ENERGY FOR INDIA & IT’S VILLAGES : MYTHS, REALITIES & POSSIBILITIES WHY HAVE TO LOOK BEYOND & AWAY FROM  COAL & NUCLEAR, O...
HOW  MUCH  DO  WE  GET  -- FROM  WHAT INDIA WORLD SOUMYA DUTTA TOTAL COMML  ENRGY IT’S  FOSSIL-CARBONS THAT DOMINATES ~90%...
ONE MAJOR  CONSEQUENCE  OF  OUR ENERGY CHOICES AS WE ALL KNOW, THIS IS CAUSING  WORLD-WIDE DEVASTATIONS  SOUMYA DUTTA GLOB...
WHY  FOSSIL-CARBONS  CANNOT  ANY MORE REMAIN  OUR PRIMARY ENERGY  SOURCES  TODAY, THEY ARE  THE  PRIMARY  SOURCE (~80%) SC...
WHO IN INDIA CONSUMES WHAT AS ENERGY <ul><li>SOME  CONSUMPTION FACTS </li></ul><ul><li>1. PER-CAPITA  ELCTR ~700 Kwh/YR </...
PETROLEUM – INDIA & THE WORLD INDIA  PETROLEUM –  PRODUCTION & CONSUMPTION WORLD PETROLEUM – PRODUCTION  SOUMYA DUTTA 2.7 ...
NATURAL GAS – INDIA & THE WORLD SOUMYA DUTTA PRODUCTION-CONSUMPTION OF NATURAL GAS STARTED PEAKING UP IN 2000’s
COAL  – INDIA  AND  THE WORLD <ul><li>Country  INDIA </li></ul><ul><li>YEAR  COAL-Production </li></ul><ul><li>2003  375.4...
ELECTRICITY GENERATION : 1990-2006 WITH ~17% OF WORLD POPULATION,  INDIA GENERATES  < 4% OF ITS TOTAL ELECTRICITY -  AND M...
Energy Is far more than Electricity <ul><li>So the comprehensive energy needs are to be carefully </li></ul><ul><li>looked...
INDIA – PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION 2007-08 <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Energy  *  Units * in Original  In Mtoe  *% share i...
LARGE NOS. STILL USE TRADITIONAL BIO-MASS DISPLACING FROM FOREST CREATES LARGE MARKET DESIGN BEHIND REDD+, KITCHEN-SOOT SC...
THE  MAJOR ENERGY SOURCES IN INDIA & THE  POLLUTING  POWER PLANTS THAT  CONVERT THIS ENERGY TO ELECTRICITY SOUMYA DUTTA BO...
EQUITY & SUSTAINABILITY  ARE TO BE FOCAL POINTS – MISSING NOW <ul><li>Equitable access to affordable energy sources – for ...
ENERGY & MINERAL SOURCES / PLANT LOCATIONS & WHO GETS ‘POWER’ FROM THESE SOUMYA  DUTTA PERCENTAGE OF ELECTRIFIED  RURAL HO...
THERMAL POWER-PLANTS ALSO CONSUME  AND POLLUTE HUGE AMOUNTS OF WATER ~ 85% OF ALL WATER CONSUMPTION FROM MAJOR INDUSTRIES ...
COUNTRIES IN ASIA & AFRICA FACE WATER-STRESS DUE TO POWER/ENERGY PLANTS, INDUSTRIES, MINING  WHILE  WORLD FOOD DEMAND INCR...
NOT ONLY TPPs, NOT ONLY ON WATER    MAD ECNMC GROWTH IS CLAIMING ITS TOLL EVERYWHERE
WHAT ABOUT ENV. KUZNET’S CURVE ? ‘ ECONOMIC GROWTH’ – POLLUTION RELATION CHANGE IN GDP  AND  EMISSIONS 2002-2006 SOUMYA DU...
