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3   Message from the ChairmanI am overwhelmed with                 know the mission and visionpleasure to have the first  ...
4                    Directors Speak...It is my great pleasure and pride to know that             After the success comple...
5                   Directors Speak...It is my greatest honour and pride to state a           Pentagon International Colle...
6ORACLE                             It gives us an immense pleasure to                             bring out the first iss...
7My PentagonMy Pride                                                                                  Prakrit Nepal       ...
8           Short story               A Lassie in a Wood                                                                  ...
9                                                                            on him. When he met her, he felt as if       ...
10the temple. Hearing his foot steps behind, she                     Shall I show you the beautiful landscapes Sankhustopp...
11Creativity ofPhysics Students                                                                  Akhilesh Kumar Singh     ...
12          The Mourning                                                 Living With Tears          morning crowd         ...
13        Love ‘a mystery’                                                              Prabhat Kayastha                  ...
14                                             A ray of hope                                                              ...
15      Know your phobia                                                       The charm of                               ...
16           I DON’T LIKE U                                            Born to be happy                                   ...
17                      Structure of Social Change                    and Modernity in ‘Aaimai Sathi’.                    ...
18deposed and undermined rather. Such feelings are                      Self-Expressionexposed as: "The entire period of h...
19Education and Literary Symbols                                     elements and attributes, which signifies Nepal’sRefer...
20                                                               Wife - Do you love me or your computer?     software engi...
21                    Assertion of Manliness in                Hemingway’s The Old Man and the                  Sea: A Stu...
22indifferent existence of humankind. The sea is                       Santiago is one of Hemingway’s "code heroes"- heroe...
23attaining fish is a regular phenomenon in the life of                language. The work was especially praised for itshu...
24           clGtd >4fGhnL ltdLx¿nfO{                                                                          clgtf e08f/...
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Oracle 2011 Inside

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  3. 3. 3 Message from the ChairmanI am overwhelmed with know the mission and visionpleasure to have the first of our students. ORACLEpublication of our college has also expressed themagazine ‘ORACLE’ in my hidden talents of studentshand. I would like to express which they could not showmy thank to the editorial board due to busy schedule offor its excellent effort to teaching and learning duringmaterialize this magazine. the college hours.I think ORACLE is the reflection Congratulations to editorialof positive and creative team and all pentagonians forthoughts of pentagonians on their excellent effort.micro-scale and hope that itwould help our students, S.P. Singhparents and well wishers to Chairman/CEO
  4. 4. 4 Directors Speak...It is my great pleasure and pride to know that After the success completion of 2 gloriousour grade XII students of our college (1st batch) years, Pentagon is on the threshold of its 3rdare on the path of publishing the first issue of year. Since its inception, Pentagon has strived‘oracle’ magazine. to disseminate quality education in science, management and humanities streams withoutThis magazine will provide an opportunity for any compromise. The strength of the pentagonall to share their experiences, thoughts on which the students feel proud is the superband happenings on the college and off the academic team.college. I believe that this first issue of Oraclewould be very special for the family of Pentagon Good education begins in the classroom.and well-wishers. Standard infrastructures and teaching methods sharpen skills among the students to makeDear parents and well-wishers, Pentagon them competitive. At Pentagon, education hasinternational has been established in 2066B.S. always been the top priority. We always groomwith an aim to provide quality education in the our students as future doctors, engineers, ITcountry. We proved the success of 2066 by professionals, CA and undoubltly good citizensobtaining 98% result in HSEB examinations and of the country with respectable positions. Forour brilliant boy master Kshitiz Kr. Subedi topped that we always develop the overall educationHSEB exam by obtaining 88.6%. Besides process that guides the students to achieveeducation, Pentagon has been the best college receive their destination.in sports activity too. We have won inter collegeNational SPA cup in 2066 at Dhangadhi and Pentagon has potential to generate its youngalso claimed the first position in 2nd jaycees inter students shaping their minds to be architect ofcollege basketball competition in Lalitpur. These their own future. It makes foundations forachievements have made all of us feel proud better education energizing them creative andand we hope that our students will locally, constructive in what they do, think, and feel.nationally and internationally do much better We the best and deliver the best.in the days to come. On behalf of the entire Pentagon family, IBefore I sign off , I would like to give my sincere would like to bid all the excellent students ofthanks to the editorial board and designers for Pentagon wishing them a wonderful andtheir hard work they have put in bringing out prosperous future.this first issue of ‘Oracle’. I hope readers will Thank You.enjoy going through this souvenir. Arbind KeshariWith best wishes, Academic DirectorJitendra Bahadur Chand Science (Morning Shift)Director, Administration
  5. 5. 5 Directors Speak...It is my greatest honour and pride to state a Pentagon International College, a unique andfew words in the first issue of prized possession pious blend of people emerged with soul andof Pentagon- “ORACLE 2011” accomplished mind, is established with a motto of supportingby dutiful, hardworking pioneer students of our and cementing the process of overallesteemed instituition. I am overwhelmed as development of the students, who are aspiringEditorial Board have accomplished this the better and successful academic, practicalpainstaking task excellently where they have and social skills with the help of qualitychurned up the scattered and personal education that would enable them to beexperiences of the college life. sensible enough for their meaningful existence in today’s complex and competitive world. InIt is well known that Pentagon boosts up the the course, Oracle vol. 1, the publication oncreativity of students and provides various behalf of our first batch students, may be aplatforms to brush up their skills along with milestone to convey the complete efforts andtheir studies. In this regard, ORACLE has given activities that college has unleashed in ordera true platform for students to express their to achieve the goal. In the meantime, it maycreativity and stand up in the crowd of extend the same upto our valued parents,thousands of students. It will definitely not be esteemed well-wishers, and prospectivefallacious to verbalize ORACLE conveys an students in order to facilitate all of us to buildexcellent message to the successors. correct perceptions about this institution.Finally, I would like to extend my special thanks Finally, I would like to thank Mr. Prakrit Nepalto the editorial board, Chief Advisors and other and all the other students, who have madeconcerned members for their active tremendous efforts to bring about thisparticipation to publish this magazine. magazine in this form. Thanking you all!Sudir Jha Niranjan Kumar AcharyaAcademic Director Academic DirectorScience (Day Shift) Management/Humanities Stream (Morning Shift)
  6. 6. 6ORACLE It gives us an immense pleasure to bring out the first issue, the prized possession of Pentagon InternationalEditorial College- Oracle 2011 It was a herculean task to bring out the first issue of ORACLE 2011. Editorial committee had to take a great responsibility and the road was not easy for them. The plethora of Patrons obstacles they faced was neither a Mr. S.P. Singh piece of cake nor adventitious. Every Mr. Sudhir Jha one of us had devoted time and Mr. Arbind Keshari passionately worked till the very endMr. Niranjan kumar acharya overcoming all the hurdles only toMr. Jitendra Bahadur Chand provide you with the best! Advisory Board Mr. Ravi Shrestha Creativity is neither by accident nor Mr. Thaneshowor Basyal by chance. It is always the result of Mr. Jagdish Gaire resolute commitment to excellence, Mr. Bishow Karki repeated penetrating planning and Mr. Atindra Dahal untiring effort. And ORACLE 2011Chief Editor & Designer clearly depicts the creativity of Prakrit Nepal pentagonians who have stood up to get noticed in the crowd by exposing Editors their creativity. Damodar Bhandari-Nepali Aayush Baral-English HATS OFF TO PENTAGONIANS!!!! Team Editorial We believe you will be joyous leafing Sneha Dahal Baburam Karki through the pages of ORACLE 2011 Manish Pandit Ajeya Acharya Rajani Keshari Kshitiz Kumar Subedi With Best Wishes, ORACLE 2011 Editorial Team
