The roman catholic religion was the greatest legacy of Spain
in the Philippines.
Catholicism spread quickly in the Philippines due to the
diligence and good works of the early Spanish missionaries.
The first Spanish missionaries who came to the
Philippines, especially in the 16th and 17th century, were
really zealous soldiers of Christ.
The Spanish priest destroyed the pagan idols and early
practices of filipinos.
The catholic priest taught the children so that in this
way, they will attracted more new believers.
They combined the teaching of religion with other skills
like writing, reading, arithmetic and music.
By the end of the 16th century, there were more than
500,000 Catholics in the philippines,in 17th century the
number were doubled to over a million.
Catholics consider themselves as Christians who believe
in Jesus Christ as Lord and savior but they add and
subtract some beliefs in the bible.
Many Catholic priests during the spanish era helped
improved our lives.
Many Catholic priest abused their powers because although
they are not allowed to marry, many of them got secretly
married in beautiful women mostly in provinces and towns.
Spanish Catholic Priests called friars also abused the local
inhabitants of the small towns by using their religious
powers to terrorize people into doing what they wanted
even if they were cruel and arrogant.
The bible was banned at that time because only the priests
are allowed to read and to have.
In 1578, the first hospital was founded on manila.
Two oldest existing hospitals that are in manila:
-hospital of san juan
-san lazaro hospital
The first hospital in the phillippines was started
173 years earlier than the first hospital in the
Real hospicio de san jose-the first regular
orphanage that founded in manilain 1810.it is still
The other existing orphanage is the Asylum of st.
vincent de paul, built in 1885 in manila.
Other new foods:
Choziros de bilbao
We learned to eat
Jacket and bahag
were replaced by
the western coat
men wore hats
They learned to
ton de manila), and
They still wore
jewelry but gave up
Family life was also improved by the coming of the
Many early filipinos killed unwanted babies or
married many wives. These practices were stopped
during spanish era.
The family became the unit of society,With father
as the head of household and a mother in charge
of the daily chores and children.
Christianity was a good influence on family life.
Parents and children prayed together the rosary
and angelus every night.
As a sign of respect for parents and
grandparents, the children kissed their hands
and said, “mano, po”.
The position of women in society was improved even
more during the Spanish era. The women were
respected and honored by men.
If single, the women were chaperoned when they
attended dances and other social events. Women did
not mix freely with men.
Young women were kept in the home or at school
with other women. They were educated in the
colegios(exclusive schools) run by nuns for girls.
They could not study in the universities or practice
a profession like law, medicine and engineering.
They were only trained to be good wives and good
Spain introduced the western calendar into our country.
With this calendar, we kept dates similar to that used in
Gov. Gen. Narciso Claveria corrected the Philippine
August 16,1844- he ordered the Tuesday, dec.31,1844
would be Wednesday, january 1,1845.
Our calendar had been one day behind the european time.
During the spanish era, Filipinos got spanish names. At
first, the early Spanish colonizers changed our local names
to spanish names that they could remember.
Secondary, the early filipinos did not bother with surnames.
But this practice was so confusing because family ties could
not be known.
Nov. 21,1849 when gov.gen. claveria ordered all filipio to
choose a surname from a catalog sent to all provinces in
The introduction by Spain of latin alphabet and
spanish language made our people closer to the
Some filipinos learned spanish, especially those who
came from the upper classes and attended formal
schooling. But the lower classes really don‟t know
There are about 5000 spanish words
in our native dialects. The spanish
words are still commonly used
like, “mesa”(table), “silla”(chair), “oras”(
time), “campana”(bell), etc.
The spaniards friars(priests) studied our native languages.
They believed that we would learn faster if we used our
native tongues. It was strange, but the spaniards actually
preserved and developed our native languages, like
tagalog, visayan, ilocano, etc.
The early Spanish missionaries wrote the first grammar
books and dictionaries of the filipino languages.
Spain introduced western-style education in the
This was the formal schooling in different levels –
elementary, secondary(high school), and college.