ANOTHER PICTURE OF HUGE DISPARITIES  THAT HAVE CHANGED LITTLE IN DECADES 43% - NO ELECTRICITY,  33% - LESS  THAN 50 KwH/Mo...
WEST, SOUTH & LARGE PARTS OF CENTRAL INDIA – HIGH SOLAR POTENTIAL, NORTH/NE – SMALL HYDRO LARGE PARTS – 25-30 MW/SQ KM CON...
DISTRIBUTEDRURAL ENERGY NEEDS  MATCHED BY DISTRIBUTED  RenEnG <ul><li>REGION-WISE GEO-THERMAL AVAILABILITY </li></ul><ul><...
ELECTRICITY-LOSS/WASTAGE +  QUESTION - CAN  HUGELY  COMPLEMENT  GENERATION <ul><li>INDIA HAS ~1,72,000 MW INSTALLED </li><...
ENERGY CHOICE IS ALSO LINKED WITH EMPLOYMENT & ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>Less energy intensive and more employment generating ‘g...
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*ENERGY FOR INDIA & IT'S VILLAGES: MYTHS, REALITIES & POSSIBILITIES - SOUMYA DUTTA*

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  • INDIA FIGURE 2006, WORLD – 2004-5, FOSSIL FUEL PERCENTAGE GONE DOWN A LITTLE NOW-2010
  • TOTAL C-RESERVE IN FOSSIL CARBONS IS FAR ABOVE THE TOTAL ATMOSPHERIC C-CONTENT (AT 390ppm) !!
  • ENVIRONMENTAL KUZNET’S CURVE DONOT SEEM TO BE WORKING !
  • *ENERGY FOR INDIA & IT'S VILLAGES: MYTHS, REALITIES & POSSIBILITIES - SOUMYA DUTTA*

    1. 1. ENERGY FOR INDIA & IT’S VILLAGES : MYTHS, REALITIES & POSSIBILITIES WHY HAVE TO LOOK BEYOND & AWAY FROM COAL & NUCLEAR, OIL TO DISTRIBUTED, COMMUNITY CONTROLLED RENEWABLE ENERGIES --SOUMYA DUTTA SEPT. 19/20, WASHINGOTN DC
    2. 2. HOW MUCH DO WE GET -- FROM WHAT INDIA WORLD SOUMYA DUTTA TOTAL COMML ENRGY IT’S FOSSIL-CARBONS THAT DOMINATES ~90% fossil-carbon >80% fossil-carbon
    3. 3. ONE MAJOR CONSEQUENCE OF OUR ENERGY CHOICES AS WE ALL KNOW, THIS IS CAUSING WORLD-WIDE DEVASTATIONS SOUMYA DUTTA GLOBAL C-ENERGY USE AND ATMOSPHERIC CO2 BUILD-UP
    4. 4. WHY FOSSIL-CARBONS CANNOT ANY MORE REMAIN OUR PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCES TODAY, THEY ARE THE PRIMARY SOURCE (~80%) SCIENCE -> THE ‘SAFE ATMOSPHERIC LIMIT’ OF CO2 IS <350 ppmv, IF WE CONTINUE TO BURN FOSSIL-CARBONS? REACH >800 ppmv ? WHAT HAPPENS TO LIFE ? ATMOSPHERE CONTAINS ‘ONLY’ ~780 GT SOUMYA DUTTA
    5. 5. WHO IN INDIA CONSUMES WHAT AS ENERGY <ul><li>SOME CONSUMPTION FACTS </li></ul><ul><li>1. PER-CAPITA ELCTR ~700 Kwh/YR </li></ul><ul><li>( ABOUT 40% OF INDIANS HAVE NONE ) </li></ul><ul><li>2. -------------- OIL ~ 120 Kg/Yr. </li></ul><ul><li>( ABOUT 50% INDIANS GET ALMOST NOTHING – a bottle a week or so ) </li></ul><ul><li>3. -------------- COAL > 500 Kg/Yr. </li></ul><ul><li>4. -------------- GAS ~ 1600 SCuFt./Yr ( ABOUT 80% INDIANS HAVE NO ACCESS) </li></ul><ul><li>5 .----FUEL-WOOD ~600-800Kg/Yr /DUNG-CAKE/ … </li></ul><ul><li>( FOR ~68% POOR INDIAN FAMILIES, WHO OFTEN HAS TO PAY Rs.2-3 PER Kg ) ! </li></ul><ul><li>POSSIBLY MORE THAN WE PAY FOR OUR ‘CLEAN’ FUEL !! </li></ul>ALL THESE ARE AVERAGES , HIDING HUGE DISPARITIES BETWEEN CLASSES & AREAS SOUMYA DUTTA
    6. 6. PETROLEUM – INDIA & THE WORLD INDIA PETROLEUM – PRODUCTION & CONSUMPTION WORLD PETROLEUM – PRODUCTION SOUMYA DUTTA 2.7 Mn BARRELS/DAY (~3%) -vs- 85+ Mn BARELS/DAY 1.2 BILLION PEOPLE (~17%) ~ 7 BILLION PEOPLE
