Water Resources
Water Resources
•
•
•
•
•

1. Hydrologic Cycle and Water Reservoirs
2. Floods and Flood Control
3. Use of Water
4. Water C...
Withdrawal vs Consumption
• Consumed
–
–
–
–
–

Evaporated
Transpired
Incorporated into crops
Consumed by humans or livest...
Types of withdrawal
•
•
•
•

Domestic-commercial
Industrial-Mining
Thermoelectric power
Irrigation—some use for livestock
...
http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/2004/circ1268/htdocs/table01.html
Who uses the most water in the
US?
• California
• Texas
• The least ?
• Alaska
• Dependent on population and
agriculture
Water Use UK

UK water resource use by industry, 1997/98 - Total abstraction: 16.8
billion cubic metres
Water Requirements: W. Society
Home Use

Liters

gallons

Shower per minute

19

5

Bath

114

30

Toilet flush

15

4

Lo...
Water Requirements: W. Society
Food Production

Liters

gallons

Sugar per ton

946,000

250,000

Corn per ton

946,000

2...
Annual Renewable Water Supply

http://earthtrends.wri.org/maps_spatial/maps_detail_static.php?map_select=265&theme=4
U.S. Water Management
How do you get water to cities?
• 1st stream channels were altered or
extended to flow into more accessible
areas
• Greeks...
Irrigation
• Within the U.S. differs from east to west:
about 5% in the east is used for irrigation,
90% of water use in w...
Industrial Use
• For processing, washing, and cooling
• Most water is returned to the system,
however we need to concerned...
Thermoelectric power
• Water used in the generation of electricty
from fossil fuels, nuclear and geothermal
sources
• Abou...
Hydroelectric Power
• Total average flow in all U.S. rivers is
1270 Bgal/day
• Total instream hydroelectric power use:
abo...
World water usage

http://www.worldmapper.org/
Water Resources
•
•
•
•
•

1. Hydrologic Cycle and Water Reservoirs
2. Floods and Flood Control
3. Use of Water
4. Water C...
Water Composition
• “Pure spring water”
– About 30 ppm of dissolved material 0.003%

• Dead sea/Great Salt Lake
– About 30...
Water for human consumption
• Should have less than 500 ppm dissolved
salts
• Water with > 2000 ppm is unsuitable for
most...
Rainwater from Menlo Pk, and
average from sites in N.C. and Virginia
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Calcium
Magnesium
Sodium
Potas...
Other Natural waters
3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

40.7

1.68

14

22

241

400

144

6.5

3.11

4540

Magnesium

7.2

...
World Poor Water

www.worldmapper.org
Use of water and water composition
Use of water and water composition
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Use of water and water composition

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  • 408,000 mgal/day
    457,000,000 acre feet per year
  • UK water resource use by industry, 1997/98 - Total abstraction: 16.8 billion cubic metres
  • Key to Analyses: (3) Composition of the Rhine River as it leaves the Alps; (4) Stream draining igneous rocks in the Washington Cascades; (5) Jump-Off Joe Creek, southwestern Oregon, wet season, November, 1990; (6) Jump-Off Joe Creek, southwestern Oregon, dry season, September, 1991; (7) Great Salt Lake, Utah; (8) Average seawater; (9) Groundwater from limestone of the Supai Formation, Grand Canyon; (10) Groundwater from volcanic rocks, New Mexico; (11) Groundwater from a spring, Sierra Nevada Mountains: short residence time; (12) Groundwater from metamorphic rocks in Canada: long residence time.
  • Transcript of "Use of water and water composition"

