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Training power point

  1. 1. Training Program8/1/2011
  2. 2. Training Program for “A Firm Foundation”8/1/2011
  3. 3. The employer shall train each employee who is exposed to noise at or above an 8-hour time weighted average of 85 decibels in accordance with the requirements8/1/2011
  4. 4. The training program will be repeated annually for each employee included in the hearing conservation program and shall be updated to be consistent with changes in protective equipment and work processes8/1/2011
  5. 5. Employer will inform each employee of the following:• The effects of noise on hearing;• The purpose of hearing protectors , the advantages, disadvantages, and attenuation of various types, and instructions on selection• The purpose of audiometric testing and an explanation of the test procedures.8/1/2011
  6. 6. Hearing losses may result to• Interference with communication (Must shout to overcome noise)• Annoyance• Altered performance• Elevated blood pressure• Sleep disturbances8/1/2011
  7. 7. It is important for the Safety Professional to be aware of workers off- the-job noise exposures & causes of their induced hearing loss• Effects the worker’s overall hearing• Affects worker’s understanding• Determines causes of hearing loss8/1/2011
  8. 8. Examples of off-the Job noise that may cause Hearing Loss • Loud noise • Hobbies such as : • Motorcycles • Snowmobiles • Private Airplanes • Woodworking8/1/2011
  9. 9. To reduce noise exposure: 3 key points: 1. Less Time 2. Further Distance 3. Use Shielding • Barrier • HPDs8/1/2011
  10. 10. Four classes of hearing protection 1. Enclosures (entire head)8/1/2011
  11. 11. 2. Aural insert (earplugs)8/1/2011
  12. 12. 3. Supernatural protectors (canal caps) sometimes called “banded” hearing protection• Worn over the head , behind the neck or under the chin.• Allows convenience when going in and out of noisy areas.• Fitting and using canal caps is similar to fitting and using other earplugs8/1/2011
  13. 13. 4. Circumaural protectors (ear muffs) Passive noise Reducing earmuff That compresses harmful Impulse and continuous noises8/1/2011
  14. 14. With hearing protective devices • You must offer a Variety of types • Individuals have preference for certain types • Depends upon the environments they work and the activities they do • Sometimes depends on the shape and size of their ear canals8/1/2011
  15. 15. For HPDs to be effective, they must first be worn• Remember the 4 Cs of HPDs: 1. Clean - hands and protectors 2. Consistent- for levels above 85 dBA 3. Correct- insertion 4. Comfortable- so that the worker is not constantly pulling them out8/1/2011
  16. 16. Ear plugs ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES • Small > Can introduce dirt and debris into the ear • Portable > Can become damp from sweat and can • Soft and easy to wear introduce infections/ fungal growth •Other PPE does not interfere8/1/2011
  17. 17. Premolded Plugs ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES• Premolded plugs are Sometimes difficult to fit into relatively easy to insert some ears and are reusable• Washable Some people have different sized canals and must have• Has stem so that fingers never two sets individually for touch the flange part that is inserted each ear. into the ear.8/1/2011
  18. 18. Foam plugsChecking the fit• The sound of their voice will seem louder in the sealed ear.• If they do not get this sensation, then the ear canal is not adequately seal.• Sealing both canals at the same time will cause the voice to be perceived equally in both ears, or in the center of the head.8/1/2011
  19. 19. Inspect and Constantly check for:• Cracked or hardened muff,• Or a headband that has inadequate tension8/1/2011
  20. 20. Checking the FitPerform the “tug test”.• Gently pull in and out the stem of the earplug.• The wearer should feel pressure changes in the ear canal to confirm have a good fit.8/1/2011
  21. 21. Four pathways sounds Reaches the inner ear When HPDs are worn:8/1/2011
  22. 22. 1. Seal leaks- low frequency sound may pass through2. Material leaks- the HPD material may allow some sound to pass through (not all is attenuated)3. Vibration of the HPD- vibration of the noise is transmitted through the HPD like a piston4. Bone conduction- vibration of the noise’s energy is transmitted through the skull8/1/2011
  23. 23. How to Gauge the adequacy of HPDs• Noise Reduction Ratings• Regulated by the EPA• Must be printed on each box and/or package• Ratings obtained in controlled laboratory settings• Controversy on the NRR adequacy8/1/2011
  24. 24. (1910.95 B)Methods for estimating the adequacy of hearing protector attenuation(iii) When using a sound level meter set to the A- weighting network:(A) Obtain the employee’s A-weighted TWA.(B) Subtract 7dB from the NRR, and subtract the remainder from the A- weighted TWA to obtain the estimated A- weighted TWA under the ear protector.8/1/2011
  25. 25. Look at 400% dose• Dose of 400 % 400%=100 TWA• Muff NRR is 22 22-7 =15 100-15= 85Calculate attenuations8/1/2011
  26. 26. % dose of 1.25 1.25 x 100 =125%D= daily dose if percentage(%)C = the amount if time an employee was n exposed to noise at a specific level.T = the amount of time the employee can be n permitted to be exposed to that level.8/1/2011
  28. 28. Audiometric Testing Audiometric testing available to all whose exposure equal or exceed an 8- hour time- weighted average of 85 decibels. •At no cost •Notified that they should avoid high noise levels both on and off the job at a minimum of 14 hours.8/1/2011
  29. 29. Mobile test van will obtain audiometric hearing results within one year of exposure to a time weighted average of 85dB. Audiometric measuring will be six months of employee’s first exposure at above action level.8/1/2011
  30. 30. Mobile test vans will meet audiometric testing obligation and obtain a valid baseline audiogram within one year of an employee exposure at or above the action level . Annual audiograms to baseline audiograms determines whether the audiogram is valid and whether the employee has lost hearing ability or experienced a standard threshold shift.8/1/2011
  31. 31. STANDARD THRESHOLD SHIFT (STS)• An STS is an average shift in either ear of 10dB or more at• 2,000 hertz• 3,000 hertz• 4,000 hertz8/1/2011