    7. 7. NATURAL GAS – INDIA & THE WORLD SOUMYA DUTTA PRODUCTION-CONSUMPTION OF NATURAL GAS STARTED PEAKING UP IN 2000’s
    8. 8. COAL – INDIA AND THE WORLD <ul><li>Country INDIA </li></ul><ul><li>YEAR COAL-Production </li></ul><ul><li>2003 375.4 Mn Tons </li></ul><ul><li>2004 407.7 </li></ul><ul><li>2005 428.4 </li></ul><ul><li>2006 447.3 </li></ul><ul><li>2007 478.4 </li></ul><ul><li>2008 521.7 </li></ul><ul><li>2009 543.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Share of 5.8% (World Prodcn) </li></ul><ul><li>Reserve- > 115 Yrs (Life in Yrs.) </li></ul>Soumya Dutta WORLD COAL
    9. 9. ELECTRICITY GENERATION : 1990-2006 WITH ~17% OF WORLD POPULATION, INDIA GENERATES < 4% OF ITS TOTAL ELECTRICITY - AND MOST OF IT FROM COAL, LARGE HYDRO, GAS. INDIA WORLD SOUMYA DUTTA
    10. 10. Energy Is far more than Electricity <ul><li>So the comprehensive energy needs are to be carefully </li></ul><ul><li>looked into, including solid, liquid & gas sources </li></ul><ul><li>serving the population . Many of the recent govt policies & </li></ul><ul><li>plans are focussing mostly on electricity, which is the most ‘refined’ </li></ul><ul><li>& likely most Expensive to the user point, has maximum losses, . </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The poorer & less urbanised a community /society is, </li></ul><ul><li>The less is the share of electricity in its energy basket . </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, over-emphasis on electricity will deprive these poorer & </li></ul><ul><li>Marginalised sections from resources & attention; </li></ul><ul><li>A vast number of India’s poor still have some access to </li></ul><ul><li>NON - COMMERCIAL Energy (dry biomass, collected fuel wood, </li></ul><ul><li>dung-cakes etc) , as they cannot afford to come in the comml </li></ul><ul><li>energy markets. These are forest & forest fringe dwellers, </li></ul><ul><li>Adivasis and rural poor. This access is reducing through State & </li></ul><ul><li>corporate attacks on Forests & biomass sources. This must be </li></ul><ul><li>reversed, and the poor’s access to non-commercial energy secured </li></ul><ul><li>as a right . Soumya </li></ul>
    11. 11. INDIA – PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION 2007-08 <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Energy * Units * in Original In Mtoe *% share in * % share in </li></ul><ul><li>TYPE Units Prmry Comml In Total </li></ul><ul><li>Energy PrMary ENGY </li></ul><ul><li>------------- ------- ----------- ---------- ------------- ------------ </li></ul><ul><li>Coal Mt 501.52 215.48 53.54 39.50 </li></ul><ul><li>Lignite Mt 34.65 9.71 </li></ul><ul><li>Oil Mt 139.73 139.73 33.22 24.51 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Gas BCM 32.27 29.07 9.34 6.89 </li></ul><ul><li>LqfdNtrlGas Mt 8.24 10.21 -- -- </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Power Mn KWh 16,777 4.38 1.04 0.77 </li></ul><ul><li>Hydro Power MnKWh 1,28,702 11.07 2.63 1.94 </li></ul><ul><li>Wind Power MnKWh 11,410 0.98 0.23 0.17 </li></ul><ul><li>Primry Comml Enrgy Mtoe 420.62 100.00 73.78 </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Comml Enrgy -Mtoe ( BIO-MASS ) 149.50 + 26.22 </li></ul><ul><li>Total Primry Enrgy Consumption-Mtoe 570.12 = 100.00 </li></ul>SOUMYA DUTTA SOURCE : PLANNING COMMISSION