  7. 7. 7My PentagonMy Pride Prakrit Nepal Grade-XII ‘D9’P entagon– believe I am faking where you. But nope! Just excellence remember the last prevails is two years, the trueneither only limited to dedication ofjust a saying nor a teachers to make yousarcasm. become able to standUndoubtedly, this is on your own feet andthe unrivalled truth. help you in everyThis is what I figured step. I have realizedout in the last two what teachers haveyears of my done to us and noweducation in the time is yours topentagon. My do so.admission topentagon was Let me share a fewadventitious. Located experiences, I alongat the heart and the with a couple of mycentre of the valley, it friends went through.fulfills every We brought the ideainfrastructural of publishing arequirement for a magazine by students.student. In my last We didn’t expect thetwo years in college to support us.pentagon, I neither But fortunately,got a chance to amazingly collegecomplain nor regret gave us full supportabout joining a newly and teacher’s fullestablished assistance in thisinstitution. project we initiated.Comprising of highly We even got a chanceexperienced, to go on a researchqualified and leading academic professionals and trip to Pharping where the first hydro power plant isastute managers, pentagon is the place which I located and where we questioned a couple of highhighly adore. Inspiring students for doing productive ranking officers. This was only possible due toworks and accepting and implementing the new complete support, assistance and dedication of theideas of new minds of students is one of the best college administration.things I have found in this college. Pentagon As a guy highly interested in novels, I found pentagonpromises the five basic human values viz truth, right library stored with a lot of books of different genresconduct, peace, love and non violence. The teachers including text books. I was able to entertain myselfhave ensured that students get all these values. A with a lot of best seller novels. This was anlot of my friends from other colleges are too envious overwhelming experience to get to read such greatfor what our teachers have done to us. They books all in a place. It takes days and days tosatirically say that our teachers work more than describe about our college pentagon. Once againstudents. This makes me think over my college ponder upon the things I stated. I always say and Iagain and my wonderful teachers. I come to a strongly believe you will say tooconclusion that, definitely our teachers are the mostdedicated and hard working among all. You may "MY PENTAGON, MY PRIDE" If you create something, you must be something. -Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
  8. 8. 8 Short story A Lassie in a Wood Ravi Shrestha Department Of English westward. Having lost the patience to control himself, he firstly paddled into cool, white and winding shallow water and then dived into the deep water. As it was the noon of April, swimming became a great temptation for him. Hardly had he come out of the river when his eyes caught sight of a damsel. The sight of her made his day. She had long black hair and a round white face having long white legs. She was tall and slim dressed in brief denim short and what looked like a liberty bodice. Her snow white teeth and round big black eyes made a perfect harmony with herL eaving the hustle and bustle of Kathmandu, he beauty. Her face reflected the rustic look and came to his uncles house at Sankhu, which is upbringing but divine beauty. Her posture reminded a historically, culturally and religiously him the girl harvesting with a sickle in Wordsworths important small Newari town, reflecting the poem Solitary Reaper since she was cutting grassNewari culture. The town is situated in the middle of with a sickle in the wood up the river singing athe tiny valley Sankhu surrounded by beautiful green Newari song. He felt the the place like elysium.smiling hills. It is well known by Salinadi. As their eyes met, she blushed. However, her look His uncle whose name was Bhaikazi Shrestha had had a silent invitation.a grocers shop. However, agriculture was his sheet- Good afternoon, Miss, he said gazing uponanchor. Having arrived he felt that his uncle and her face.uncles family were overwhelmed with amazement Good afternoon, stammeringly she replied,and pleasure, for he hadnt visited them for years and accumulating her courage.he was also an apple of their eyes. Where do you live?, he said. But, before she After having a sumptuous lunch that included replied, she had heard a male voice.Yomari and Samebagi, he along with his cousin Where are you, Rohan?, his cousin called him(Gajendra) and cousins neighbouring friend from the river down the forest..proceeded to the Salinadi for a swim. Carrying When he turned his eyes towards her, sheswimming costumes, a soap, shampoo and a towel vanished from his sight like a flash of light kindlingthey reached the Salinadi, whose murmuring sound the flame of love in the fathom of his delicate heart.had been his nostalgia living in Kathmandu. There Im enjoying the sweet fragrance of flowerswas a beautiful wood up the river in the eastward. coming from the wood, he lied.The plain land lush with potato plants was in the Soon they were at home. His condition was now A wise man will make more opportunities than he finds. - Sir Francis Bacon
  9. 9. 9 on him. When he met her, he felt as if her eyes were expecting him since she looked as though she had been waiting for him for ages. Next day he with them set for Melamchi for a week. The natural beauty of Melamchi was mind blowing and superb for the visitors. However, he remained unmoved, and unaffected as he had left his soul behind at Sankhu. During his stay at Melamchi, he was quiescent. He felt as if only his physical presence had been with his uncle. The news of return trip to Sankhu next day intensified his delirium in the hope of meeting his beloved damsel in no time. While the bus was rolling down the road through the dense forest of Jarsingh Paubwa, a cool breeze with sweet fragrance of wild untrodden flowers such as chrysanthemum, red rose, jasmine etc. and the wild trees such as pine, cypress, cactus etc entered the bus through the window. The bus was bumping as the road was only graveled. All of a sudden, the driver jammed the brake since he saved the life of a herd of wild hogs that crossed the road enjoying becoming carefree andindescribable and mysterious.He did not know unaware of human intrusion in the forest.whether he was mad or sane sleeping or walking. By and by the bus crossed the Salinadi. While itHowever, his countenance showed alacrity. He didnt was rolling and passing through Lapsifedi village onbother to feel the presence of his uncle and others, the bottom of the hill by the Salinadi, his eyes caughtbut the memory of the tall, slender lass remained in sight of a girl who was dressed exactly like her andhis mind. He felt as though he had known her for was climbing the hill heading towards the Bajrayoginiages. He was staring at the window being unaware temple situated at the top of that hill. No sooner hadof the variety of dishes he was offered. In his revery, he noticed her than irresistible and irrevocablethe sweet smell of delicious dishes couldnt draw his desires of meeting her evoked in his heart.attention towards them. Instead he looked as if he Therefore, making sudden pretence, he got down thehad been pondering over something. When his aunt bus as soon as it had been stopped. By then it hadinterrupted, he noticed that all of them were looking been 12:30pm. He remembered the quotation Ifat him with awe, fear and smile. wishes were horses, beggars would ride them. He Late in the evening he had his dinner in howlingly longed to have a wing to meet her flying indomesticity. He didnt know why he couldnt enjoy the the twinkling of an eye. However, in the mood offlavor of dishes even though it was very tasty. After revery and fancy, his pace increased. The higher hehe had had dinner, he went to bed pretending to have climbed the hill, the faster his heart beat. Hisbeen tired of strolling throughout the day. He lay in excitement was quite uncontrollable and unavoidablebed, closed the eyes and endeavored to sleep, but by as his love for her was inexpressible.and by all the scenes he had seen throughout the day The trail passed through a dense wood. A pair ofstarted appearing and moving in front of his eyes as doves were cooing on a bough of a tall poplar tree byif they had been filmy scenes. the trail. A pheasant suddenly crossed the trail. A William Shakespeare rightly says in one of his jackal appearing out of the burrow down the trailpoems that the lunatic, the lover and the poet see the chased the pheasant, but in vain. However, beingbeauty of Helen in the sky. Her gaze, the elegant, unaware of it and in the frenzy state of revery, heexquisite posture, simple but attractive dress, was striding along the trail through the wood whenbeautiful hair, full lips, a complete set of teeth he heard footsteps ahead and eventually heproduced an unforgettable and seductive impression discovered her a few yards ahead walking towards You will be able to do many great things, but only if you allow yourself to be held in someone’s.
