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05 Seminar Slide

  1. 1. TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE (TPM) Name : Praful Manohar Nimbargi Roll No. : ME 091 USN : 2SD02ME055 Project guide: Asst. Prof. R. D. Bhadri
  2. 2. Introduction: Analyzing TPM into its three words, we have:  Total = All encompassing by maintenance and production individuals working together.  Productive = Production of goods and services that meet or exceed customers’ expectations.  Maintenance = Keeping equipment and plant in as good as or better than the original condition at all times.
  3. 3. What is TPM?  TPM is a process to maximize the productivity of an equipment for its entire life.  TPM is a maintenance program which involves a newly defined concept for maintaining plants and equipment.  Goal of TPM is to markedly increase production while, at the same time, increasing employee morale and job satisfaction.
  4. 4. Continued…  TPM brings maintenance into focus as a necessary and vitally important part of the business.  It is no longer regarded as a non-profit activity.  The goal is to hold emergency and unscheduled maintenance to a minimum.
  5. 5. Parts of TPM: 1. Breakdown maintenance:  People wait until equipment fails and repair it.  Such a thing could be used when the equipment failure does not significantly affect the operation or production or generate any significant loss other than repair cost.
  6. 6. Continued… 2. Preventive maintenance (1951):  Daily maintenance (cleaning, inspection, oiling and re-tightening).  Design to retain the healthy condition of equipment and prevent failure through the prevention of deterioration, periodic inspection or equipment condition diagnosis, to measure deterioration.
  7. 7. Continued… a. Periodic maintenance (Time Based Maintenance – TBM):  TBM consists of periodically inspecting, servicing and cleaning equipment and replacing parts to prevent sudden failure and process problems.
  8. 8. Continued… b. Predictive maintenance:  Service life of important part is predicted based on inspection or diagnosis, in order to use the parts to the limit of their service life.  Compared to periodic maintenance, predictive maintenance is condition based maintenance.  It manages trend values, by measuring and analyzing data about deterioration and employs a surveillance system, designed to monitor conditions through an on-line system.
  9. 9. Continued… 3. Corrective maintenance (1957):  It improves equipment and its components so that preventive maintenance can be carried out reliably.  Equipment with design weakness must be redesigned to improve reliability or improving maintainability.
  10. 10. Continued… 4. Maintenance prevention (1960):  It indicates the design of a new equipment.  Weakness of current machines are sufficiently studied (on site information leading to failure prevention, easier maintenance and prevention of defects, safety and ease of manufacturing) and are incorporated before commissioning a new equipment.
  11. 11. History of TPM:  Innovative Japanese concept.  Origin can be traced back to 1951 when preventive maintenance was introduced in Japan. However, concept of preventive maintenance was taken from USA.  Nippondenso was the first company to introduce plant wide preventive maintenance in 1960.
  12. 12. Continued…  Preventive maintenance is the concept wherein, operators produced goods using machines and the maintenance group was dedicated with work of maintaining those machines.  Management decided that the routine maintenance of equipment would be carried out by the operators. (This is Autonomous maintenance, one of the features of TPM).
  13. 13. Continued…  Thus Nippondenso which already followed preventive maintenance also added Autonomous maintenance done by production operators.  The maintenance crew went in the equipment modification for improving reliability.  The modifications were made or incorporated in new equipment.  This lead to maintenance prevention.
  14. 14. Continued…  Thus preventive maintenance along with Maintenance prevention and Maintainability Improvement gave birth to Productive maintenance.  The aim of productive maintenance was to maximize plant and equipment effectiveness to achieve optimum life cycle cost of production equipment.  By then Nippon Denso had made quality circles, involving the employees participation.
  15. 15. Continued…  Thus all employees took part in implementing Productive maintenance.  Based on these developments Nippondenso was awarded the distinguished plant prize for developing and implementing TPM, by the Japanese Institute of Plant Engineers (JIPE).  Thus Nippondenso of the Toyota group became the first company to obtain the TPM certification.