    12. 12. LARGE NOS. STILL USE TRADITIONAL BIO-MASS DISPLACING FROM FOREST CREATES LARGE MARKET DESIGN BEHIND REDD+, KITCHEN-SOOT SCARE ? MAJOR PORTIONS OF GLOBAL TOTAL RENEWABLE ENERGY IS STILL BIO-MASS, USED BY THE POOR FIRE-WOOD LPG DUNG K ERSN <ul><li>LARGE % OF RURAL HOUSE-HOLDS USE FIRE-WOOD, ONLY ~10% RURAL HHs HAVE ACCESS TO LPG OR KEROSENE </li></ul><ul><li>(‘SHIFTING GOALPOSTS’) </li></ul>SOUMYA DUTTA
    13. 13. THE MAJOR ENERGY SOURCES IN INDIA & THE POLLUTING POWER PLANTS THAT CONVERT THIS ENERGY TO ELECTRICITY SOUMYA DUTTA BOTH POLLUTING COAL-PLANTS & DANGEROUS NUCLEAR PLANTS ARE LOCATED CLOSE TO HIGH POPULATION DENSITY AREAS.
    14. 14. EQUITY & SUSTAINABILITY ARE TO BE FOCAL POINTS – MISSING NOW <ul><li>Equitable access to affordable energy sources – for poorer & marginal sections of our population must form the cornerstone our energy policy , irrespective of their paying capacity for high-cost energy sources. This equity principle is missing from today’s energy policies, and must be brought in. While electricity generation has more than doubled from 1995-96 (when the neo-liberal process in India took hold) to 2010 – the no of house-holds still having no access has only fallen fro m ~50% to ~40% ! Thus, most of the energy & electricity consumption increase has gone to serve the elite & the middle class – an unsustainable & un-acceptable situation. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The larger the energy extraction /conversion, larger the environmental & social impacts, thus REAL ENERGY NEEDs are to be rationally assessed & profit oriented over-projections avoided . Before projecting energy needs based only on GDP growth projections, we must do careful analysis of real energy-growth need based on some rational assessment of how much energy is needed for reasonable living standards and how much is possible to be extracted/ converted sustainably, without severley damaging the earth’s hydrosphere, lithosphere & atmosphere . The Integrated Energy Policy of the Govt. projects future energy requirements based on high & continuing economic growth, w/o taking into account the real needs, and adverse environmental impacts. These must be brought in centre of planning. </li></ul>SOUMYA DUTTA
    15. 15. ENERGY & MINERAL SOURCES / PLANT LOCATIONS & WHO GETS ‘POWER’ FROM THESE SOUMYA DUTTA PERCENTAGE OF ELECTRIFIED RURAL HOUSE-HOLDS -> DARK RED <10%, DARK GREEN > 85% (‘SHIFTING GOALPOST) TPPs ARE BLACK-DOTs, COAL-FIELDS – BLUE DROPs , HYDEL PLANTS -BLUE SQRS , CONCENTRATIONS MATCH - IN REVERSE !! OPERATION POWER-HUNT ?
