Second World War (1941-1945)
The worst war in world history.
The war started when the Japanese invaded the Philippines.
1942-1945 - they occupied the country for three years.
1945 - The American and Filipino allied troops liberated the
September 1, 1939 - Hitler and his Nazi German troops attacked
December 8, 1941(Pacific Time) - Japan made sneak attack on the
military bases of America and Britain in Pearl
Harbor, Singapore, and the Philippines
The Japanese attack
December 8, 1941 (manila time) – newspaper boys
shouted the bad news “extra! Extra! Japans attack
At 2;30 a.m. the Japanese had bombed the American
naval base at Pearl Harbor Hawaii.
General Douglas MacArthur - the commander of the United
States Armed Forces in the Far East (USAFFE), could not stop
the Japanese invasion.
The commonwealth in exile
Because of the hopeless situation, President Roosevelt wired President
Quezon to escape to the United States.
February 20, 1942-October 3, 1944 - President Quezon, his family, and
war cabinet secretly left Corregidor by submarine, the commonwealth
government went in exile at Washington, D.C.
August 1, 1944 - President Quezon died of illness and he was succeeded
by Vice-President Osmena.
General Jonathan Wainwright took over the command of the FilAmerican forces from General MacArthur.
General MacArthur was also ordered to leave by President Roosevelt.
March 17, 1942 - when he landed in Australia, Macarthur told the
world, “I shall return!”
The fall of Bataan and Corregidor
The other Asian nations attacked by Japan, the Philippines
fought the longest and hardest.
Only the Filipinos loyally fought side by side with their
The brave Filipino and American defenders were already
tired, sick, and hungry.
In Bataan 100, 000 Filipino and American soldiers were
taken prisoner by the Japanese.
The Death March
One of the cruelest atrocities by the Japanese during the
Second World War was the infamous Bataan death march
in April 1942.
62, 000 Filipino soldiers and 11, 000 American troops were
forced to march from 7 to 11 days without food, water, or
Many were beaten or bayoneted by the Japanese.
17, 000 Fil-Am troops died in this death march-16,000
Filipinos and 1,200 Americans.
Japanese Military occupation
January 3, 1942 to July 5, 1945 –t he Philippines was
under Japanese military occupation for three years.
January 3, 1942 - the Japanese military administration
was set up in manila.
It was headed at first by General Yoshihida Hayashi.
General Takazi Wachi was the late military head.
They circulated new money with Japanese script. The
Filipinos called it “Mickey mouse money” because nobody
really want it.
The second Philippine Republic
Jorge B. Vargas - became chairman of the Philippine Executive
January 23, 1942 - the members of the Executive Commission sent a
letter to the Japanese military.
January 21, 1942 - the Japanese Premier, Hideki Tojo, came to the
Tojo announced the “independence” of the Philippines and said
Japan was the “liberator” of the Asians from the western powers.
September 4, 1943 - the new constitution was finished.
October 14, 1943 - the second Philippine Republic was inaugurated in
front of the legislative building at Manila. It was headed by
President Jose P. Laurel.
The Japanese tried to win the Filipinos by means of propaganda.
Hoodo-Bu - the Japanese army propaganda.
Barangays were organized into groups called the SAMAHANG
MAGKAKAPIT-BAHAY .This samahan were really spy networks.
The samahan leaders were forced to report on guerrillas in their
The top agency of Japanese propaganda was the KALIBAPI
(Kapisanan ng Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas )
By word of mouth the Filipinos spread news of the allied war
victories and the coming liberation.
Most Filipinos had to collaborate with the Japanese during
These included Laurel, Vargas, and the other officials who
served in the puppet government.
The Ganaps were led by Benigno Ramos and Pio Duran, the
two leading Filipino collaborators.
These guerrillas fought a good war against the Japanese
The communists formed a guerrilla army called the Huk
or Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon.
The success of the guerillas was really due to the
support of the ordinary people.
During the second world war, the Filipinos saw the best and the worst in
the Japanese .
After the war, the two Japanese commanders in the
Philippines, Generals Masaharu Homma and Tomoyuki Yamashita were
executed for their war crimes.
Emperor Hirohito apologized for his country’s atrocities to Filipinos
during the war.
Deaths of Filipino soldiers and civilians-1, 111, 938 lives and damage to
property, goods and services- US$ 6, 411, 732, 000.
There were hundreds of cases of atrocities by Japanese soldiers in the
Philippines. These atrocities included murder, torture, and rape of
civilians and prisoners of war, and the looting, burning and destruction
For three years, the Filipinos suffered under the Japanese and we lived
in fear of the cruel Kempeitai (Japanese military police)
Liberation of the Philippines
October 20, 1944 - the American liberation forces landed at
Palo, Leyte with more than 650 ships and four army divisions.
October 23-26, 1944 - the U.S navy won the big battle of Leyte
January 9, 1945 - the Americans landed at Lingayen in Luzon.
The Japanese troops began to retreat to Baguio.
February 1945 - the battle of manila ended.
February 23, 1945 - the fil-am troops liberated the city.
July 5, 1945 - General MacArthur announced the liberation of
End of the Second World War
May 7, 1945 - the war in Europe ended. This was V-E Day,
Victory in Europe day.
August 6, 1945 - the first atomic bomb was dropped on
the city of Hiroshima.
August 9 - another atomic bomb was dropped on the city
August 15, 1945 - these atomic bombs made the
President Laurel announced the end of the second
Philippine Republic at nara.
Restoration of the commonwealth
October 23, 1944 - the Commonwealth Government was restored to
power as soon as the Americans landed at Leyte.
June 9, 1945 - the members of the pre-war commonwealth congress
were recalled. They won in the November 1941 elections but had not
yet served in office.
November 15, 1945 - the commonwealth celebrated its 10th
April 23, 1946 - the last commonwealth election were held.
Roxas became the last commonwealth President and the first
President of the third Philippine Republic inaugurated in 1946.