Nird Training Techniques


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Nird Training Techniques

  1. 1. Participatory Training Techniques Dr. R. Prakash Professor Kerala Agricultural University College of Agriculture,Vellayani [email_address] (M)9446331825
  2. 2. “ Genius without education is like silver in the mine.” Benjamin Franklin
  3. 3. What is training? <ul><li>Acquisition or development of knowledge, skills, techniques, attitudes and experiences which enable an individual to perform better. </li></ul><ul><li>To prepare an individual to carry out his present job satisfactorily or to preparer him for greater responsibility. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Characteristics of Adult Learners <ul><li>Prior knowledge & experience </li></ul><ul><li>Self-directed learners </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinkers </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential learners </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is a change of behavior occurring from the process of internalizing knowledge, skills, or attitudes. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Motivation: What’s In It For Me <ul><li>Job requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Personal interest in subject </li></ul><ul><li>Professional enrichment </li></ul><ul><li>Advancement potential </li></ul>
  6. 6. Trainer’s Tips <ul><li>Plan, Prepare & Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Know your audience (experience level, comfort level, # of attendees) </li></ul><ul><li>Involve learners (partner & team activities) </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage comprehension over content </li></ul><ul><li>Relate instruction to participant’s job needs </li></ul><ul><li>Solicit feedback during class & final evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Training is a process not an event that has measures & can be improved </li></ul>
  7. 7. Trainer’s Tips Cont. <ul><li>Checklist, include materials needed (handouts, staff resources, supplies, equipment, cars, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Get enough sleep & watch what you eat </li></ul><ul><li>Realize your limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Have reliable directions </li></ul><ul><li>Learn from others </li></ul><ul><li>Use good visuals </li></ul><ul><li>Use time wisely & according to agenda </li></ul>
  8. 8. Communication <ul><li>Establish session objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Be heard and understood </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure movement </li></ul><ul><li>Show enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>Create rapport </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare for questions </li></ul>
  9. 9. Trainer’s Cardinal Rules <ul><li>Know Yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Know the Audience </li></ul><ul><li>Know the Subject </li></ul><ul><li>Know the Environment </li></ul>
  10. 10. Training Techniques <ul><li>Qualities of Instructors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Training Techniques <ul><li>Qualities of Instructors (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enthusiasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation (materials, facility, scheduling) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge and experience </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Synergy -- Generating “Critical Mass” <ul><li>Increasing the level of interest & involvement within the class -- a synergistic effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical mass - the yield is greater than the investment. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Performance-based Credibility <ul><li>People accept information more readily... when it’s well presented. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The ATTENTION Factor <ul><li>It’s much easier to “tune in”… become involved… and learn with a cohesive, interesting presentation. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Adult Learner <ul><li>Relies on prior knowledge & experience </li></ul><ul><li>Underestimates own ability to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Makes immediate application of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Pursues accuracy rather than speed </li></ul>
  16. 16. How Adults Learn <ul><li>10-20% of what they HEAR </li></ul><ul><li>20-30% of what they SEE </li></ul><ul><li>90% of what they DO </li></ul>
  17. 17. Adult Learning: Impact on Training <ul><li>Fit material to frame of reference </li></ul><ul><li>Older attendees may not see as well </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to hear clearly may diminish with age </li></ul>
  18. 18. Six Ps of Preparation <ul><li>P repare the Environment </li></ul><ul><li>P rogram Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>P roactive Readiness </li></ul><ul><li>P reparation Time </li></ul><ul><li>P latform Skills </li></ul><ul><li>P ractice, P ractice, P ractice </li></ul>
  19. 19. Expect the Unexpected <ul><li>Murphy’s Law Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Make the unexpected a friend </li></ul>
  20. 20. Keep Your Options Open <ul><li>Be prepared to, and capable of presenting the material utilizing minimal technology! </li></ul>
  21. 21. Putting Variety in Your Tool Box <ul><li>Use various training techniques to add INTEREST to your presentation </li></ul>Group Discussion Lecture Case Studies Role Playing Skill Practice
  22. 22. Selection of Technique <ul><li>Cognitive and behavioral methods/techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives of Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organization, Task and Person Analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. CHOICE OF TRAINING TECHNIQUES-FACTORS <ul><li>HUMAN FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>Trainer </li></ul><ul><li>Participants </li></ul><ul><li>Enviornment </li></ul>
  24. 24. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul>
  25. 25. TIME AND MATERIAL FACTORS <ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Finance </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities </li></ul>
  26. 26. LECTURE <ul><li>A talk given without much, if any, participation in the form of questions or discussion on the part of the trainee </li></ul>
