Name : Praful Manohar Nimbargi
Roll No. : ME 091
USN : 2SD02ME055
Project guide: Asst. Prof. R. D. Bhadri
Analyzing TPM into its three words, we have:
Total = All encompassing by maintenance
and production individuals working together.
Productive = Production of goods and
services that meet or exceed customers’
Maintenance = Keeping equipment and plant
in as good as or better than the original
condition at all times.
What is TPM?
TPM is a process to maximize the productivity
of an equipment for its entire life.
TPM is a maintenance program which
involves a newly defined concept for
maintaining plants and equipment.
Goal of TPM is to markedly increase
production while, at the same time, increasing
employee morale and job satisfaction.
TPM brings maintenance into focus as a
necessary and vitally important part of the
It is no longer regarded as a non-profit
The goal is to hold emergency and
unscheduled maintenance to a minimum.
Parts of TPM:
1. Breakdown maintenance:
People wait until equipment fails and repair
Such a thing could be used when the
equipment failure does not significantly
affect the operation or production or
generate any significant loss other than
2. Preventive maintenance (1951):
Daily maintenance (cleaning, inspection,
oiling and re-tightening).
Design to retain the healthy condition of
equipment and prevent failure through the
prevention of deterioration, periodic
inspection or equipment condition diagnosis,
to measure deterioration.
a. Periodic maintenance (Time Based
Maintenance – TBM):
TBM consists of periodically inspecting,
servicing and cleaning equipment and
replacing parts to prevent sudden failure and
b. Predictive maintenance:
Service life of important part is predicted
based on inspection or diagnosis, in order to
use the parts to the limit of their service life.
Compared to periodic maintenance,
predictive maintenance is condition based
It manages trend values, by measuring and
analyzing data about deterioration and
employs a surveillance system, designed to
monitor conditions through an on-line
3. Corrective maintenance (1957):
It improves equipment and its components
so that preventive maintenance can be
carried out reliably.
Equipment with design weakness must be
redesigned to improve reliability or
4. Maintenance prevention (1960):
It indicates the design of a new equipment.
Weakness of current machines are
sufficiently studied (on site information
leading to failure prevention, easier
maintenance and prevention of defects,
safety and ease of manufacturing) and are
incorporated before commissioning a new
History of TPM:
Innovative Japanese concept.
Origin can be traced back to 1951 when
preventive maintenance was introduced in
Japan. However, concept of preventive
maintenance was taken from USA.
Nippondenso was the first company to
introduce plant wide preventive maintenance
Preventive maintenance is the concept
wherein, operators produced goods using
machines and the maintenance group was
dedicated with work of maintaining those
Management decided that the routine
maintenance of equipment would be carried
out by the operators. (This is Autonomous
maintenance, one of the features of TPM).
Thus Nippondenso which already followed
preventive maintenance also added
Autonomous maintenance done by production
The maintenance crew went in the equipment
modification for improving reliability.
The modifications were made or incorporated
in new equipment.
This lead to maintenance prevention.
Thus preventive maintenance along with
Maintenance prevention and Maintainability
Improvement gave birth to Productive
The aim of productive maintenance was to
maximize plant and equipment effectiveness
to achieve optimum life cycle cost of
By then Nippon Denso had made quality
circles, involving the employees participation.
Thus all employees took part in implementing
Based on these developments Nippondenso
was awarded the distinguished plant prize for
developing and implementing TPM, by the
Japanese Institute of Plant Engineers (JIPE).
Thus Nippondenso of the Toyota group
became the first company to obtain the TPM
Similarities between TQM and
Total commitment to the program by upper
Employees must be empowered to initiate
A long range outlook must be accepted as
TPM may take a year or more to implement
and is an on-going process. Changes in
employee mind-set toward their job
responsibilities must take place as well.
Differences between TQM and
Category TQM TPM
Object Quality (Output
Target Quality for PPM
Overall goals of TPM:
Maintaining and improving equipment
Maintaining equipment for life.
Using support from all areas of the operation.
Encouraging input from all employees.
Using teams for continuous improvement.
Seven basic steps get an organization started
Management learns the new philosophy.
Management promotes the new philosophy.
Training is funded and developed for
everyone in the organization.
Areas of needed improvement are identified.
Performance goals are formulated.
An implementation plan is developed.
Autonomous work groups are established.
Learning the New Philosophy:
One of the most difficult things for senior
management to deal with is change.
They need to learn about TPM and how it will
affect their operations.