  16. 16. Similarities between TQM and TPM:  Total commitment to the program by upper level management.  Employees must be empowered to initiate corrective action.  A long range outlook must be accepted as TPM may take a year or more to implement and is an on-going process. Changes in employee mind-set toward their job responsibilities must take place as well.
  17. 17. Differences between TQM and TPM: Category TQM TPM Object Quality (Output and effects) Equipment (Input and cause) Means of attaining goal Systematize the management. It is more software oriented. Employees’ participation. It is more hardware oriented. Target Quality for PPM (parts per million) Elimination of losses and wastes.
  18. 18. Overall goals of TPM:  Maintaining and improving equipment capacity.  Maintaining equipment for life.  Using support from all areas of the operation.  Encouraging input from all employees.  Using teams for continuous improvement.
  19. 19. The Plan: Seven basic steps get an organization started toward TPM:  Management learns the new philosophy.  Management promotes the new philosophy.  Training is funded and developed for everyone in the organization.  Areas of needed improvement are identified.  Performance goals are formulated.  An implementation plan is developed.  Autonomous work groups are established.
  20. 20. Learning the New Philosophy:  One of the most difficult things for senior management to deal with is change.  They need to learn about TPM and how it will affect their operations.  Benchmarking with a successful organization will provide valuable information.  Any cultural change takes a special dedication, by management to provide long- term, top to bottom support for improvement.
  21. 21. Continued…  The easy approach is to accept today’s good performance numbers and say, “Why change?”  The answer is to gain a competitive edge and to increase profits.  Many of an organization’s competitors are most likely improving and will be far ahead of other non-changing organizations in the future.
  22. 22. Continued…  There also exists, in management, the concept that somehow because “I am the chief, I know more than those who work here.”  TPM is merely trying to tap into an unused resource, the brain power and problem- solving ability of all the organization’s employees.
  23. 23. Continued…  Thus, it is necessary to allow people to make decisions.  This approach is not permissive management, because management is still responsible for the performance of the organization.  It does, however, represent a different way of managing.
  24. 24. Continued…  Many organizations have had the flavor-of-the month approach to changing management techniques.  Management is changed and the new manager does not build on past accomplishments but develops a “new system” that will presumably solve all of the organization’s problems.
  25. 25. Continued…  Lack of ownership seems to cause low morale and dissatisfaction with management.  Ownership should be based on what is good for the customer and for the employees that serve the customer.  Initially this change will require more work by management.
  26. 26. Promoting the Philosophy:  Senior management must spend significant time in promoting the system.  They must sell the idea and let the employees know that they are totally committed to its success.  Like TQM or any other major change in an organization, there must be total commitment from the top.
  27. 27. Continued…  Too often lip service is given to a “new idea.”  This action is usually brought on by a belief that the new system will solve some immediate problems and lead to an immediate return on investment.  A long-term commitment to the new philosophy is required.  It has been proven by other organizations to be a better way of doing business.
  28. 28. Continued…  Management should lead the way by practicing the new philosophy.  Organizations that are having difficulties owe it, in part, to insincere leadership.  One of the best ways to implement the new philosophy is just to start doing it. In other words, start giving the maintenance and production personnel some more autonomy.
  29. 29. Training:  Don’t just teach the HOW: also teach the WHY.  Senior management must spend time learning about and understanding the ramifications of applying this philosophy to their organization.  Middle management must learn how to deal with the team approach.  A great benefit of TPM is the cross-pollination of ideas between maintenance technicians and production operators.
