical hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Protect components in case from ESD by grounding yourself and the PC </li></ul>
  • 47. Summary (continued) <ul><li>Assembling and reassembling a PC prepares the technician for actual repair work </li></ul><ul><li>Startup BIOS controls when the boot process begins </li></ul><ul><li>Four step boot process: POST, loading the OS, OS initializing itself, loading and executing applications </li></ul><ul><li>Expert troubleshooters ask good questions </li></ul><ul><li>Before tackling a problem, develop a game plan </li></ul>

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