Benchmarking with a successful organization
will provide valuable information.
Any cultural change takes a special
dedication, by management to provide long-
term, top to bottom support for improvement.
The easy approach is to accept today’s good
performance numbers and say, “Why
The answer is to gain a competitive edge and
to increase profits.
Many of an organization’s competitors are
most likely improving and will be far ahead of
other non-changing organizations in the
There also exists, in management, the
concept that somehow because “I am the
chief, I know more than those who work
TPM is merely trying to tap into an unused
resource, the brain power and problem-
solving ability of all the organization’s
Thus, it is necessary to allow people to make
This approach is not permissive
management, because management is still
responsible for the performance of the
It does, however, represent a different way of
Many organizations have had the flavor-of-the
month approach to changing management
Management is changed and the new
manager does not build on past
accomplishments but develops a “new
system” that will presumably solve all of the
Lack of ownership seems to cause low morale
and dissatisfaction with management.
Ownership should be based on what is good
for the customer and for the employees that
serve the customer.
Initially this change will require more work by
Promoting the Philosophy:
Senior management must spend significant
time in promoting the system.
They must sell the idea and let the employees
know that they are totally committed to its
Like TQM or any other major change in an
organization, there must be total commitment
from the top.
Too often lip service is given to a “new idea.”
This action is usually brought on by a belief
that the new system will solve some
immediate problems and lead to an
immediate return on investment.
A long-term commitment to the new
philosophy is required.
It has been proven by other organizations to
be a better way of doing business.
Management should lead the way by
practicing the new philosophy.
Organizations that are having difficulties owe
it, in part, to insincere leadership.
One of the best ways to implement the new
philosophy is just to start doing it. In other
words, start giving the maintenance and
production personnel some more autonomy.
Don’t just teach the HOW: also teach the
Senior management must spend time learning
about and understanding the ramifications of
applying this philosophy to their organization.
Middle management must learn how to deal
with the team approach.
A great benefit of TPM is the cross-pollination
of ideas between maintenance technicians
and production operators.
Six major loss areas need to be measured
b. Shift changes
c. Coffee and lunch breaks
d. Planned maintenance shutdowns
2. Unplanned Downtime
a. Equipment breakdown
c. Lack of material
Reduced Speed Losses
3. Idling and minor stoppages
Poor Quality Losses
5. Process nonconformities
Downtime losses are measured by
equipment availability using the equation,
A = (T/P) * 100
where A → availability
T → operating time (P − D)
P → planned operating time
D → downtime
Reduced speed losses are measured by
tracking performance efficiency using the
E = (C*N / T) * 100
where E → performance efficiency
C → theoretical cycle time
N → processed amount (quantity)
Poor quality losses are measured by
tracking the rate of quality products produced
using the equation,
R = [(N-Q) / N] * 100
where R → rate of quality products
N → processed amount (quantity)
Q → nonconformities
Equipment effectiveness is measured as
the product of the decimal equivalent of the
three previous metrics using the equation,
EE = A * E * R
where EE → equipment effectiveness, or
overall equipment effectiveness (OEE)
The target for improvement is 85%
Last week’s production numbers on
machining center JL58 were as follows:
= 10 hours/day; 5 days/week
Manufacturing downtime due to meetings,
material outages, training, breaks, and so
forth = 410 minutes/week
Maintenance downtime scheduled and
equipment breakdown = 227 minutes/week
Theoretical (standard) cycle time
= 0.5 minute/unit
Production for the week = 4450 units
Defective parts made = 15 units
Goals should be set after the improvement
needs are identified.
A good first goal is to establish the timeframe
for fixing the first prioritized problem.
Identifying needs and setting goals begins the
process of getting the organization to work
together as a team.
First, develop and implement an overall plan
of action for training all employees.
Plans for developing the autonomous work
groups should take place during the training
Plan to use teams of maintenance
technicians and operators to work on
particularly troublesome problems.
Priorities can be set and management can
make a commitment with resources to correct
some of the basic problems.
Using the team approach will set the stage for
development of autonomous work groups,
which are teams established for daily
At this point, employees should have input
into how these autonomous teams are
Part of the planning process should take into
consideration that autonomous work groups
will change over time.
As processes and procedures are improved,
the structure of the whole organization will
It would be unreasonable not to expect
autonomous work groups to change also.
Autonomous Work Groups:
Autonomous work groups are established
based on the natural flow of activity.
First, make the operator responsible for the
equipment and the level of maintenance that
he is capable of performing.