  30. 30. Improvement Needs: Six major loss areas need to be measured and tracked:  Downtime losses: 1. Planned a. Start-ups b. Shift changes c. Coffee and lunch breaks d. Planned maintenance shutdowns
  31. 31. Continued… 2. Unplanned Downtime a. Equipment breakdown b. Changeovers c. Lack of material
  32. 32. Continued…  Reduced Speed Losses 3. Idling and minor stoppages 4. Slow-downs  Poor Quality Losses 5. Process nonconformities 6. Scrap
  33. 33. Continued…  Downtime losses are measured by equipment availability using the equation, A = (T/P) * 100 where A → availability T → operating time (P − D) P → planned operating time D → downtime
  34. 34. Continued…  Reduced speed losses are measured by tracking performance efficiency using the equation, E = (C*N / T) * 100 where E → performance efficiency C → theoretical cycle time N → processed amount (quantity)
  35. 35. Continued…  Poor quality losses are measured by tracking the rate of quality products produced using the equation, R = [(N-Q) / N] * 100 where R → rate of quality products N → processed amount (quantity) Q → nonconformities
  36. 36. Continued…  Equipment effectiveness is measured as the product of the decimal equivalent of the three previous metrics using the equation, EE = A * E * R where EE → equipment effectiveness, or overall equipment effectiveness (OEE)  The target for improvement is 85% equipment effectiveness.
  37. 37. Example Problem: Last week’s production numbers on machining center JL58 were as follows:  Scheduled operation = 10 hours/day; 5 days/week  Manufacturing downtime due to meetings, material outages, training, breaks, and so forth = 410 minutes/week  Maintenance downtime scheduled and equipment breakdown = 227 minutes/week  Theoretical (standard) cycle time = 0.5 minute/unit  Production for the week = 4450 units  Defective parts made = 15 units
  38. 38. Solution:  P = (10 hours/day) * (5 days/week) * (60 minutes/hour) = 3000 minutes/week  D = (410 minutes/week) + (227 minutes/week) = 637 minutes/week  T = (P − D) = (3000 − 637) = 2363 min/week  A = (T/P) * 100 = (2363/3000) * 100 = 78.8%  E = (C*N / T) * 100 = (0.5*4450 / 2363) * 100 = 94.2%  R = [(N−Q) / N] * 100 = [(4450−15) / 4450] * 100 = 99.7%  EE = A * E * R = (0.788) * (0.942) * (0.997) = 0.74 = 74%
  39. 39. Goal:  Goals should be set after the improvement needs are identified.  A good first goal is to establish the timeframe for fixing the first prioritized problem.  Identifying needs and setting goals begins the process of getting the organization to work together as a team.
  40. 40. Developing Plans:  First, develop and implement an overall plan of action for training all employees.  Plans for developing the autonomous work groups should take place during the training phase.  Plan to use teams of maintenance technicians and operators to work on particularly troublesome problems.
  41. 41. Continued…  Priorities can be set and management can make a commitment with resources to correct some of the basic problems.  Using the team approach will set the stage for development of autonomous work groups, which are teams established for daily operations.  At this point, employees should have input into how these autonomous teams are structured.
  42. 42. Continued…  Part of the planning process should take into consideration that autonomous work groups will change over time.  As processes and procedures are improved, the structure of the whole organization will change.  It would be unreasonable not to expect autonomous work groups to change also.
  43. 43. Autonomous Work Groups:  Autonomous work groups are established based on the natural flow of activity.  First, make the operator responsible for the equipment and the level of maintenance that he is capable of performing.  Next, identify the maintenance personnel who work in certain areas or have certain skill levels.
  44. 44. Continued…  Operators and maintenance personnel are brought together, resulting in an autonomous work group.  These groups must have the authority to make decisions about keeping the equipment in first-class running order.  The structure of autonomous work groups will vary with different applications and types of industries.
  45. 45. Continued…  The team approach, employee involvement, provides the necessary information to determine the structure.  Maintenance technicians are also consultants to the operating personnel.  They train operators in how to do certain tasks, such as oiling, minor troubleshooting, and set-ups.
  46. 46. Continued…  The overall goal of the autonomous work group is to reduce the occasions for maintenance activity.  A side benefit is freeing up highly skilled maintenance technicians from the more mundane routine tasks.  Skilled technicians are utilized more effectively in doing major overhauls and assisting with troubleshooting problems that the autonomous work group cannot handle.
  47. 47. Summary of above framework:  The seven-step plan outlined provides a good framework to establish TPM.  It should be modified to meet different organizational needs.  An effective total productive maintenance program will lead to improved quality and productivity and, of course, an improved bottom line.