    16. 16. THERMAL POWER-PLANTS ALSO CONSUME AND POLLUTE HUGE AMOUNTS OF WATER ~ 85% OF ALL WATER CONSUMPTION FROM MAJOR INDUSTRIES  BY TPPs (ALSO SPMs). SOUMYA DUTTA THIS AFFECTS AGRICULTURAL LIVELIHOODS & FOOD SECURITY Of wastes and wants: Water use in India Industrial Sector Annual wastewater water discharge (million cubic meters) (%) Annual consumption (million cubic meters) Proportion of water consumed in industry Thermal power plants 27000.9 35157.4 87.87 Engineering 1551.3 2019.9 5.05 Pulp and paper 695.7 905.8 2.26 Textiles 637.3 829.8 2.07 Steel 396.8 516.6 1.29 Sugar 149.7 194.9 0.49 Fertiliser 56.4 73.5 0.18 Others 241.3 314.2 0.78 Total 30729.2 40012.0 100.0 Note: For methodology see www.downtoearth.org.in Source: Estimated by CSE based on the wastewater discharged data published by CPCB in &quot;Water quality in India (Status and trends) 1990 - 2001&quot;.
    17. 17. COUNTRIES IN ASIA & AFRICA FACE WATER-STRESS DUE TO POWER/ENERGY PLANTS, INDUSTRIES, MINING WHILE WORLD FOOD DEMAND INCREASES FAST FOOD AS ENERGY IS THE MOST BASIC NEED – MUST GET PRECEDENCE OVER ALL OTHER FORMS OF ENERGY USE. BUT WATER DEPLETION & CONTAMINATION IS PLAYING HAVOC WITH THE FOOD-SECURITY (CONNECTED WITH WATER-SECURITY) OF THE POOR. SO, WE WILL HAVE TO CUT OUR LUXURY ENERGY CONSUMPTION. SOUMYA DUTTA WORLD FOOD DEMAND 1500-2050
    18. 18. NOT ONLY TPPs, NOT ONLY ON WATER  MAD ECNMC GROWTH IS CLAIMING ITS TOLL EVERYWHERE
    19. 19. WHAT ABOUT ENV. KUZNET’S CURVE ? ‘ ECONOMIC GROWTH’ – POLLUTION RELATION CHANGE IN GDP AND EMISSIONS 2002-2006 SOUMYA DUTTA NOT ONE COUNTRY TO ACHIEVE HIGH ‘GROWTH’ W/O HIGH ENERGY CONSUMPTION & EMISSIONS !!
    20. 20. ANOTHER PICTURE OF HUGE DISPARITIES THAT HAVE CHANGED LITTLE IN DECADES 43% - NO ELECTRICITY, 33% - LESS THAN 50 KwH/Month, 11% - 50-100 KwH/M, 13% ->100 KwH/M; (PRAYAS) ELECTRICITY SOUMYA DUTTA HUGE DISPARITIES BETWEEN STATES & BETWEEN URBAN & RURAL – IN ELECTR. CONSUMPTION -> RICH-POOR DIVIDE. (‘SHIFTING GOALPOSTS’)
    21. 21. WEST, SOUTH & LARGE PARTS OF CENTRAL INDIA – HIGH SOLAR POTENTIAL, NORTH/NE – SMALL HYDRO LARGE PARTS – 25-30 MW/SQ KM CONSIDER THOR DESERT – OVER 50,000 SQ KMs THINLY POPULATED 45,000 MW POTENTIAL – EVEN WITH LIMITED TECH CHOICE & INCOMPLETE WIND MAPPING SOUMYA DUTTA
    22. 22. DISTRIBUTEDRURAL ENERGY NEEDS MATCHED BY DISTRIBUTED RenEnG <ul><li>REGION-WISE GEO-THERMAL AVAILABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>INDIA – HIGH PRIMARY PLANT PRODUCTIVITY (Bio-Mass), N-E BEST </li></ul>SOUMYA DUTTA