Next, identify the maintenance personnel who
work in certain areas or have certain skill
Operators and maintenance personnel are
brought together, resulting in an autonomous
These groups must have the authority to
make decisions about keeping the equipment
in first-class running order.
The structure of autonomous work groups will
vary with different applications and types of
The team approach, employee involvement,
provides the necessary information to
determine the structure.
Maintenance technicians are also consultants
to the operating personnel.
They train operators in how to do certain
tasks, such as oiling, minor troubleshooting,
The overall goal of the autonomous work
group is to reduce the occasions for
A side benefit is freeing up highly skilled
maintenance technicians from the more
mundane routine tasks.
Skilled technicians are utilized more
effectively in doing major overhauls and
assisting with troubleshooting problems that
the autonomous work group cannot handle.
Summary of above framework:
The seven-step plan outlined provides a good
framework to establish TPM.
It should be modified to meet different
An effective total productive maintenance
program will lead to improved quality and
productivity and, of course, an improved
Benefits of implementing a TPM
Reduction in unplanned downtime
Increased production capacity
Reduced maintenance expenditures, and
longer equipment life
Machine operators are involved in maximizing
An overall Maintenance Plan is in place,
including Preventive Maintenance
Improved part quality
Organization Structure for TPM
1. The U.S. Postal Service of Albany, New
York used TPM to save $86,000 annually by
standardizing procedures and reducing the
use of outside contractors for vehicle work.
Based on their revision of maintenance
procedures, 11 other facilities in the North
East are changing their practices, and $4.5
million could be saved if 179 sites nationwide
also change their practices. Because of their
efforts, the U.S. Postal Service of Albany,
New York was a 2000 RIT/USA Today
Quality Cup finalist.
2. Yamato Kogyo Corp. of Japan, a
motorcycle control-cable maker, received a
total productive maintenance award from
Yamaha Corp. in the 1990s. Using total
productive maintenance, they improved
productivity by 130%, cut accidents by 90%,
reduced defects by 95%, and increased the
employee suggestion rate by over 300% by
5 per employee per month.
3. A team of workers at Kadena Air Base in
Japan won the 1995 RIT/USA Today Quality
Cup for government by using total
productive maintenance to reduce the failure
rate of AIM-9 missiles from 102 per month to
15 or less per month.
After the multi-disciplinary team
brainstormed the missile malfunctions and
repairs, they focused on the argon gas used
to cool the missile as the source of the
Results of the team’s TPM included:
i. Repair after a missile fails to launch the first
ii. Technicians verify that the argon bottles
iii. Fit all argon bottles with new $0.13 O-ring
iv. Train pilots to describe malfunctions to
v. Begin tracking repairs on the metal probes
to which the argon bottle attaches.
4. Sonia Ishikawa Corp. of Japan, a
suspension and steering components
subcontractor for Japanese automakers,
received an award from the Japan Institute
for Plant Maintenance, for its total productive
Their effort in total productive maintenance
involved four stages:
Organizing teams to reduce equipment
failures and defects.
Better design for manufacturability and
better production management.
Improving plant automation.
Improving office automation.
The results of their effort on total productive
75% reduction in defects
50% higher productivity
95% reduction in equipment breakdowns.
Today, with competition in industry at an all
time high, TPM may be the only thing that
stands between success and total failure for
It can be adapted to work not only in industrial
plants, but in construction, building
maintenance, transportation, and in a variety
of other situations.
Employees must be educated and convinced
that TPM is not just another "program of the
month" and that management is totally
committed to the program and the extended
time frame necessary for full implementation.
If everyone involved in a TPM program does
his or her part, an unusually high rate of
return compared to resources invested may
Total Quality Management, Third Edition ─
Dale H. Besterfield, Carol Besterfield-Michna,
Glen H. Besterfield, Mary Besterfield-Sacre,
Eastern Economy Edition, Prentice-Hall,
Productivity Press Inc., P.O. Box 13390,
Portland, OR 97213-0390.
Implementing TPM ─ Robinson, Charles J.,
Ginder, Andrew P., Productivity Press,
Portland Oregon, 1995.
Society of Manufacturing Engineers, P.O.
Box 6028, Dearborn, MI 48121
TPM for America ─ Steinbacher, Herbert R.,
Steinbacher, Norma L., Productivity Press,
Portland, Oregon, 1995.
TPM ─Takahashi, Yoshikazu, and Osada,
Takashi, Asian Productivity Organization,