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Let review 2013

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  • 1. LET REVIEW 2013 SPEECH AND ORAL COMMUNICATION Zhie
  • 2. Speech Communication  the process of sharing meaning through audible and visual codes as voice, facial expression, gestures, movement, posture and the like.  a process that includes participants, context, messages, channels, nois e and feedback.  The ability to talk with others to give and exchange information and ideas, such as: ask question, give directions, coordinate work tasks, explain and persuade.
  • 3. How we use this skill:  Greeting people and taking messages  Reassuring, comforting or persuading  Seeking information and resolving conflicts  Facilitating or leading group
  • 4. Vowel Sounds – are produced without blocking or constricting the passage of air  are oral sounds  are voiced
  • 5. FRONT CENTRAL BACK HIGH /i/ /I/ MID /e/ /Ɛ/ / ^ / accented schwa / ǝ / unaccented schwa / Ʒ / accented er schwa sound / ɚ / unaccented er schwa sound /o/ LOW /ӕ/ /a/ / ͻ/ /u/ /U/ /ɐ/
  • 6. Diphthong – is a combination of two vowel sounds blended into one syllable.  / aI /  / au/  / ͻI /
  • 7. Consonants- are speech sounds produced through a modification of the outgoing breath by the organs of articulation. Therefore, there is blocking, narrowing, or diverting of the breath stream in their production.
  • 8. Classification of Consonants Voicing Voiced- the vocal cords vibrate [b] [d] [g] [v] [ð] [z] [dƷ] [l] [m] [n] [ɳ ] [r] [w] [j] Voiceless- the vocal cords do not vibrate [p] [t] [k] [ƒ] [θ] [ ʃ ] [s] [ʧ ] [h] [ ƕ/Ϻ]
  • 9. Points of Articulation  Bilabial- upper and lower lips  Labiodentals- lip and teeth  Lingua-dental (interdental)- tongue and teeth  Alveolar- tongue and gum ridge  Post alveolar (alveopalatal)- tongue and alveopalatal region  Palatal- tongue and palate  Velar- tongue and velum  Glottal- vocal folds
  • 10. Manner of Articulation  Stops (stop-plosives) are characterized by an oral block, building up of pressure and a sudden explosive release of air.  Fricatives- are sounds produced when the breath stream passes through a narrowed oral opening and friction sounds result.  Nasals- are sounds produced by the blocking of the oral passage and diverting of the vocalized breath through the nasal passage.  Affricatives- are stops that move toward a fricative position.  Laterals- are sounds produced by closing the center of the oral passage and opening the sides.  Glides (semi-vowels)- are sounds produced with the tongue starting at a position and gliding rapidly to another.
  • 11. Consonant Chart Points of articulation Lips (bilabial) Lip- teeth (Labio-dental) Tongue-teeth (lingua dental) Tongue- gum ridge (alveolar) Manner of articulation Stops VL VD Tongue- hard palate (post alveolar) Tongueblade palate (palate) Tonguevelum (velar) t k b Fricatives VL VD p d g ƕ/Ϻ VD m Lateral θ (th) s ʃ (sh) ð (th) z (zh) h ɳ (ng) n l glides Affricates f v Nasals w VL VD Larynx (glottal) r j (y) ʧ (ch) ʤ (dzh)
  • 12. The critical consonant sounds for Filipinos:  / f, v, θ, ð, z, š, ž, ϐ, j/  /t, n/  / ð , r/
  • 13. Noun Plurals are spelled as Rule 1. If you add letter “s” to a word ending in one of the voiceless consonant phonemes (sounds) it is pronounced / s /. boats puffs peeps walks breadths Rule 2: if you add letter “s” to a word ending in one of the voiced consonant phonemes as a vowel phoneme the “s” ending is pronounced /z/. dogs runs trees cars beds leave dolls Rule 3: if you add “es” suffix to a word ending in one of the /s, z, š, ž, ϐ, j/ it is pronounced as / ðz/
  • 14. Pronunciation: “ed” suffixes /t/ after voiceless sounds looked, kicked /d/ after voiced sounds measured, loaned / ðd/ planted, wanted
  • 15. Prosodic Features Prosodic – the rhythm of spoken language, including stress and intonation, or the study of these patterns
  • 16. Stress  Stress also called accent refers to the prominence given to a syllable or word which makes the word or syllable stand out above the adjacent syllable or word.  -It can be word stress or sentence stress.  -It is the relative loudness or softness with which a syllable is spoken.  -A stressed syllable is pronounced louder and has a higher pitch and longer duration than unstressed syllable.
  • 17. Four Degrees of Stress /’/ primary stress very loud and very long / ‘/ secondary stress loud and long / ”/ tertiary stress weak and short /^/ weak stress very weak and very short
  • 18.  Most English words, especially nouns that contain two syllables are stressed on the first syllable.  Verbs are stressed on the second syllable  Words to which suffixes like –tion, -sion, -ic, -ity, are added, carry the strong stress on the syllable before these suffixes.  Compound nouns are stressed on the first noun to distinguish them from an adjective and a noun combination.
  • 19. Blending  When the first word ends with a vowel sound and the second word begins also with vowel sound, you blend the sounds.  When the first word ends with a vowel sound and the second word begins with a consonant, you also blend the sounds.  When the first word ends with a consonant sound and the second word begins with a vowel sound, blending is also share.
  • 20. Intonation  Intonation, also known as inflection is the movement of the voice up or down, along the line of sound.  It is the rising and falling of pitch in the delivery of a syllable or a word in a phrase or a sentence.  It is determined partly by the mind and mood of the speaker.  Through the rising and falling of the speaker’s voice, particular words in a phrase or sentence are given emphasis and significance.  Stress and intonation are closely related to each other. An increase of stress is generally accompanied by a rise pitch.
  • 21. Four Levels of Pitch  low  mid  high  extra Levels 1,2, and 3 are used in normal conversation, while level 4 is used when the speaker is excited, emotional, or emphatic.
  • 22. Shift and Glide  Shift occurs when there is a movement from one tune to another that takes place between syllables.  Glide happens when the voice slides from one tune to another while a syllable is spoken.
  • 23. Basic Intonation Patterns  Rising-Falling  Rising Intonation or 2-3-1 Intonation or 2-3-3  Falling Intonation or 3-1  Non-Final Intonation or 2-3-2  Extra-High Pitch or 4