Ocean circulation

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  • 4 th century BC ,Pytheas of Massalia, a Greek ship captain, explored eastern Atlantic
    Okeanos (Greek for “Great River”) because he found the ocean flowing south (Canary Current) and thought it was a river too wide to cross.
  • London = 51 deg N James Bay = 51 deg. N
    Edinburgh = 55deg N, same latitude as Ontario’s Polar Bear Provincial Park
    Total water in ocean surface circulation = about 100 Amazon Rivers (20 million m3/s). It requires 500-2000 years to complete cycle.
  • AVERAGE = 35 ppm or 3.5% denser
  • M&M fourth edition, solar constant = rate of solar radiation on surface perpendicular to the sun’s rays at the top of the atmosphere, 1.97 cal/cm2/min or 1372 watts/m2
    Difference between perihelion (2.04 cal/me/min) vs 1.91 cal/m2/min at aphelion
    1 watt/hr = 860 cal
  • Ocean circulation

    1. 1. Components of the Climate System • Atmosphere • Ocean • Biosphere • Geosphere Image from NASA
    2. 2. Atmosphere & Ocean Circulation • Atmospheric Circulation – Depends on density • Ocean Surface Circulation – Depends on the wind • Deep Ocean Circulation – Depends on density
    3. 3. Why is Ocean Circulation Important? • Transport ~ 20% of latitudinal heat – Equator to poles • Transport nutrients and organisms • Influences weather and climate • Influences commerce
    4. 4. Temperature Structure of Ocean thermocline
    5. 5. Ocean Circulation
    6. 6. Wind driven surface currents Wind-drive ocean surface currents • How fast? A few miles/hr (Gulf Stream off of Miami = 4.5 mph) • How much? Total water in ocean surface circulation = about 100 Amazon Rivers (20 million m3/s).
    7. 7. Atmosphere & Ocean Circulation • Atmospheric Circulation – Depends on density • Ocean Surface Circulation – Depends on the wind • Deep Ocean Circulation – Depends on density
    8. 8. Sea Surface Temperature http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/dees/ees/climate/slides/sst_march.gif
    9. 9. Ocean Salinity http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/dees/ees/climate/slides/sal_march.gif •http://ingrid.ldgo.columbia.edu/
    10. 10. Temperature-Salinity (density) Diagram
    11. 11. Thermohaline Circulation North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW 15 million m3 of near surface water descend into the deep ocean each second.
    12. 12. Thermohaline Circulation - The Ocean Conveyor
    13. 13. Equatorial to polar heat transport and water flow
    14. 14. Ocean – Atmosphere Circulation
    15. 15. UNEQUAL HEATING OF EARTH BUT – Outgoing solar radiation is not as uneven
    16. 16. End of Report in Ocean Circulation… Click here to go to: Agricultural, Industrial and Domestic use

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