Our spanish heritage


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Our spanish heritage

  1. 1. By: Mhiles and Mhiyam
  2. 2.     The roman catholic religion was the greatest legacy of Spain in the Philippines. Catholicism spread quickly in the Philippines due to the diligence and good works of the early Spanish missionaries. The first Spanish missionaries who came to the Philippines, especially in the 16th and 17th century, were really zealous soldiers of Christ. The Spanish priest destroyed the pagan idols and early practices of filipinos.
  3. 3.      The catholic priest taught the children so that in this way, they will attracted more new believers. They combined the teaching of religion with other skills like writing, reading, arithmetic and music. By the end of the 16th century, there were more than 500,000 Catholics in the philippines,in 17th century the number were doubled to over a million. Catholics consider themselves as Christians who believe in Jesus Christ as Lord and savior but they add and subtract some beliefs in the bible. Many Catholic priests during the spanish era helped improved our lives.
  4. 4.    Many Catholic priest abused their powers because although they are not allowed to marry, many of them got secretly married in beautiful women mostly in provinces and towns. Spanish Catholic Priests called friars also abused the local inhabitants of the small towns by using their religious powers to terrorize people into doing what they wanted even if they were cruel and arrogant. The bible was banned at that time because only the priests are allowed to read and to have.
  5. 5. In 1578, the first hospital was founded on manila.  Two oldest existing hospitals that are in manila: -hospital of san juan -san lazaro hospital  The first hospital in the phillippines was started 173 years earlier than the first hospital in the united states. 
  6. 6. Real hospicio de san jose-the first regular orphanage that founded in manilain 1810.it is still existing.  The other existing orphanage is the Asylum of st. vincent de paul, built in 1885 in manila. 
  7. 7.  Spain introduced new foods plants:
  8. 8. Other new foods:  Beef(from cattle)  Mutton(from lamb)  Sausages(longganizas)  Ham(hamon)and;  Sardines.
  9. 9. Choziros de bilbao  Olive oil  pickles  We learned to eat with spoons, table knives, napkins and crystal drinking glasses.  Drinks from - spain(sangria) - Portugal(port) - Germany(beer) -france(cognac) 
  10. 10. For men Jacket and bahag were replaced by the western coat and trousers,today we call “americana”.  The lower-class men wore hats instead of putong.  For women    Sarong robe changed into saya(skirt) and camisa(blouse). They learned to wear hair combs, shawls(mon ton de manila), and handkerchiefs. They still wore jewelry but gave up wearing armlets and anklets.
  11. 11. Family life was also improved by the coming of the catholic Spaniards. Many early filipinos killed unwanted babies or married many wives. These practices were stopped during spanish era. 
  12. 12. The family became the unit of society,With father as the head of household and a mother in charge of the daily chores and children. Christianity was a good influence on family life. Parents and children prayed together the rosary and angelus every night. As a sign of respect for parents and grandparents, the children kissed their hands and said, “mano, po”.
  13. 13. The position of women in society was improved even more during the Spanish era. The women were respected and honored by men. If single, the women were chaperoned when they attended dances and other social events. Women did not mix freely with men.
  14. 14. Young women were kept in the home or at school with other women. They were educated in the colegios(exclusive schools) run by nuns for girls. They could not study in the universities or practice a profession like law, medicine and engineering. They were only trained to be good wives and good mothers.
  15. 15. Spain introduced the western calendar into our country. With this calendar, we kept dates similar to that used in europe.  Gov. Gen. Narciso Claveria corrected the Philippine calendar. August 16,1844- he ordered the Tuesday, dec.31,1844 would be Wednesday, january 1,1845.  Our calendar had been one day behind the european time. 
  16. 16. During the spanish era, Filipinos got spanish names. At first, the early Spanish colonizers changed our local names to spanish names that they could remember. Secondary, the early filipinos did not bother with surnames. But this practice was so confusing because family ties could not be known. Nov. 21,1849 when gov.gen. claveria ordered all filipio to choose a surname from a catalog sent to all provinces in the country.
  17. 17. The introduction by Spain of latin alphabet and spanish language made our people closer to the western world.  Some filipinos learned spanish, especially those who came from the upper classes and attended formal schooling. But the lower classes really don‟t know spanish well. 
  18. 18.  There are about 5000 spanish words in our native dialects. The spanish words are still commonly used like, “mesa”(table), “silla”(chair), “oras”( time), “campana”(bell), etc.
  19. 19.   The spaniards friars(priests) studied our native languages. They believed that we would learn faster if we used our native tongues. It was strange, but the spaniards actually preserved and developed our native languages, like tagalog, visayan, ilocano, etc. The early Spanish missionaries wrote the first grammar books and dictionaries of the filipino languages.