  27. 27. Traditional Techniques: Lecture <ul><li>Variations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team Teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guest speakers and Panels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainee Presentations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low cost, accepted, useful for large groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not sensitive to individual differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One way communication; no feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use: Goal is knowledge, use with other techniques </li></ul>
  28. 28. TALK <ul><li>A talk incorporating a variety of techniques, and allowing for participation by the trainees </li></ul>
  29. 29. DISCUSSION <ul><li>Knowledge ,ideas and opinions on aparticular subject are freely exchanged among the trainees and the trainer </li></ul>
  30. 30. Managerial/Interpersonal Skills <ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Business Games </li></ul><ul><li>Role Plays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>meaningful activity; simulates real life; trainee takes seriously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debriefing/processing critical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Laboratory Training (“T” or sensitivity groups) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ here and now”, feelings, disclosure, communication and feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increases personal growth; understanding of self and others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary; screening of participants, trained facilitators </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. ROLE PLAY <ul><li>Trainees are asked to enact, in the training situation, the role they will be called upon to play in their job of work </li></ul><ul><li>Role Playing is a training technique in which participants assume an identity other than their own to cope with the real or hypothetical problems in human relations And other areas </li></ul>
  32. 32. BRAINSTORMING <ul><li>A specialized form of discussion. </li></ul><ul><li>It is commonly used in real problem solving situations </li></ul><ul><li>Its most frequent use is to teach learners to suspend judgment until a maximum number of ideas have been generated. </li></ul><ul><li>To train people to listen positively to the ideas of others </li></ul>
  33. 33. CASE STUDY <ul><li>A history of some event or set of circumstances, with the relevant details, is examined by the trainees. Case studies fall into two broad categories </li></ul><ul><li>Those in which the trainees diagnose the causes of a particular problem </li></ul><ul><li>Those in which the trainees set out to solve a particular problem </li></ul>
  34. 34. EXERCISES <ul><li>Trainers are asked to undertake a particular task, leading to a required required result, following lines laid down by the trainers </li></ul>
  35. 35. APPLICATION PROJECT <ul><li>Similar to an exercise but giving the trainee much greater opportunity for the display of initiative and creative ideas. </li></ul>
  36. 36. IN-BASKET(IN TRAY) <ul><li>Trainees are given a series of files, papers and letters similar to those they will be required to deal with at the lace of work. </li></ul><ul><li>Trainees take action on each peace of work. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Business games <ul><li>Trainees are presented with information about a company. They are given different management roles to perform. These groups then run the company. </li></ul>
  38. 38. SENSITIVITY TRAINING(GROUP DYNAMICS) <ul><li>Trainees are put into situations in which the behaviour of each individual in the group is subject to examination and comment by other trainees </li></ul>
  39. 39. Summary of Instructional Techniques <ul><li>Trainers have access to a variety of different techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Each technique has strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Selection depends on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainee aptitude and needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>objectives of training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>availability and cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where possible, use a combination of techniques. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Make Learning “ACTIVE” <ul><li>of what they READ </li></ul><ul><li>of what they HEAR </li></ul><ul><li>of what they SEE </li></ul><ul><li>of what they SEE & HEAR </li></ul><ul><li>of what THEY SAY </li></ul><ul><li>of what they DO </li></ul>10% 20% 30% 50% 70% 90% People remember ...
  41. 41. Creating the Climate <ul><li>Factors… </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual </li></ul>
  42. 42. Establishing a Rapport <ul><li>Greet participants </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage communication </li></ul><ul><li>Non-attribution of comments </li></ul><ul><li>Ice-breaker </li></ul>
  43. 43. Create a “Shared Experience” <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce yourself </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-introductions </li></ul><ul><li>Generate mutual recognition and a sense of “group” </li></ul><ul><li>Talk “with”not “to” </li></ul><ul><li>trainees </li></ul>
  44. 44. Capitalize on the Situation <ul><li>Be receptive… </li></ul><ul><li>Allow sharing of experience </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage mutual respect, openness & collaboration </li></ul>
  45. 45. Direct Traffic <ul><li>Facilitate Flow of Information </li></ul><ul><li>Job is to “orchestrate” </li></ul><ul><li>Find the Balance </li></ul>
  46. 46. Non-Verbal Presentation Techniques <ul><li>Make eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Use your voice effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Use appropriate motion and gestures </li></ul>
  47. 47. Conclusion of training <ul><ul><li>Answer questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administer test(s) (if needed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize the material covered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conclude training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Answer additional questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Announce start time/location of next class (as appropriate) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 48. In Conclusion... <ul><li>Prepare </li></ul><ul><li>Vary techniques </li></ul><ul><li>RELAX </li></ul><ul><li>HAVE FUN </li></ul>