    1. 1. Water Resources
    2. 2. Water Resources • • • • • 1. Hydrologic Cycle and Water Reservoirs 2. Floods and Flood Control 3. Use of Water 4. Water Composition 5. Water Problems
    3. 3. Withdrawal vs Consumption • Consumed – – – – – Evaporated Transpired Incorporated into crops Consumed by humans or livestock consumptive use—the part of water withdrawn that is evaporated, transpired, incorporated into products or crops, consumed by humans or livestock, or otherwise removed from the immediate water environment.
    4. 4. Types of withdrawal • • • • Domestic-commercial Industrial-Mining Thermoelectric power Irrigation—some use for livestock • Consumptive-use estimates were included in some previous water-use Circulars but were omitted for 2000. Also referred to as water consumed.
    5. 5. http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/2004/circ1268/htdocs/table01.html
    6. 6. Who uses the most water in the US? • California • Texas • The least ? • Alaska • Dependent on population and agriculture
    7. 7. Water Use UK UK water resource use by industry, 1997/98 - Total abstraction: 16.8 billion cubic metres
    8. 8. Water Requirements: W. Society Home Use Liters gallons Shower per minute 19 5 Bath 114 30 Toilet flush 15 4 Load wash 114 30 Hose flow/hour 1136 300 Human Survival per person/yr 720 190
    9. 9. Water Requirements: W. Society Food Production Liters gallons Sugar per ton 946,000 250,000 Corn per ton 946,000 250,000 Rice per ton 9,460,000 2,500,000 Milk per gallon 61,000 16,000 Beef per pound 14,000 3,700
    10. 10. Annual Renewable Water Supply http://earthtrends.wri.org/maps_spatial/maps_detail_static.php?map_select=265&theme=4
    11. 11. U.S. Water Management
    12. 12. How do you get water to cities? • 1st stream channels were altered or extended to flow into more accessible areas • Greeks built masonry structures and made tunnels to move water • Romans built aqueducts—by A.D. 97 they had 9 aqueducts that brought 322 million liters a day to Rome
    13. 13. Irrigation • Within the U.S. differs from east to west: about 5% in the east is used for irrigation, 90% of water use in west is for irrigation. The water used in irrigation accounts for 85% of all the water consumed in the U.S.
    14. 14. Industrial Use • For processing, washing, and cooling • Most water is returned to the system, however we need to concerned about the quality: industrial pollution and heat pollution
    15. 15. Thermoelectric power • Water used in the generation of electricty from fossil fuels, nuclear and geothermal sources • About 98% of the water is returned to system, but it is hotter than it should be
    16. 16. Hydroelectric Power • Total average flow in all U.S. rivers is 1270 Bgal/day • Total instream hydroelectric power use: about 3300 Bgal/day • How does that work?
    17. 17. World water usage http://www.worldmapper.org/
    18. 18. Water Resources • • • • • 1. Hydrologic Cycle and Water Reservoirs 2. Floods and Flood Control 3. Use of Water 4. Water Composition 5. Water Problems
    19. 19. Water Composition • “Pure spring water” – About 30 ppm of dissolved material 0.003% • Dead sea/Great Salt Lake – About 300,000 ppm or 30% • Ocean Water – 35,000 ppm or 3.5%
    20. 20. Water for human consumption • Should have less than 500 ppm dissolved salts • Water with > 2000 ppm is unsuitable for most other uses (perhaps cooling would be ok—but not irrigation)
    21. 21. Rainwater from Menlo Pk, and average from sites in N.C. and Virginia • • • • • • • • • • • Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Bicarbonate Sulfate Chloride Silica TDS pH Values in PPM 0.8 1.2 9.4 4 7.6 17 0.3 38 5.5 0.65 0.14 0.56 0.11 2.2 0.57 4.7 -
    22. 22. Other Natural waters 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 40.7 1.68 14 22 241 400 144 6.5 3.11 4540 Magnesium 7.2 0.24 13 17 7200 1350 55 1.1 0.7 160 Sodium 1.4 0.16 8 14 83,600 10,500 Potassium 1.2 0.31 0.5 4070 380 Bicarbonate 114 5.4 104 129 251 28 622 Sulfate 36 1.3 4.7 1.3 16,400 185 Chloride 1.1 0.06 8.5 33 140,000 Silica 3.7 0.7 24 30 TDS 207 10 120 6.9 7.7 Calcium pH - - ~27 ~37 3.03 2740 ~2 ~3 1.09 32.1 77 20 55 60 15 1 1 19000 53 17 0.5 12,600 48 3 22 103 16.4 8.5 180 254,000 35000 670 222 36 20,338 7 7.4 6.7 6.2 6.5 - -
    23. 23. World Poor Water www.worldmapper.org
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