The first foreign teachers in the philippines were the
Rich filipino boys
studied at the
colegio de manila
of the jesuits, or
the colegio de
san juan de
letran of the
Rich filipino girls went
to Colegio de Santa
school for girls in the
Philippines), or the
Beaterio de la
Jesus(now St. Mary‟s
Famous Spanish Schools in the provinces:
Colegio de San Ildefonso in cebu(now the
University of San Carlos), the colegio de San
Agustin in Iloilo, Colegio de San Buenaventura in
Guinobatan,Albay and the Colegio de San Jose in
University of Santo Tomas- it is the oldest existing
university in the country. It was founded in 1611.
Printing is important because people learn a lot by
reading, especially good books and news papers.
The first printing press in the Philippines was started by the
dominican friars in manila in 1593.That was 47 years before
the printin press was started in the US.
The U.S.T. press is still existing as the oldest press in the
Tomas Pinpin-first filipino printer.
- he trained under a Spanish priest at
-”Prince of filipino printers”, also the first filipino
-he wrote the first tagalog book ever published.
Doctrina Christiana- first book printed in the Philippines.
-It was published in 1593 in Manila by
-it is 47 years ahead of the first book of
catholic catechism and prayers.
Superior Govierno- the first newspaper.
-it appeared from August 8,1811 to
-it was edited and published by Governor
General Manuel Gonzales de Aguilar.
In 19th century, other newspapers:
-La Esperanza(first daily newspaper;
-El Ilokano(first Vernacular paper;
-El Hogar(first women‟s magazine.
During the Spanish era, Philippine literature was religious
and taught lessons about good and evil.
The first tagalog pasion was by Gaspar Aquino de Belen in
Other types of literature for masses:
-awits(heroic poems) and corridos(religious-legendary
There were stories about knights,heroes or legend: ex. Don
juan Tenorio,Ibong adarna, and Bernardo Carpio.
Francisco Baltazar or Balagtas- the famous writer who wrote
different languages during spanish era.
- he was the “prince of Tagalog poets”.
- His masterpiece was Florante at Laura, story of
love and adventures of a hero named florante.
Pedro Bukaneg- most famous Ilocano poet.
Father Anselmo Fajardo- wrote Pampango drama.
Three greatest filipino poets in Spanish: Cecilio
Apostol, Fernando Ma. Guerrero, and Jose Palma-wrote the
original lyrics of the Philippine National Anthem.
Jose Rizal-he wrote our national anthem
-his two books: Noli Me Tangere and El
Filibusterismo help to bring down the
Western-styles plays performed on stage by live actors
were first introduced by the Spaniards. The first play
was presented at Cebu in 1598.
Two kinds of plays became popular:
1.Cenaculo-was a religious play about the life and
sufferings of Christ. It was performed during the Lenten
season, when no other plays were allowed.
2. Moro-moro- by contrast, was an adventurous play
featuring fights between Christians and Muslims. In this
plays, the Christians always won in the end.
Enriched by Spain.
The Philippine national anthem shows spanish
Our musical instruments, songs and dances were
Spain influenced Filipino dances like:
-carinosa, surido, pandango, and jota.
The Polka, lancero, waltz, and rigodon were
originally European dances.
From Europe and Mexico musical instruments:
-violin, flute, piano, harp,etc.
Musikong buh(bamboo musician)- they only
used musical instruments made from bamboo.
Fr. Diego Cerra- he build the bamboo organ at
the old catholic church of Las Pinas-the only one
of its kind in the world.
The Spanish villages formed a rectangular
pattern, with a central plaza and rectangular street
The Spaniards wanted the Filipinos to live “pajo de
campana”, or within hearing of the church bells.So
the Catholic church in town became the most
beautiful building and the center of town life.
During spanish era were built the first stone
churches, stone buildings, stone forts and stone
Some “bahay na bato”(stone house) of the rich
filipino still exist today, the house of Dr. Jose Rizal
at Calamba, Laguna. Oldest existing stone church
is San Agustin Church at Intramuros, Manila.
It became fashionable to have a hpuse with a red
tile roof, an azotea(balcony) and patio(yard)
Painting and sculpture were brought by Spain.
The first art works were religious art of official portraits
of kings or governor general.