  10. 10. 10the temple. Hearing his foot steps behind, she Shall I show you the beautiful landscapes Sankhustopped and gazed at him. After he had come closer, is endowed with?, she said, smiling shyly.he had a strong sense of closeness and his eyes Her shyness reflected her captivating nature thatrested on her. He found that she had the same really penetrated into his heart. He felt hypnotizedirresistible beauty, attraction and temptation that he and followed her with undying delirium of romancehad observed in her before. and love. In such a state he sensed that they had Where do you come from? he said, panting been made for each other. They went toand sweating. Ghumarchowk situated at the top of the hill above I come from the hamlet situated at the hill across Bajrayogini temple. Her being with him therethe Salinadi, she said. Then she smiled. enhanced the beauty of the surrounding. Whats your name? he asked. Thus, the days rolled on pleasantly. His college Lasata Byanjankar, she replied. had started. But, he bypassed it. However, his uncle Then she looked at him with her seductive eyes and uncles family were surprised and worried aboutand asked, Have you come from Kathmandu? his health as he had grown thinner than before. They Of course, I have, he said. asked where he used to be busy throughout the day. So, you are not familiar with these areas, arent As his answer was unsatisfactory, his cousin becameyou? she asked. suspicious and determined to follow him secretly. He said, No, I am not because I have been here It was a wretched Saturday midday. His cousinsince we last met in a wood by the Salinadia. followed him to the river but hid behind the hillock. As he was carrying a camera, he grabbed her in While he was talking to her, his cousin was filled withhis camera taking her several snaps in different fear and surprise as he couldnt see anybody therepostures. except him. He scampered to his home and told his He felt an ecstasy while he was photographing father about what he had seen.her. But, she expressed her compulsion to leave He had only just returned when his uncle and auntpromising to meet him again. Reluctantly, he had to asked him about it. He tried to conceal but becauselet her go and he watched her till she disappeared in of their persistent questions, he could no longerthe wood eastward. conceal it. So, he revealed his love story. Hearing it, Next day he rushed to the wood as soon as he his uncle told him that his beloved was none but ahad had lunch. The sighing of breeze sounded like roaming spirit as he had heard this from some oldher presence. The murmuring and gurgling water in people of Sankhu.the Salinadi produced him an undying and everlasting According to the story, years ago a lassie from thesweet musical note. Despite the fact that the sun was very area fell in love with the son of a land lord. But,glaring in the sky, he didnt feel hot because tree after her lover had married another girl from Banepashades had covered the wood and whispering sound because of his parents insistence and pressure, theof the cool colonnade gave unforgettable freshness only remaining alternative for her was to commitand pleasure. Before while, he heard the shuffling of suicide. Hence, she committed suicide diving into thefeet approaching near. It was she. Salinadi. Since her thirst for love was not quenched, it went on roaming. Some villagers say that her spirit has been seen roaming crossing the river, walking through the woods, climbing the hill etc. The oldest man of the village, Govinda Man Shrestha told his uncle about it. Besides when he developed the film,she did not appear. Despite the revelation of her being a spirit, he was unable to believe that she was really a spirit.Therefore, in the hope of meeting her, he again secretly visited the place many times but in vain. He didnt know how in the modern world people still believe in the appearance of spirits. From the inner part of his heart, a voice came time and again that she existed. Hence, he visited the place again & again. But he never saw her again. He never saw her again. The most important part of you will always be what is inside.
  11. 11. 11Creativity ofPhysics Students Akhilesh Kumar Singh Department of PhysicsFor SocietyP hysics is the study of laws that governs nature light wave is seen as being static (according to Galileo”s and natural phenomena. Creativity in the arts is relative theory), then is it also a wave?(electric and characteristically intensely personal and reflects magnetic field of light vary with time according to Max both the feelings and the ideas of artist. By well’s theory).contrast, physics creativity is always constrained by selfconsistency, by trying to understand nature and what is Associational thinking:already known. Creativity is domain specific. That is New ideas cannot be derived from nothing. They arecreativity in art or in literature may be different from invented by combining or connecting new informationthat which is found in physics. Creative students require with extant ideas. Associational thinking plays anhigh level of logical mathematical and natural important role in discovering new ideas from other ideas.intelligence. There are two types of associational thinking: similarityI would like to suggest all the students to develop three based thinking and non-similarity based thinking.types of thinking for physics creativity: divergent, To encourage similarity based reasoning with physicsconvergent, and associated thinking. contents, the following question can be used: ‘FindDivergent thinking: many similarity between faraday’s law and Hook’s law. Students may answer that (1) two shapes of coil andThis type of thinking is important for physics creativity spring, used in faradays law and Hook’s lawbecause it can be characterized by ability to produce respectively, are similar to each other (2) both try to gonumerous and diverse ideas. back to their original state or(3)the laws are about electromagnetic phenomena because restoring force inFor instance: Kepler changed conventional belief that Hook’s law is generated by electric attraction ororbits of planets were circular into idea of elliptical orbit. repulsion between molecules.Now kelper’s challenge is natural to us. But no Bolderexercise of imagination was ever required. Kelper dared Not types of all associational thinking are based onto “pull the pattern” away from all the astronomical similarity. Connecting or combing two ideas, eventhinking there had ever been. though they are not shown as sharing any similar properties with each other, can also lead to new ideasTherefore we can say that divergent thinking plays an or novel products. For instance, combing a wine glassimportant role in the course of generating new scientific with a liquid crystal thermometer can make a new winediscovery itself. glass indicating the proper temperature at which toConvergent thinking: drink wine.While divergent thinking corresponds to widening At present context of Nepal, students should follow thespreading out thoughts, convergent thinking can be following formula that has just come out into the world.characterized with three features: coherence, synthesis, P+C=A2and simplicity. Recognition of the presence ofincoherence can play a significant heuristic role which Physics + creativity = answer X advancementmay lead to the discovery of new ideas and revision ofprevious models by virtue of an effort to eliminate it means there are answer and advancement whereincoherence. When coherence fails, the potentially more physics meets creativity.cognitive processes are triggered and as a result, thisincoherence can lead to new discovery. Of course, to understand the physics creativity more completely, the role of personal characteristics such asFor instance: Einstein’s special theory of relativity was openess, autonomy or self confidence and so on, theinitiated from the following thoughts experiment role of social environment or educational support andconducted at 16 years of age: what would be the the role of intrinsic / extrinsic motivation should beconsequences of running along side a light wave? If discussed more widely. Happiness resides not in posessions and not in gold; the feeling of happiness dwells in the soul. -Democritus