  48. 48. Benefits of implementing a TPM system:  Reduction in unplanned downtime  Increased production capacity  Reduced maintenance expenditures, and longer equipment life  Machine operators are involved in maximizing equipment performance  An overall Maintenance Plan is in place, including Preventive Maintenance  Improved part quality
  49. 49. Organization Structure for TPM Implementation: Block diagram
  50. 50. Examples: 1. The U.S. Postal Service of Albany, New York used TPM to save $86,000 annually by standardizing procedures and reducing the use of outside contractors for vehicle work. Based on their revision of maintenance procedures, 11 other facilities in the North East are changing their practices, and $4.5 million could be saved if 179 sites nationwide also change their practices. Because of their efforts, the U.S. Postal Service of Albany, New York was a 2000 RIT/USA Today Quality Cup finalist.
  51. 51. Continued… 2. Yamato Kogyo Corp. of Japan, a motorcycle control-cable maker, received a total productive maintenance award from Yamaha Corp. in the 1990s. Using total productive maintenance, they improved productivity by 130%, cut accidents by 90%, reduced defects by 95%, and increased the employee suggestion rate by over 300% by 5 per employee per month.
  52. 52. Continued… 3. A team of workers at Kadena Air Base in Japan won the 1995 RIT/USA Today Quality Cup for government by using total productive maintenance to reduce the failure rate of AIM-9 missiles from 102 per month to 15 or less per month.  After the multi-disciplinary team brainstormed the missile malfunctions and repairs, they focused on the argon gas used to cool the missile as the source of the problems.
  53. 53. Continued…  Results of the team’s TPM included: i. Repair after a missile fails to launch the first time. ii. Technicians verify that the argon bottles seal properly. iii. Fit all argon bottles with new $0.13 O-ring seals. iv. Train pilots to describe malfunctions to technicians. v. Begin tracking repairs on the metal probes to which the argon bottle attaches.
  54. 54. Continued… 4. Sonia Ishikawa Corp. of Japan, a suspension and steering components subcontractor for Japanese automakers, received an award from the Japan Institute for Plant Maintenance, for its total productive maintenance effort.
  55. 55. Continued… Their effort in total productive maintenance involved four stages:  Organizing teams to reduce equipment failures and defects.  Better design for manufacturability and better production management.  Improving plant automation.  Improving office automation.
  56. 56. Continued…  The results of their effort on total productive maintenance were:  75% reduction in defects  50% higher productivity  95% reduction in equipment breakdowns.
  57. 57. Conclusion:  Today, with competition in industry at an all time high, TPM may be the only thing that stands between success and total failure for some companies.  It can be adapted to work not only in industrial plants, but in construction, building maintenance, transportation, and in a variety of other situations.
  58. 58. Continued…  Employees must be educated and convinced that TPM is not just another "program of the month" and that management is totally committed to the program and the extended time frame necessary for full implementation.  If everyone involved in a TPM program does his or her part, an unusually high rate of return compared to resources invested may be expected.
  59. 59. Bibliography:  Total Quality Management, Third Edition ─ Dale H. Besterfield, Carol Besterfield-Michna, Glen H. Besterfield, Mary Besterfield-Sacre, Eastern Economy Edition, Prentice-Hall, India.  Productivity Press Inc., P.O. Box 13390, Portland, OR 97213-0390.  Implementing TPM ─ Robinson, Charles J., Ginder, Andrew P., Productivity Press, Portland Oregon, 1995.
  60. 60. Continued…  Society of Manufacturing Engineers, P.O. Box 6028, Dearborn, MI 48121  TPM for America ─ Steinbacher, Herbert R., Steinbacher, Norma L., Productivity Press, Portland, Oregon, 1995.  TPM ─Takahashi, Yoshikazu, and Osada, Takashi, Asian Productivity Organization, Tokyo, 1990.
  61. 61. Continued…  Internet References:  http://www.tpmonline.com/articles_on_tot al_productive_maintenance/tpm/tpmrobert s.htm  http://www.plant- maintenance.com/articles/tpm_intro.shtml
  62. 62. End of slide show THANK YOU