Damian Domingo-he was the „Father of Filipino painters‟.
He also founded the first school of painting at manila in
Juan Luna and Felix Resurrection Hidalgo- they won the
international fame with teir paintings.They won first and
second prizes at the national exposition in Madrid in
Sculpture especially woodcarving was developed
during spanish era.
Images of catholic saints replaced the pagan
idols(anitos) of the filipinos.
Mariano C. Madrinan-he was from Paete, Laguna.
-he was the greatest Filipino sculptor
in the Spanish era.
Spanish introduced modern science in the philippines.
They studied our plants and animals, annd wrote many
famous books on these subjects.
They trained a few filipinos to be scientists, especially
doctors, chemists, and pharmacists.
Anacleto V. del Rosario- first filipino director of the
Manila laboratory in 1888. he was called the “Prince of
Other famous scientist during Spanish times were
graduates of University of Santo Tomas- Dr. Leon
Ma. Guerrero, Dr. Mariano V. del Rosario, and Dr.
It accurately warned of typhoons. It also measured
It was founded by the jesuit priests in 1865.
The first director was Fr. Federico Faura. The padre Faura
street in Ermita, Manila is named after him. He also
invented the faura Barometer. His successor, Fr. Jose
Algue, invented the barocyclometer.
The Observatory of manila is the oldest weather center in
Spain intoduced the religious festivals in the
Philippines. Every town or barangay had its own
patron saint every year.
It was spain who gave us the idea of a sleepy and
quiet lenten season. From Ash Wednesday to
holy Saturday, all fiestas and parties were
stopped. People chanted the “pasyon” or watched
the “cenaculo” to remember the life and death of
The Filipino love for gambling came out.
-Horse racing in the race tracks was started in 1868 at
Santa Mesa, Manila.
Cockfighting was made legal and taxed.
The Manila lottery, a monthly event became the origin of
the present day sweepstakes.
Amusements during the Spanish era:
-family events-baptisms, wedding, death
anniversaries(siyaman), visits to holy shrines, the flores
de Mayo(May, flower festival), and Santacruzan(holy
cross procession in May).
Because there were no radios and televisions, people
played games indoors and outdoors: favorite games
then were poetical contests(duplo and
balagtasan, story telling, card games(juego de
prenda, pangguingui, manilla, tres siete), and
outdoor games like, patintero, juego de
anilla(rings), sipa and kite-flying.
Two classes of foreigners:
1.”Peninsulares”- were the Spaniards who originally came from
Spain to live and work in the Philippines. They felt superior to
2.”insulares”- spaniards who had been born and bred in the
Philippines. They were made to feel inferior simply because
they did not come from abroad in Spain.
The word „filipino‟ was originally used to described the
insulares. Only later, during the independence movement, the
word „filipino‟ used to mean the citizens of the Philippines
Many spaniards married Filipino women.
Mestizos(Eurasian)-The descendants of the mixed marriages.
Because of their fair skin, these half-breeds and Spaniards
teased as “mestizong bangus”(pale fish) by the filipinos.In
return, the spaniards looked down at the brown-skinned
natives as “indios”(savages).
Our history made by great Spanish-Filipinos:
-Dr. Jose Rizal, Manuel Quezon, fathers Gomez, Burgos and
Zamora. Felipe calderon, T.M. Pardo de Tavera, etc.
Because of spanish influence, the filipinos have such
good character traits: Christian
devotion, delicadeza(honor), palabra de
honor(keeping promises), urbanidad(good manners)
Filipinos Inherited Bad traits: maňana habit( delaying
work), sentimentalism, siesta(afternoon
nap), seňorito habit(dislike of manual work) and
aristocracy or snobbishness.
The spanish gave the Philippines a rich heritage. The spanish
influenced improved our social and cultural life. We learn the
1. We are the only Christian nation in Asia.
2. Christianity improved the standard of life of our people. It
stopped the practice of divorce, infanticide, animal and
human sacrifices, polygamy, and tribal wars.
3. Spain improved our diet, dress, family life, the position of
women, the calendar, names, alphabet and
language, education, literature, music, housing, and arts
4. Many of our cultural traits and customs were influenced by