  12. 12. 12 The Mourning Living With Tears morning crowd Dipendra Adhikari Mathbar Singh Raut Department of English Department of PhysicsThe crowd is mourning in the morning Each morsel soaked with tearsin the deathless death Each steps quivered with fearseveryone seems vain in a crowd I think, I can’t really bearsuppose! The poignant tragedy of my dear.They have won the death. One second prolongs as a yearDeath of race All nights crawl with tearsHe has stopped the marathon An agony that I have to rearSweet, blood and salt Gifted to me by my dear.Forgive him forever and ever You don’t know how I am hereAll the clouds gather on the death And I don’t know how you are thereRain the tears as if it is remorseless What stopped us to share?Oh my god! The burns of heart flare.Give him the space there!Though in spite of a great space. Always in the evening, I stare At dimmed sun with no glareIt is a postulate Then I used to be drowned to despairAnd the ghost poltergeist I died, that my heart declaresDon’t politicize the deathlessDeath….. Not a single day comes fine and fairBe aware all leaders For me to soothe and careAnd Anyway I am person "living with tears’’people for the future race. Toppling through eyes in a pair. In the hopes of reaching the moon men fail to see the flowers that blossom at their feet. -Albert Schweitzer
  13. 13. 13 Love ‘a mystery’ Prabhat Kayastha Grade-XII ‘D9’ Today’s morning has added dew of charm in each rose But I didn’t find that beauty to propose Because it was only a dream Only a pleasant and heart touching dream At the very outset I would Like to thank lord almighty God For providing us such a life in Which a person can laugh, cry, joke And do everything whatever they like But at the very end I would Like to ask a question to God and then to you “What is love?????” Not a love between parent and their child Or love between any two relatives Or friends but a love between A boy and a girl Which makes them Somewhere passive Ten Excuses For Not Doing Homework 1. I knew I had to do it. But I didn’t know I had to bring it.I saw a girl, beautiful and pretty 2. My mother wrapped my father’s tiffin in it.Like an angel of heaven’s entity 3. You asked us to save papers to save trees. So,Meeting her at the door and glancing at the corridor I didn’t do the homework to save the wholeMade me fall in love more and more forest. 4. My ecologically conscious brother recycled it.My heart beats for her 5. My mother kept it in the puja room, so thatMy path leads to her God could bless it. But by morning, God stillMy wish only goes to her hadn’t blessed it. So, I couldn’t bring it.Because I love her and only her 6. Last night I did my homework so well that I hid it somewhere so that no one could steal it. ButEvery sunset has a call of sunrise in the morning I couldn’t find it.Every man has a call of his bride 7. I kept thinking about doing it and when I wokeBut I have recall of only that pride up, it was morning.Whose face is brighter than star 8. I had done it so well that my father took it toAnd whose voice sounds sweeter than the guitar his office to show his friends what a clever son he had.Peacocks are dancing in the rain 9. My dog wanted to chew it up and you told usDragons are playing in the lain to be kind to animals so I let him.Prawns are murmuring in the drain 10. My father forbade me to watch TV and do myBut I am bounded by the feeling of love with that girl homework at the same time, so I sacrificedWho comes in my mind time and again. my homework. There is only one person who could ever make you happy, and that person is you. -David Burns, Intimate Connections
  14. 14. 14 A ray of hope Manish Kharel Grade-XII ‘D1’There was a time, I’d nothing except my tears Bound with the chains of afflictions with criticismDeserted by love & victimized by despair Finally, she marched back to me with the same altruismFor me, It was such an age, bred by the nightmaresAs she was compelled to give up her feelings of care "True Love Never Dies" is the truth I fully adore I’ve realized how much her love is so pureTo the world around, my sorrows were all concealed If I know something, its only because of herThose dreams, those wishes, on the verge of being shriveled I wish I could hold her in the warm embrace for yearsI had only just decided my survival innovationWhen a glimpse of hope sparked with our reconciliation Being addicted to her love, I appreciate this addiction Even the death can’t end my love and this relationThough I’d already beheld, I let her mention Now, it feels like I’ve made reincarnationHow she had grudgingly stepped for such segregation Successing out of such a desolate age of agitation!!! Fortify yourself with contentment, for this is an impregnable fortress. -Epictetus
  15. 15. 15 Know your phobia The charm of friendship Prakriti Chalise Grade-XI ‘D9’1. Fear of heights : Acrophobia I can’t think of one, other than my friend;2. Fear of wide open places : Agoraphobia Who’s like sun in the winter, and umbrella in the rain.3. Fear of mankind : Anthrophobia She smiles when I smile, cries when I cry4. Fear of lightening, When I give up hope, she says "just try". thunder & storm : Astraphobia5. Fear of books : Bibliophobia She makes me smile even when I am in great pain6. Fear of hands : Chirophobia Now, I have got her, I have nothing else to gain.7. Fear of closed, Of all the friends in the group, shes the best; confined places : Claustophobia When I am with her, I just forget the rest.8. Fear of trees : Dendrophobia9. Fear of work : Ergophobia She’s just like an angel, with a heart of gold;10. Fear of women : Gynephobia The importance of her friendship can never be told.11. Fear of blood : Hematophobia Oh god! If you are listening to me all this time;12. Fear of being alone : Monophobia I pray she will always be the closest friend of mine.13. Fear of darkness : Nyctophobia14. Fear of crowd : Ochlophobia15. Fear of children : Pedophobia16. Fear of light : Photophobia17. Fear of fire : Pyrophobia18. Fear of food : Sitophobia19. Fear of hair : Trichophobia20. Fear of number 13 : Triskaidekophobia21. Fear of foreigners : Zenophobia22. Fear of animals : Zoophobia Action may not always bring happiness; but there is no happiness without action. -Benjamin Disraeli
  16. 16. 16 I DON’T LIKE U Born to be happy Archana Prasai Grade-XII ‘D10’ Dilip Kumar Shah Abhor me, swore me and destroy me Grade-XII ‘D5’ But I will never mind ‘coz I have that beautiful light Even though I am blind. Scold me, spit at me, and smash me Rape my every brain cell.BRIDGE COURSE ubf{ v]/L d]/f] e]6 eof] pgL;“u I’ll be happy till my last leg ‘ coz I find happiness everywhere.3ndLn eO{ FRIENDSHIP ug{ rfx] d pgL;“u Hate me, play with me, and ruke me ‘ coz I failed the final test.;Gb/, zfGt / lgZrn :jefj lyof] pgsf] But that’s alright, the God saysHELLO HI uyL{ t/, s/f slxNo} ub}{GyL dgsf] My heart is the best. I’ve not you, but the worldx]/fx]/ ;w}“ xGYof], sfkL ;f6f;f6 klg xGYof] And million dollar song. I can hear everybodyt/ To;df dgsf s/f x}g, Chemistry sf] reaction xGYof] Even though I am dumb World calls me a liar, a thiefPENTAGON sf] seminar df hf“bF To;s} 5]pdf a;]“ And you a royalty.PHONE NUMBER kfOG5 ls eGg] cfzf klg u/] But whatever, I ain’t gonna mind ‘ coz I am born to be happyPs lbg labf ePkl5, To;s} kl5 nfu]5 ‘ coz I am born to be happyp;nfO{ s] eGg] xf] eGg] s/f ;f]Rg nfu]5yfxf 5}g s] s/f eof] d]/f] pm;“uemf]ls“b} I DON’T LIKE YOU egL pm d;“u;+of]un] jf bef{Uon], College k/]5 Pp6}s/f ug]{ Plan klg w]/} agfP, t/ sfd nfu]g Pp6} . Happiness is where we find it, but rarely where we seek it. -J. Petit Senn