  20. 20. Spain introduced western-style education in the Philippines. This was the formal schooling in different levels – elementary, secondary(high school), and college. The first foreign teachers in the philippines were the spanish missionaries.
  21. 21.  Rich filipino boys studied at the colegio de manila of the jesuits, or the colegio de san juan de letran of the domenicans.  Rich filipino girls went to Colegio de Santa Isabel(the oldest school for girls in the Philippines), or the Beaterio de la Compania de Jesus(now St. Mary‟s College),or Santa Catalina,La Concordia, and Assumption Convent.
  22. 22. Famous Spanish Schools in the provinces:  Colegio de San Ildefonso in cebu(now the University of San Carlos), the colegio de San Agustin in Iloilo, Colegio de San Buenaventura in Guinobatan,Albay and the Colegio de San Jose in Bacolod.  University of Santo Tomas- it is the oldest existing university in the country. It was founded in 1611. 
  23. 23.    Printing is important because people learn a lot by reading, especially good books and news papers. The first printing press in the Philippines was started by the dominican friars in manila in 1593.That was 47 years before the printin press was started in the US. The U.S.T. press is still existing as the oldest press in the country.
  24. 24.   Tomas Pinpin-first filipino printer. - he trained under a Spanish priest at Abucay,Bataaan. -”Prince of filipino printers”, also the first filipino author. -he wrote the first tagalog book ever published. Doctrina Christiana- first book printed in the Philippines. -It was published in 1593 in Manila by Dominican friars. -it is 47 years ahead of the first book of catholic catechism and prayers.
  25. 25.  Del Superior Govierno- the first newspaper. -it appeared from August 8,1811 to february 7,1812. -it was edited and published by Governor General Manuel Gonzales de Aguilar.  In 19th century, other newspapers: -La Esperanza(first daily newspaper; -El Ilokano(first Vernacular paper; -El Hogar(first women‟s magazine.
  26. 26. During the Spanish era, Philippine literature was religious and taught lessons about good and evil.  The first tagalog pasion was by Gaspar Aquino de Belen in 1704.  Other types of literature for masses: -awits(heroic poems) and corridos(religious-legendary poems).  There were stories about knights,heroes or legend: ex. Don juan Tenorio,Ibong adarna, and Bernardo Carpio. 
  27. 27. Francisco Baltazar or Balagtas- the famous writer who wrote different languages during spanish era. - he was the “prince of Tagalog poets”. - His masterpiece was Florante at Laura, story of love and adventures of a hero named florante.  Pedro Bukaneg- most famous Ilocano poet.  Father Anselmo Fajardo- wrote Pampango drama.  Three greatest filipino poets in Spanish: Cecilio Apostol, Fernando Ma. Guerrero, and Jose Palma-wrote the original lyrics of the Philippine National Anthem. 
  28. 28.  Dr. Jose Rizal-he wrote our national anthem in spanish. -his two books: Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo help to bring down the Spanish regime.
  29. 29. Western-styles plays performed on stage by live actors were first introduced by the Spaniards. The first play was presented at Cebu in 1598.  Two kinds of plays became popular: 1.Cenaculo-was a religious play about the life and sufferings of Christ. It was performed during the Lenten season, when no other plays were allowed. 2. Moro-moro- by contrast, was an adventurous play featuring fights between Christians and Muslims. In this plays, the Christians always won in the end. 
  30. 30. Enriched by Spain.  The Philippine national anthem shows spanish influence.  Our musical instruments, songs and dances were Westernized.  Spain influenced Filipino dances like: -carinosa, surido, pandango, and jota.  The Polka, lancero, waltz, and rigodon were originally European dances. 
  31. 31. From Europe and Mexico musical instruments: -violin, flute, piano, harp,etc.  Musikong buh(bamboo musician)- they only used musical instruments made from bamboo.  Fr. Diego Cerra- he build the bamboo organ at the old catholic church of Las Pinas-the only one of its kind in the world.
  32. 32. The Spanish villages formed a rectangular pattern, with a central plaza and rectangular street blocks.  The Spaniards wanted the Filipinos to live “pajo de campana”, or within hearing of the church bells.So the Catholic church in town became the most beautiful building and the center of town life.  