    23. 23. ELECTRICITY-LOSS/WASTAGE + QUESTION - CAN HUGELY COMPLEMENT GENERATION <ul><li>INDIA HAS ~1,72,000 MW INSTALLED </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTRICITY CAPACITY (2011); </li></ul><ul><li>~30% OF THIS IS LOST AS AT&C LOSS </li></ul><ul><li>FROM PLANT TO USER ! CAN BE 10% , </li></ul><ul><li>EVEN BEFORE, COAL-FIRED TPPs </li></ul><ul><li>WASTE ~67% OF COAL ENERGY AND </li></ul><ul><li>GET ~33% AS ELECTRICITY, OUT OF </li></ul><ul><li>WHICH ~3-4% IS USED FOR PLANT, </li></ul><ul><li>SO, ONLY ~21% OF COAL’s CHEMICAL </li></ul><ul><li>ENERGY REACH THE USERS, </li></ul><ul><li>JUST T&D LOSS IS > 37,000MW !! </li></ul><ul><li>ENOUGH TO FEED 9 DELHI’s !!! OR </li></ul><ul><li>30 BIHAR STATES (on present ‘needs’), </li></ul><ul><li>EQUALS ALL 9 NEW UMPPs !! T&D </li></ul><ul><li>AT 10% WILL SAVE ~21,000MW, STILL </li></ul><ul><li>MORE THAN 5 UMPPs >Rs.100K CR. </li></ul><ul><li>HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS </li></ul><ul><li>ARE ALSO LOSING GENERATION </li></ul><ul><li>CAPACITY DUE TO MASSIVE SILT- </li></ul><ul><li>DEPOSITS, AND BAD WATER-PLAN, </li></ul><ul><li>KEEPING DAMS FULL BEFORE RAINS </li></ul><ul><li>CAUSES SUDDEN FLOODS , </li></ul><ul><li>EXCEPT VERY FEW CO-GENERATION / </li></ul><ul><li>COMBINED-CYCLE TPPs /NPPs, ALL </li></ul><ul><li>HEAT THE AIR & WATER AROUND BIG, </li></ul><ul><li>CAUSING HUGE LOSSES TO AQUATIC </li></ul><ul><li>LIFE, LIVELIHOODS (& HEALTH LOSS) </li></ul><ul><li>EXTRA 5 UMPPs MEAN AN EXTRA ~24 </li></ul><ul><li>MILLION TONS OF TOXIC ASH-DUMPING </li></ul><ul><li>-OVER 2 MILLION TONS OF TOXIC ASH </li></ul><ul><li>FLYING IN AIR – CAUSING DISEASES, </li></ul><ul><li>CROP LOSSES, CONTAMINATING WATER </li></ul><ul><li>SOURCES, ………………. </li></ul>SOUMYA DUTTA
    24. 24. ENERGY CHOICE IS ALSO LINKED WITH EMPLOYMENT & ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>Less energy intensive and more employment generating ‘growth options’ exist and have been shown to work . The skill & knowledge based small service sector is an example, as is the over-hyped IT & ITES sectors, all of which produces more economic output w/o demanding huge extra energy. For India, energy planning also has to look into possibilities of generating large nos. of employments. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The environmental, social & other costs of any form of energy generation/ extraction / conversion needs to be taken into account, to find the true cost of that particular choice of energy source / form / technology . Thus, Coal power & nuclear power has very large externalised costs – not taken into the market price. These externalised costs are being paid by those displaced by mines & power-plants, communities affected by their huge water, air & soil pollution etc. In choosing our energy options, these must be internalised in the cost of that power. </li></ul>SUSTAINABILITY OF ALL PEOPLE & ECO-SYSTEMS MUST DRIVE OUR ENERGY PATH, NOT CORPORATE PROFITS AND DAMAGING GROWTH - THANKS

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