  17. 17. 17 Structure of Social Change and Modernity in ‘Aaimai Sathi’. Atindra Dahal Department of EnglishQ uest of social change is universal norm and Carrying Un- inherited and Multiple Professions only the constant truth in this capricious The central character ‘I’, in essay, is proponent to world. Individual, family and nations or highlight social changes because of un- inherited and states, all entities are fond of change; and multiple professions. Traditionally people would followthey have been restlessly working for that. Entire the profession practised by their forefathers and wouldattempt of all sides, from pre-historic time to peak regard as mandatory one. Usually following un-of civilization, are for changes and in thrust of inherited or various professions by same are one ofchanges. In plain, changes and modernity or change indexes to change cum modernity. The text is quitefor modernity has been buzz word and area of dumb about his parental occupation but the protagonistconcern to the whole globe. Assuring changes and is holding such jobs, which are more used to withfailing to assure it have marked the individual’s, modern people; and he simultaneously holds multiplesociety’s or nation’s step towards progress and peril professions as well.respectively. Hence, social change and modernity areinseparable apparatus of progressive social Even the participation in politics and literature areadvancement these days. supposed to be in access only to the people of modern age. Expression of character I: "Since a long time hasChange is defined as: "to become new." (Dictionary: gone of being involved in literature and politics.243). Being in new through changes is base of (Sharma: 19) and "People there would know me asmodernity. "Modernity must be understood, in part columnist because my articles would be published inat least, against the background of what went before" Newspaper, I had written books. People would respect(Britannica). Such newness, dismantled structures and me and shake hands while they would find me in politicalbeing different than of before, can be easily traced and cultural programmes" (Sharma: 5) make clues ofand empirically watched in various fields i.e. culture, society heading at changes and advancement. Beforepolitics, level of consciousness and society. Similarly democracy, involvement in literature and politics wereto the notion about modernity: "The school predicts banned and regarded as punishable jobs. In suchdecline of traditional values and their placement with situation, narrator’s involvement in literature andnew modern values" (Inglehart and Baker 20), many politics, clearly, indicate freedom, which was verynew changes have taken place in different spheres tangible and empirical social change and signal ofof Nepali society that questioned old system and modernity at that time, from long restriction imposedproved those null. Besides such in practices, empirical by Rana regime.mutations, structure or feeling of social change canbe equally noted or projected in literary stuffs as well.In short, Nepali society, too, since the time of Female Consciousnessorigination, is heading towards change and attempting The concept of structural social change is equallyto sense something new. The same feelings about supported by, new and different consciousness; that isindications of change and initiation of modernity in consciousness of female that the central character isour society are well reflected in Sharma’s essay holding. In ancient and medieval phase of Nepal: history‘Aaimai Sathi’. of women was negated. Male rationality was measuring rod and decisive for each and every task. Role of womenThis essay titled "Aaimai sathi" by Shyam Pd Sharma, was demeaned and derogatively explained. They werepublished in 2014 BS in spectrum ‘Ta, Timi, Tapai, only understood as to quench thrust of lechery and feedHajur’, is brimmed with the points and proofs to vouch breast to baby. Presence of women on social and criticalbase of social changes for modernity. cases were neither practised nor entertained but A wise man learns by the mistakes of others, a fool by his own. -Latin Proverb
  18. 18. 18deposed and undermined rather. Such feelings are Self-Expressionexposed as: "The entire period of history is male Self-expression is one of remarkable points ofdominated and women have not been in the center of modernity, what the central character in the essaypolitical activities. After the political change of deals successfully then makes a good stand of social1951(2007) education and political participation of change. Modern people, having affinity to modernity,woman became possible (Khatri and Bhatta: 73). The focus on self-expression than obeying traditional oracknowledgement of importance and strength of female imposed idea. Resisting the traditional norms, andgot a new spirit from inception of democracy in Nepal; expressing self-values are characteristics of modernity.and same period was the advent of modernity. The very Connecting self-expression to modernity, Inglehart andfeeling strongly binds the central character. After the Baker state that "While industrialization was linked withpolitical change in 2007, role of women is not only an emphasis on economic growth at almost any pricerealized but also is strongly advocated. "It is very the public of affluent society placed increasingimportant to understand that the gender issue is one of emphasis on quality of life environmental protectionthe most important issues in contemporary sociology and self expression" (20).worldwide. In Nepal, this issue is emerging in relationto development issues in general" (Khatri and Bhatta: Even in this essay, in line to match with the view of83) hints the acknowledgement of females’ role in Inglehart and Baker, central character and his womanmodern times. Likely to the very consciousness of new friend are devising some tasks on the basis of their selfsocial structure, the central character, I, is dully woven expression and will-power. "We decided not to meetwith female consciousness and opines the urgency of frequently and even not to go out together" (Sharma:subsuming their assembly in day-to-day activities. 23). The decision was not emotional and immature.Character ‘I’ puts equal values on them and assesses They, central character and woman friend, deliberatelythe need of improvising their condition and including did so and planed for not meeting; and that speaksthem in all activities as well. He opines: "Females have their self-wills.to be equally entitled, like male, in every fields of social,political, cultural aspects of life. Not even slight injustice Other Indicatorsis to be made on them" (Sharma: 36). And this Social change, which is highly desired subject, signalsconsciousness of narrator indicates huge sense of with extension of different infrastructures. Concept ofchanges and step of modernity. modernity is relative term, which is possible to be defined only in reference of some other indicators.Metropolis Life Predominantly education, health, transportation,Attraction to Metropolis life, visible in the essay, is next communication are prime outputs of modernity.foundational base to access the structure of social "Modernization has profoundly affected to the traditionalchange at the level of modernity and modernization. life styles. Education, health and communication andDespite the fact that the definition of modernity is still other facilities come in to effect" (Gautam: 226). Likelyvague and unclear, urbanization and westernization are the opinion, central character, I, in this essayclosely acknowledged to be indicators of modernism impassionedly begins educating youths of the village inand modernity. To support changes and modernity: order to sense development. "I had begun teaching"Metropolis assumes an entirely new rank order in the some youths of that very village". (Sharma: 24). Theworld history of spirit" (Simmel: 423). decision was according to will of central character for the change of society; and beginning to educate peopleOn the process of social change the two-way waves of is the onset of social change. Owing to the fact thatmetropolis influence: concept of social change extending modernity is understood in reference of some amenitiesto village from city; and villagers coming to city in order available in particular area, this essay deftly holds thoseto enjoy the upcoming changes, take place. Both of the symptoms of modernity as well. People in modernizationsituations are tangible in this essay. Urbanization and or metropolis life, enjoy various facilities and rejoicecloseness to urbanization are cursors of modernity. on those. "While eating in restaurant and riding the rail"That time apartment was close to city." (Sharma: 21) motor" (Sharma: 25) speaks somehow about hisportrays character’s inclination to metropolis. The daily changed and comparatively modern life.schedule of character, I, to visit city and handle thevarious jobs promptly signifies his intermingling state In reference to feeling of Godale: "The flow of modernwith city and adjustment with city life. Together with knowledge and consciousness generate in city and gosocial changes, people will be more money centric and far on the process of extending then reach to suburbstending to objective life. Acknowledging the fact Simmel and other areas as well", ‘Radio’ in the text can beopines: "The metropolis has always been the seat of assumed as the tool to flow the wave of modernmoney economy. (Simmel: 411); and the character of consciousness and knowledge from city to suburb thatessay seems to be money minded and cares that a lot. matters a lot for changing social structure. Silence does not always mark wisdom. -Samuel Taylor Coleridge.
