Chap 11 – transactional analysis


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  • Hi on slide 6, complementary does not have be dialogue from between two people in same ego states? e.g. can be between parent and child Complementary means that the responder responds from ego state envisaged by the other party.
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Chap 11 – transactional analysis

  1. 1. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>Eric Berne was born in 1910 in Montreal, Canada. His father was a doctor & his mother was an editor. </li></ul><ul><li>His father died at age 38, when Eric was 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Earned an MD in 1935 from McGill Univ </li></ul><ul><li>Became a US citizen and served in Utah during WWII, practicing group therapy </li></ul>
  2. 2. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>Was denied membership in the Psychoanalytic Institute in 1956 </li></ul><ul><li>This brought about his rejection of psychoanalysis and was a turning point in his life </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote the book Games People Play </li></ul><ul><li>Died of a heart attack in 1970 at the age of 60 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>Four methods of understanding & predicting human behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Structural analysis – within the person </li></ul><ul><li>Transactional analysis – 2 or more people </li></ul><ul><li>Game analysis – understanding transactions that lead to bad feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Script analysis – understand a person’s life plan </li></ul>
  4. 4. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>Structural analysis – </li></ul><ul><li>Natural child – spontaneous, impulsive, feeling oriented, self-centered & pleasure loving </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive child – compliant, conforms to the wishes & demands of parental figures </li></ul>
  5. 5. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>Nurturing parent - comforts, praises and helps others </li></ul><ul><li>Critical parent – finds faults, displays prejudices, disapproves and prevents others from feeling good about themselves </li></ul><ul><li>A major goal is to figure out which ego state a person is using </li></ul>
  6. 6. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>Transactional analysis - Transactions between people are seen as having 3 levels: </li></ul><ul><li>Complementary – both people are operating from the same ego state </li></ul><ul><li>Crossed – the other person reacts from an unexpected ego state </li></ul><ul><li>Ulterior – two ego states within the same person but one disguises the other </li></ul>
  7. 7. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>Game analysis - ulteriorly motivated transactions that appear complimentary on the surface but end in bad feelings: </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Degree games – minor upset, played socially end up with minor discomfort </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Degree games – more intimate end up w/bad feelings </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd Degree games - usually involve physical injury </li></ul>
  8. 8. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>Very few games have a positive or neutral outcome </li></ul><ul><li>In these games, people play one of three positions: </li></ul><ul><li>Victim </li></ul><ul><li>Persecutor </li></ul><ul><li>Rescuer </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  9. 9. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>Script analysis – everyone develops a life script by age 5 & these scripts determine how one interacts with others based upon the interpretation of external events </li></ul><ul><li>A negative life script occurs when the person receives lots of injunctions by the parents that used the word DON’T </li></ul>
  10. 10. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>Common negative life scripts: </li></ul><ul><li>Never – one never gets to do what one wants </li></ul><ul><li>Until – one must wait until a certain time or until something is done to be able to do something they want to do </li></ul><ul><li>Always – one must continue to do what one has always done </li></ul>
  11. 11. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>After – a difficulty is expected after a certain event </li></ul><ul><li>Open-ended – one does not know what to do after a given time </li></ul><ul><li>Mini-scripts: Hurry up! Try harder! Be perfect! Be strong! Please someone! These drivers allow for temporary escape from life scripts </li></ul>
  12. 12. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>Four basic life scripts: </li></ul><ul><li>I’m OK, you’re OK – ideal </li></ul><ul><li>I’m OK, you’re not OK – get away from me </li></ul><ul><li>I’m not OK, you’re OK – I’ll never get anywhere </li></ul><ul><li>I’m not OK, you’re not OK – get rid of each other </li></ul>
  13. 13. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>Other techniques – </li></ul><ul><li>TX contract – agreed upon responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Interrogation – speaking to the adult ego state until an adult response is given </li></ul><ul><li>Specification – identification of the ego state that started the transaction </li></ul><ul><li>Confrontation – pointing out inconsistencies in behavior & speech </li></ul>
  14. 14. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>Explanation – teaching about TA </li></ul><ul><li>Illustration – elaborates a point </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmation – points out a recurrence of a previously modified behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation – explains to the child ego state the reasons for a client’s behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Crystallization – final step, the client gives up playing games </li></ul>