Chapter 1Into the Internet


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Chapter 1Into the Internet

  1. 1. Discovering the Internet Complete Concepts and Techniques, Second Edition Chapter 1: Into the Internet
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Define the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how the Internet is used </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the history of the Internet and the World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how individuals and businesses connect to the Internet </li></ul>
  3. 3. Defining the Internet <ul><li>The Internet is a worldwide network of computers that allows individual and business users to share information and other resources </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet is an interconnected network of networks where each Internet host has a number of other computers connected to it </li></ul><ul><li>Users who connect to the Internet to access information are online </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Internet is a worldwide network of networks.
  5. 5. Using the Internet <ul><li>The Internet has profoundly changed nearly every aspect of life by revolutionizing how individuals and businesses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access information and electronic files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication personally and professionally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shop for products and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share resources </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. People use the Internet for many different purposes.
  7. 7. Using the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Who Uses the Internet? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Businesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professionals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homemakers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retirees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hobbyists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Using the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Internet Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Browsing and searching for information on the World Wide Web (Web) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating with others via e-mail, chat, newsgroups, and mailing lists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downloading and uploading files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logging on to remote computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducting business activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogging </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Using the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Internet Activities – the Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web pages – created using HTML or Web authoring software and connected by hyperlinks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web site – groups of related Web pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>College, university, corporate, retail, non-profit, personal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web server – computer on which Web pages are stored </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Using the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Internet Activities - Web (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web browser – software used to view Web pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to browse or &quot;surf&quot; the Web </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Web sites include college and university, corporate, retail, non-profit, and personal sites.
  12. 12. Web pages are connected by text or graphic hyperlinks.
  13. 13. Using the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Internet Activities (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web-based resource to help find specific information on the Web </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Using the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Internet Activities (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail - sending messages and files over a local computer network or the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instant messaging – exchanging brief real-time messages with others on the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chat – real-time online discussions between two or more individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mailing lists – online newsletters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newsgroups – online bulletin boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weblogs (blogs) –Internet diaries </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Internet offers several ways for people to communicate.
  16. 16. Using the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Internet Activities (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Downloading and uploading files – using FTP to send or retrieve electronic files from a server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Music, video, data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logging on to a remote computer – using Telnet to log on to a remote computer to use its computing power </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. FTP is used to download and upload files.
  18. 18. Using the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Internet Activities (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducting business activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E-commerce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E-business models </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B2C </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B2B </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B2E </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C2C </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. History of the Internet <ul><li>Origins in ARPANET </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Defense founded ARPA to promote computer and scientific research (1958) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>J.C.R. Licklider headed computer and information research (1962) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leonard Kleinrock developed packet switching (1966) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ARPANET – prototype network connecting ARPA and university research centers (1969) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. History of the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Growth and Development of ARPANET </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ray Tomlinson developed e-mail (1971) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn developed standard or protocol for communications over a network TCP and IP (1972) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beyond Research, to the Public </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NSFnet replaced ARPANET (1985) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress authorized commercial activity on the NSFnet (1992) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NSFnet moved connections to commercial network providers (1995) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The AT&T Backbone.
  22. 22. History of the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>The Beginnings and Rise of the Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gopher at University of Minnesota </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directory-based system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Made it easier to find documents on Internet-connected servers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. History of the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>The Beginnings and Rise of the Web (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tim Berners-Lee (1991) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First Web browser and Web server </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marc Andreessen and Eric Bina (1993) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MOSAIC browser </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marc Andreessen and Jim Clark (1994) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Netscape Communications and Netscape Navigator browser </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Berners-Lee’s original WorldWideWeb browser and HTML documents.
  25. 25. History of the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>The Beginnings and Rise of the Web (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New research networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet2 (I2) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CANARIE </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Internet Service Providers (ISPs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide access to the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considerations for choosing an ISP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speed and type of connection desired </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of customer service and technical support </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Thousands of local, regional, and national ISPs offer a variety of services.
  28. 28. Connecting to the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Connection Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dial-up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer uses standard telephone lines and a modem to access the Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly home users </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Connecting to the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Connection Methods (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An “always on” high-speed Internet connection over standard telephone lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broadband transmission splitting telephone wire into data and voice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires firewall protection to prevent intrusion by outsiders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Home </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Businesses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Connecting to the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Connection Methods (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An “always on” high-speed Internet connection over cable TV lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cable modem and line splitter required </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Firewall protection needed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Connecting to the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Connection Methods (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed wireless connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microwave </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Line-of-sight transmission </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Connecting to the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Connection Methods (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed wireless connections (cont'd) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One way or two way satellite transmissions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Connecting to the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Connection Methods (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile Wireless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) technologies to connect to networks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless access point – hardware that connects wireless devices to a network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hotspot – specific geographic location in which a wireless access point provides public Internet access </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Connecting to the Internet (cont'd) <ul><li>Connection Methods (cont'd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile Wireless (cont'd) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GSM/GPRS card installed in a computer to allow it to connect to a wireless network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell phones, PDAs, tablet PCs can connect to the Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-Speed Business Connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Businesses typically use high-speed fiber-optic cable such as a T1 line connected to their local area network to provide Internet access to employees </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Chapter Review <ul><li>The Internet is a worldwide network of networks </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet allows individuals to communicate, access information, and purchase products and services from online stores or other individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses use the Internet and the Web to conduct a variety of business transactions </li></ul>
  36. 36. Chapter Review (cont'd) <ul><li>People of all ages and interests use the Internet for school, work, hobbies, and personal enrichment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Browse the Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search the Web for specific information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Send e-mail or participate in mailing lists, newsgroups, blogs, and online chat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upload and download files </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Chapter Review (cont'd) <ul><li>The Internet has its origins in ARPANET, a research network developed by ARPA under the auspices of the Department of Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists developed and used packet switching technologies and the TCP and IP protocols that allow communications over and between networks </li></ul>
  38. 38. Chapter Review (cont'd) <ul><li>Some scientists instrumental in the development of early network technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>J. C. R. Licklider – concept of Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leonard Kleinrock – packet switching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Kahn – TCP and IP protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vinton Cerf – TCP and IP protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ray Tomlinson – e-mail </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Chapter Review (cont'd) <ul><li>The Web is a subset of the Internet consisting of Web pages containing text and multimedia content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Related Web pages are grouped together in a Web site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web pages are stored on a Web server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web pages are viewed with a Web browser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web pages are linked together via hyperlinks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tim Berners-Lee is the “father” of the Web </li></ul>
  40. 40. Chapter Review (cont'd) <ul><li>The National Science Foundation (NSF) developed NSFnet to replace ARPANET </li></ul><ul><li>NSF turned research and commercial portions of NSFnet over to commercial network providers creating the Internet as we know it today </li></ul>
  41. 41. Chapter Review (cont'd) <ul><li>Home computers can be connected to the Internet via </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dial-up telephone access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSL high-speed telephone access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed wireless connections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DSL and cable access are “always on” connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be protected by a firewall </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Chapter Review (cont'd) <ul><li>When choosing an ISP, key considerations include the cost of the equipment and monthly subscription, as well as the connection speed </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses require high speeds and large capacity lines such as T1, T3, or other fiber-optic connections from local area network to their Internet Service Provider (ISP) </li></ul>
  43. 43. Chapter 1 Complete Into the Internet