Computer programming programming_langugages
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Like this? Share it with your network


Computer programming programming_langugages



Computer programming is the process of creating software through the use of logic, algorithms, and programming language

Computer programming is the process of creating software through the use of logic, algorithms, and programming language



Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



3 Embeds 444 420 21 3



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Computer programming programming_langugages Presentation Transcript

  • 1.
  • 2. ● Computer programming is the process of creating software through the use of logic, algorithms, and programming language● Programmers use a program code to make software● Program code : a set of instructions that signal the CPU to perform circuit witching operations
  • 3. ● A language designed for writing system software● It offers more direct access to the physical hardware of the machine● System Software : Operating System, Language Processor & System Utilities● Major System Programming Languages ○ C, C++, ESPOL, PL/I, BLISS
  • 4. ● A language designed for writing application software● Application Software : Payroll system, Inventory System, Attendance System etc.● Major Application Programming Languages ○ C, C++, VB.NET, Java, etc.
  • 5. ● Procedural Programming Languages● Procedural programming specifies a list of operations that the program must complete to reach the desired state.● Each program has a starting state, a list of operations to complete, and an ending point. This approach is also known as imperative programming.● Integral to the idea of procedural programming is the concept of a procedure call. Procedures, also known as functions, subroutines, or methods, are small sections of code that perform a particular function.● Procedural programming can be compared to unstructured programming, where all of the code resides in a single large block.● It splits the programmatic tasks into small pieces, procedural programming allows a section of code to be re-used in the program without making multiple copies.● It also makes it easier for programmers to understand and maintain program structure.● Two of the most popular procedural programming languages are FORTRAN and BASIC.
  • 6. ● Structured Programming Languages● Structured programming is a special type of procedural programming. It provides additional tools to manage the problems that larger programs were creating.● Structured programming requires that programmers break program structure into small pieces of code that are easily understood.● It also frowns upon the use of global variables and instead uses variables local to each subroutine.● One of the well known features of structural programming is that it does not allow the use of the GOTO statement. It is often associated with a “top-down” approach to design.● The most popular structured programming languages include C, Ada, and Pascal.
  • 7. ● Object-Oriented Programming Languages● Object-oriented programming is one the newest and most powerful paradigms.● In object oriented programs, the designer specifies both the data structures and the types of operations that can be applied to those data structures.● This pairing of a piece of data with the operations that can be performed on it is known as an object.● A program thus becomes a collection of cooperating objects, rather than a list of instructions.● Objects can store state information and interact with other objects, but generally each object has a distinct, limited role.
  • 8. ● Low Level Programming Language ○ Machine Language ○ Assembly Language● High Level Programming Language
  • 9. ● Low Level Machine Language● Computer understand only a language that is known as “Machine Language”● It consists of set of instructions in form of ‘1s’ and ‘0s’● Example of Machine Instruction ○ 1110001110000● It is difficult for human to read and write machine language
  • 10. ● i) It makes fast and efficient use of the computer.● ii) It requires no translator to translate the code i.e.Directly understood by the computer
  • 11. ● i) All operation codes have to be remembered● ii) All memory addresses have to be remembered.● iii) It is hard to amend or find errors in a program written● In the machine language● iv) These languages are machine dependent i.e. a particular● Machine language can be used on only one type of computer
  • 12. ● Inconveniences of machine language.● Assembly language in which operation codes and operands are given in the form of alphanumeric symbols instead of 0’s and l’s.● These alphanumeric symbols will be known as mnemonic codes and can have maximum up to 5 letter combination ○ e.g. ADD for addition, SUB for subtraction, START, LABEL etc.● Because of this feature it is also known as ‘Symbolic Programming Language’. This language is also very difficult and needs a lot of practice to master it because very small
  • 13. ● Advantages of Assembly Language i) It is easier to understand and use as compared to machine language. ii)It is easy to locate and correct errors.iii) It is modified easily ● Disadvantages of Assembly Language i) Like machine language it is also machine dependent. ii) Knowledge of hardware required
  • 14. ● High level computer languages give formats close to English language and the purpose of developing.● It enables people to write programs easily and in their own native language environment (English).● High-level languages are basically symbolic languages that use English words and/or mathematical symbols rather than mnemonic codes.● Each instruction in the high level language is translated into many machine language instructions thus showing one-to-many translation
  • 15. ● Readablity● Portability● Easy Debugging● Easy Software Development