  19. 19. 19Education and Literary Symbols elements and attributes, which signifies Nepal’sReference of educational institution and public assembly undergoing process to social change heading atare other instances to trace modernity in this text. modernity.Character I recalls his past of delivering his ideas uponliterature in various high schools of Kathmandu. Works Cited:‘Literature’ itself indicates a tool of modernity. Literary Dahal, Maheswor Prasad. Preface. Outline of Socialbooks are generally supposed to work for creating new- Development. Kahtmandu: Prompt press, 2063.rank order and inducting changes. Publishing books Gautam, Tikaram. Perspectives on Social andmeans a lot to breach tradition and go for new layers Cultural Change and Development. Kathmanfu:of changes. The feeling in preface of the same book Vidyarthi, 2062."While discussing about the prospective ways of coming Gothale, Govinda Bd. "Ma Jujuman". Kathaiout from this problem, this book is made ready hoping Kathiako Sangraha:. Kathmandu: Sajhafuture generation of Nepal can separate themselves Inglehart, Ronald and Wayne E Baker.from conservative notion and evil practices" (Dahal: "Modernization, cultural change, and persistencePreface) highlights roles of book or publishing books in of traditional values." American Sociologicalcourse to march toward modernity. So the character’s Review 65.1(2006): 19-51.involvement in publishing books is his attempt to break Khatri, Prem K. and Badri Nath Bhatta.tradition and invite the changes. Establishment of schools Anthropology and Sociology in Nepal. Kahtmandu:symbols the rays of modernity trying to blossom in Bhunipuran, 2003.Nepali society. "I had known many people during the "Modernization." Encyclopedia Britannica.time of lecturing on literature in High schools of Encyclopedia Britannica 2007 Ultimate ReferenceKathmandu". (Sharma :30 ) note his initiation to awake Suite . Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, 2007.people for new thought from the capital of Nepal; and Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. 5th ed.1997.his such attempt is good proof and cause as well for Sharma, Shyam Pd. " Aaimai Sathi" Ta Timi Tapaisocial change and modernity. Hajur. Kathmandu: Pasupati, 2014.19-35. Simmel, George. "Metropolis and mental life." TheConclusion Sociology of George Simmel. Ed./ trans. Kurt H.In this way, Aaimai Sathi by Sharma constitutes many Wolff. Illions: The free press, 1950. 409-424 uhn Many faces of Pg=kL= vltj8f Nepal ;+;f/?kL ;fu/df lsg kmfN5f} hjfgLnfO{ Chandra shah bnbn] lxnf]leq lsg xfN5f} hjfgLnfO{ Grade-XII ‘D7’ ;dfpm /;L af“ws;L, b]vfpm ;Gb/ af6f] klg, a]sDdf / a]cy{df lsg 9fN5f} hjfgLnfO{ vf]hL u/ nflu k/ eljiosf] lgdf{0f u/ Past Present Future sdfu{ / s/Lltdf lsg ufN5f} hjfgLnfO{ N- Never N- Never N- Nothing dgn] klg tgn] klg ;Totfsf] vf]hL t/ E- Ending E- Ending E- Except c;Tosf] cfuf] leq lsg afN5f} hjfgLnFO{ P- Peace P- Political P- Poverty ltd|f ;f/f cleef/f st{Jo;fy k"/f u/ cbfË 5 rf/}lt/ lsg 6fN5f} hjfgLnfO{ A-And A- Arguments A- And wd{ u/ sd{ u/ ssTosf] cGTo u/ [ L- Love L- Laziness L- Landmarks cy{ljxLg d"No lt/L lsg kfN5f} hjfgLnfO{ No man was ever wise by chance. -Seneca
  20. 20. 20 Wife - Do you love me or your computer? software engineer Husband - Too many parameters.. and his wife Wife - I will go to my dads house. Husband - Program performed illegal operation, it will Close. Wife - I will leave you forever. Bishal Khadka Husband- Close all programs and log out for Computer Department another User. Wife - It is worthless talking to you.Husband - Hey dear, I am logged in. Husband - Shut down the computer.Wife - Would you like to have some snacks? Wife - I am goingHusband - hard disk full. Husband - Its now safe to turn off your computerWife - Have you brought the saree.Husband - Bad command or file name.Wife - But I told you about it in the morning The First Deadly SinHusband - erroneous syntax, abort, retry, REAPERcancel.Wife - Hae bhagwan !forget it wheres your ‘Hush…’salary. Broken whispers of an angelHusband - File in use, read only, try after some She tells me to come awaytime. To live on my desires & to forget Cupid’s playWife - At least give me your credit card, i can Lucid succubus as she there laydo some shopping. Lost in her own vanityHusband - Sharing violation, access denied. 3 A.M. The placid pendulum swayWife - I made a mistake in marrying you. Gleam her amber eyesHusband - Data type mismatch. As I push myself away She blows me a kissWife - You are useless.Husband - By default. A kiss with black butterflies Cold chills & I’m back to lifeWife - Who was there with you in the car this Tinkle the wind chime as I realizemorning? To another sinner, the sin has flown awayHusband - System unstable press ctrl, alt, del toReboot. Still In my dreams She haunts me awayWife - What is the relation between you & your To a place, somewhere far to sayReceptionist? No blue skies hereHusband - The only user with write permission. Every colour’s gray No red roses of loveWife - What is my value in your life? No more Cupid’s playHusband - Unknown virus detected. Half of the failures in life come from pulling one’s horse when he is leaping. -Thomas Hood
  21. 21. 21 Assertion of Manliness in Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea: A Study in Existentialism. Dipendra Adhikary Department of EnglishHemingway’s Literary Style. The novel explores symbolic meaning in the ‘true’ Hemingway meaning of Santiago, the quality of thisH emingways distinctive writing style is story is that of poetry rather than prose, and the music characterized by economy and understatement, of its narrative language is the indefinable essence of in contrast to the style of his literary rival its dignity. William Faulkner. It had a significant influenceon the development of twentieth-century fiction writing. Assertion of ManlinessHis protagonists are typically stoic men who exhibit anideal described as "grace under pressure." Set in the Gulf Stream off the coast of Havana, Hemingway’s magnificent fable in the story of an old"Use short sentences. Use short first paragraphs. Use man, a young boy and a giant fish. It was The Old Manvigorous English. Be positive, not negative" are the and the Sea that won for Hemingway the Nobel Prizefundamental bases for his writing style. Hemingway uses for literature. Here, in a perfectly crafted story is a uniquelanguage to produce a realistic picture of the human and timeless vision of the beauty and grief of man’sbeings that appear in the story. When the old man sits challenge to the elements in which he lives. Not onlyin his boat, he talks in monologues. They make the the