  33. 33. During spanish era were built the first stone churches, stone buildings, stone forts and stone houses.  Some “bahay na bato”(stone house) of the rich filipino still exist today, the house of Dr. Jose Rizal at Calamba, Laguna. Oldest existing stone church is San Agustin Church at Intramuros, Manila.  It became fashionable to have a hpuse with a red tile roof, an azotea(balcony) and patio(yard) 
  34. 34.     Painting and sculpture were brought by Spain. The first art works were religious art of official portraits of kings or governor general. Damian Domingo-he was the „Father of Filipino painters‟. He also founded the first school of painting at manila in 1820. Juan Luna and Felix Resurrection Hidalgo- they won the international fame with teir paintings.They won first and second prizes at the national exposition in Madrid in 1883.
  35. 35. Sculpture especially woodcarving was developed during spanish era.  Images of catholic saints replaced the pagan idols(anitos) of the filipinos.   Mariano C. Madrinan-he was from Paete, Laguna. -he was the greatest Filipino sculptor in the Spanish era.
  36. 36.     Spanish introduced modern science in the philippines. They studied our plants and animals, annd wrote many famous books on these subjects. They trained a few filipinos to be scientists, especially doctors, chemists, and pharmacists. Anacleto V. del Rosario- first filipino director of the Manila laboratory in 1888. he was called the “Prince of Filipino chemist”.
  37. 37.  Other famous scientist during Spanish times were graduates of University of Santo Tomas- Dr. Leon Ma. Guerrero, Dr. Mariano V. del Rosario, and Dr. Jose Rizal.
  38. 38.     It accurately warned of typhoons. It also measured earthquakes. It was founded by the jesuit priests in 1865. The first director was Fr. Federico Faura. The padre Faura street in Ermita, Manila is named after him. He also invented the faura Barometer. His successor, Fr. Jose Algue, invented the barocyclometer. The Observatory of manila is the oldest weather center in Asia.
  39. 39. Spain intoduced the religious festivals in the Philippines. Every town or barangay had its own patron saint every year.  It was spain who gave us the idea of a sleepy and quiet lenten season. From Ash Wednesday to holy Saturday, all fiestas and parties were stopped. People chanted the “pasyon” or watched the “cenaculo” to remember the life and death of Jesus. 
  40. 40. The Filipino love for gambling came out. -Horse racing in the race tracks was started in 1868 at Santa Mesa, Manila.  Cockfighting was made legal and taxed.  The Manila lottery, a monthly event became the origin of the present day sweepstakes.  Amusements during the Spanish era: -family events-baptisms, wedding, death anniversaries(siyaman), visits to holy shrines, the flores de Mayo(May, flower festival), and Santacruzan(holy cross procession in May). 
  41. 41.  Because there were no radios and televisions, people played games indoors and outdoors: favorite games then were poetical contests(duplo and balagtasan, story telling, card games(juego de prenda, pangguingui, manilla, tres siete), and outdoor games like, patintero, juego de anilla(rings), sipa and kite-flying.
  42. 42. Two classes of foreigners: 1.”Peninsulares”- were the Spaniards who originally came from Spain to live and work in the Philippines. They felt superior to others. 2.”insulares”- spaniards who had been born and bred in the Philippines. They were made to feel inferior simply because they did not come from abroad in Spain.  The word „filipino‟ was originally used to described the insulares. Only later, during the independence movement, the word „filipino‟ used to mean the citizens of the Philippines 
  43. 43. Many spaniards married Filipino women.  Mestizos(Eurasian)-The descendants of the mixed marriages. Because of their fair skin, these half-breeds and Spaniards teased as “mestizong bangus”(pale fish) by the filipinos.In return, the spaniards looked down at the brown-skinned natives as “indios”(savages).  Our history made by great Spanish-Filipinos: -Dr. Jose Rizal, Manuel Quezon, fathers Gomez, Burgos and Zamora. Felipe calderon, T.M. Pardo de Tavera, etc. 
  44. 44. Because of spanish influence, the filipinos have such good character traits: Christian devotion, delicadeza(honor), palabra de honor(keeping promises), urbanidad(good manners) and romanticism.  Filipinos Inherited Bad traits: maňana habit( delaying work), sentimentalism, siesta(afternoon nap), seňorito habit(dislike of manual work) and aristocracy or snobbishness. 
  45. 45. The spanish gave the Philippines a rich heritage. The spanish influenced improved our social and cultural life. We learn the following: 1. We are the only Christian nation in Asia. 2. Christianity improved the standard of life of our people. It stopped the practice of divorce, infanticide, animal and human sacrifices, polygamy, and tribal wars. 3. Spain improved our diet, dress, family life, the position of women, the calendar, names, alphabet and language, education, literature, music, housing, and arts and sciences. 4. Many of our cultural traits and customs were influenced by Spain. 
  46. 46. & Milagrosa Dipagan