finest long short story Hemingway has ever written,reader experience his long path through life as he often but one of the finest written by anyone. It is the odysseydigresses to the time when he was young; the of an epic struggle between an old, experiencedmonologues also show that he is not only very lonely, fisherman and the greatest vicious circle of his life. It isbut that he also tries to overcome his permanent a tale of ritual encounter between an old Cubanloneliness. He longs for contact; that is the reason why fisherman and the destructive natural forces thathe talks to the sea, the Moon and the star. surround him as he battles first with a giant marlin and then with sharks who stripe his prize to skeleton, it isSantiago speaks in short, uncomplicated and very simple an affirmative work as writer writes in the novella, "Butsentences; this is due to his job as a fisher man. So, man is not made for defeat . . . A man can be destroyedHemingway uses short and simple sentences that but not defeated" (75). For eighty-four days, Santiago,provides the Elitian concept of "objective correlative". an aged Cuban fisherman, has set out to sea andHis use of words and sentences in accordance with time, returned empty-handed. So conspicuously unlucky isplace and situation is the bible of his style. The short he that the parents of his young devoted apprenticeand situational way of talking, namely the preference and friend, Manolin, have forced the boy to leave theof talking in short sentences used by many others could old man in order to fish in a more prosperous boat.be described as "staccato-style" compared to long, Nevertheless, the boy continues to care for the old mancomplicated sentences used by many other authors that upon his return each night. It is a parable-novel aboutcould be named "legato-style". His other influential man’s struggle against nature. Hemingway writes inmentor was Ezra Pound, the founder of imagism. the very beginning of the novella, "He was an old manHemingway later said of this eclectic group, "Ezra was who fished alone in a skiff in the Gulf Stream and heright half the time, and when he was wrong, he was so had gone eighty-four days now without taking a fish"wrong you were never in any doubt about it. Gertrude (1). The very line helps us to delve into the dreadfulwas always right." His writing re-creates the physical and lonely meaningless human existence. Man is thrownsensations in wartime, big-game hunting and into this world without any reason and any logic. Thisbullfighting. line genuinely but bitterly projects a whole story and They fail, and they alone, who have not striven. -Thomas Bailey Aldrich
  22. 22. 22indifferent existence of humankind. The sea is Santiago is one of Hemingway’s "code heroes"- heroesunfathomably vast, the old man is feeble and weak, whose courage and dignity in the face of adversity providelonesome, aloof, fish is hope—the hope is life and motto an ideal for mankind. Unable to tie the line fast to theand meaning of living. Again Hemingway writes, boat for fear the fish would snap a taut line, the old man"Everything about him was old except his eyes and they bears the strain of the line with his shoulders, back, andwere the same colour as the sea and were cheerful hands, ready to give slack should the marlin make a run.and undefeated" (1). The undefeated human vibrancy The fish pulls the boat all through the day, through theand verveness is depicted here. night, through another day, and through another night. It swims steadily northwest until at last it tires and swimsThe novelist goes on east with the current. Thesaying the ethos of life and entire time, Santiagopathos of the old man as endures constant pain from"His hope and his the fishing line. Wheneverconfidence had never the fish lunges, leaps, orgone. But now they were makes a dash for freedom,freshening as when the the cord cuts him badly.breeze rises" (4). In this Although wounded andway, the old man keenly weary, the old man feels apursues a journey for his deep empathy andquest to catch one more admiration for the marlin,big fish. There prevails no his brother in suffering. Onhope beyond rationality. the third day the fish tires,Another big fish refers to and Santiago, sleep-another platform of hope, deprived, aching, anddream and achievement. nearly delirious, managesLife and human existence to pull the marlin in closelike Santiago always enough to kill it with atravels from one hope to harpoon thrust. Deadanother without stopping beside the skiff, the marlinuntil the closure of life. is the largest Santiago hasWhen hope ceases there ever seen. He lashes it tolife ceases to exist. his boat, raises the smallPlunging into the mast, and sets sail forconundrums of hope and home. While Santiago isentertaining with the box excited by the price that theof Pandora is the marlin will bring at market,foundation of life. Manolin he is more concerned thathelps the old man tote his the people who will eat thegear to his ramshackle fish are unworthy of itshut, secures food for him, and discusses the latest greatness. This novel is considered to be natural tragedy.developments in American baseball, especially the trials In Greek tragic sensibility, fate plays a vital role. In theof the old man’s hero, Joe DiMaggio. American baseball like manner, nature plays a significant role to make thisand American life go parallel. Both should have played novel as tragedy. Art transforms the tragic condition andon the platter of fate, faith and fortune. Santiago is human predicament into the realm of purgation,confident that his unproductive streak will soon come to purification and liberating purgatory. The huge glimpsean end, and he resolves to sail out farther than usual the of hopefulness and optimism can be perceived throughfollowing day. On the eighty-fifth day of his unlucky streak, these lines, "Every day is a new day. It is better to beSantiago does as promised, sailing his skiff far beyond lucky" (19) amidst of insurmountable sorrows andthe island’s shallow coastal waters and venturing into sufferings. The line "But today is eighty-five days and Ithe Gulf Stream. He prepares his lines and drops them. should fish the day well. . . Christ knows he can’t haveAt noon, a big fish, which he knows is a marlin, takes the go" (27-7) is loaded with a zest for life, hope for a morebait that Santiago has placed one hundred fathoms deep optimistic vista of life. The symbolic meaning of Christ isin the waters. The old man expertly hooks the fish, but resurrection that means revitalization and rejuvenationhe cannot pull it in. Instead, the fish begins to pull the of life. In the tragic death of Christ, there lies salvationboat. Here, the vastness of the old man’s fate and the of humanity and redemption of mankind from the originalvastness of the sea are similar ones. sin since creation. Similarly, Santiago’s last hope of Failure is only the opportunity to more intelligently begin again. -Henry Ford
  23. 23. 23attaining fish is a regular phenomenon in the life of language. The work was especially praised for itshumanity. Life is an outcome of cause and effect in spatio- depiction of a new dimension to the typical Hemingwaytemporal dimension of this world. hero, less macho and more respectful of life.As Santiago sails on with the fish, the marlin’s blood The novel is a study of man’s place in the world ofleaves a trail in the water and attracts sharks. The violence, chaos and destruction. It is a brilliant expressionfirst to attack is a great macho shark, which Santiago of the stoicism which characterized so much ofmanages to slay with the harpoon. In the struggle, Hemingway’s work as a novelist and a short story writer.the old man loses the harpoon and lengths ofvaluable rope, which leaves him vulnerable to other Works Citedshark attacks. The old man fights off the successive Benson, Jackson J. "Literary and the Private Irony of Ernestvicious predators as best he can, stabbing at them Heminway." Pacific Coast Philology, vol. 4 (1969): 24-29.with a crude spear he makes by lashing a knife to Bigelow, Gorden E. "A Primer of Existentialism." Collegean oar, and even clubbing them with the boat’s tiller. English, 23.5 (Dec. 1961): 171-8.Although he kills several sharks, more and more Bruneau, Jean. "Existentialism and the Americanappear, and by the time night falls, Santiago’s Novel." Yale French Studies (1948): 66-72.continued fight against the scavengers is useless. Burhans, Jr., Clinton S. "The Old Man and the Sea:They devour the marlin’s precious meat, leaving only Hemingway’s tragic Vision of Man." Americanskeleton, head, and tail. Santiago chastises himself Literature (1960): 446-455.for going "out too far," and for sacrificing his great Camus, Albert. "The Myth of Sisyphus." Essays onand worthy opponent. He arrives home before The Creation of Knowledge. Ratna: Kathmandudaybreak, stumbles back to his shack, and sleeps (1996): 66-72.very deeply. The close of the novel sees Santiago Cain, William E. "Death Sentences: Rereading Theseemingly defeated –he is suffering exhaustion, his Old Man and the Sea." Sewanee Review, 114.1hands and back are injured and his great fish is just (Winter 2006): 112-25.skeleton, ravaged by sharks and left to be taken out Donaldson, Scott. "Hemingway’s Morality ofto sea by the tide. Compensation." American Literature, 43.3 (Nov. 1971): 399-420.The next morning, a crowd of amazed fishermen gathers Durham, Philip. "Ernest Hemingway’s Grace underaround the skeletal carcass of the fish, which is still Pressure: The Western Code." The Pacific Historicallashed to the boat. Knowing nothing of the old man’s Review, 45.3 (Aug. 1976): 425-32.struggle, tourists at a nearby café observe the remains Eddins, Dwight. "Of Rocks and Marlin: Theof the giant marlin and mistake it for a shark. Manolin, Existentialist . . . The Old Man and the Sea."who has been worried sick over the old man’s absence, Hemingway Review, 21.1, The U of Idaho P: Moscowis moved to tears when he finds Santiago safe in his (Fall 2001): 68-76.bed. The boy fetches the old man some coffee and the Ehrmann, Jacques. "Camus and the Existentialistdaily papers with the baseball scores, and watches him Adventure." Yale French Studies, No. 25, Albertsleep. When the old man wakes, the two agree to fish Camus. (1960): 93-7.as partners once more. Although appearing only in the Evans, Robert. "Hemingway and the Pale Cast of Thought."opening and closing pages of the novel, Manolin is also American Literature, 38.2 (May 1966): 161-76.an important character. He is Santiago’s apprentice and Faulkner, William. Rev. of The Old Man and The Sea,disciple. Manolin’s most important attribute is his loyalty. by Linda W. Wagner. Ernest Hemingway: Six DecadesThe old man returns to sleep and dreams his usual of Criticism (1987): 5.dream of lions at play on the beaches of Africa. Grebsteinn, Sheldon Norman. "Hemingway’s Craft inDreaming of lions directly symbolizes an attribute of an The Old Man and the Sea." The Fifties: Fiction, Poetry,assertive manliness. Dreaming the lions is an outlet of Drama (1970): 95-103.ego-gratification fulfilling the untreaded inner psyche. Gurko, Leo. "The Heroic Impulse in The Old Man and The Sea." The English Journal (1955): 377-382.Hemingway concludes the novella with optimistic and Halliday, E. M "Hemingway’s Ambiguity: Symbolismlife-assertive motto saying, "The old man was dreaming and Irony." American Literature, 28.1(1956): 1-22.about the lions" (92). The heroic impulse to create Hemingway, Ernest. The Old Man and the Sea. 1952.meaning among difficulties, absurdities and meaningless Peacock: New Delhi, 2006.existence is really an attribute of assertive manliness. Lehan, Richard. "Camus and Hemingway." WisconsinFishing is the vast sea is the process of liberation of his Studies in Contemporary Literature, 1.2 (Spring-‘self’. He enjoys fishing the marlin, sailing long in the Summer, 1960): 37-48.sea. It is a journey of life. The story is overly simplistic. Lodge, David. "Hemingway’s Clean, well-lighted,Hemingway has used short sentences, vigorous puzzling place." Essay on Criticism, vol. 21. 1971 Longman: New York, 1988S The greatest mistake you can make in life is to continually be afraid you will make one. -Elbert Hubbard
  24. 24. 24 clGtd >4fGhnL ltdLx¿nfO{ clgtf e08f/L -kf}8n_ ] nfOa|]/Log cfof] 6Kk l6kL nUof], ldlt kUof] 6f/]/ 6b}g Tof] . { afns ojf j[4 sf]xL, slxn] eGb}g hf] . hGd lnPYof} o; wtL{df, /dfOnf] lyof] Tof] lbg . 5f8L uof} cfh ?jfO{ ;a}nfO{ a‰b}g dg lsg < ;ld/, lgzfg clg cfgGb lyof} ;asf] ufydf . ljlwsf] ljwfg v} lsg xf] /Dg lbPgf} ;a}sf] ;fydf . hGd lbO{ eujfg lbof} bOlbgsf] lhGbufgL . rf]6 / vf]6 bj} lbof}, u¥of} 7"nf] xfgL . nfp“nf, vfp“nf eGg] pd]/, rbbf] lyof] hjfgL . r6Ss rl8nUof} eof} s:tf] lgi7/L . bO{ rf/ lbg x“b} kl5 lal;{lbG5g gftfuf]tf . So} u/L eNb}gg hGdfpg] dftflktf . 5f]/f5f]/L eGbf 7"nf] c¿ s]xL 5}g WftL{sf] wg . s;/L ;Demfpg] cfdf aafnfO{ Jofs"n /x]sf] dg . ;a} 5f8L uof}+ afax¿ PSn} k¥of} ls Toxf“ . km]l/ hGDf lng x} oxL cf;kf;df . zflGt ldnf]; ;w}el/ ltdLx¿sf] cfTdfnfO{ . yf]kf yf]kf cf“;n] clGtd >4f~hnL ltdLx¿nfO{ . cfgGb ;fx lgzfg u?ª ;dL/ l;+x bgjf/Little minds are tamed and subdued by misfortunes; but great minds rise above them. -Washington Irving

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