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GLOBAL PROBLEMS
WATER
By: James Prae Liclican
WATER
Covers 70% of the Earths surface.

97% is salt water.
3% is fresh water
Water like any other Resources
are Renewable...
WATER RESOURCES
Are sources of water that are
useful to humans.

Water demand already exceeds
supply in many parts of the
...
WATER RESOURCES

Surface waters can be used by
Surface water
Men but the usefulness of it
depends on some factors

 are

...
Sub-surface water or Groundwater
is fresh water located in the pore space of soil and rocks.
The natural input to sub-surf...
Frozen Water
Several schemes have
been proposed to
make use of icebergs
as a water source,
however to date this
has only b...
Desalination
Desalination is an
artificial process by
which saline water
(generally sea
water) is converted
to fresh water...
Water Governance In Africa.
 Water governance is defined by the political, social,
economic and administrative systems th...
WATER IS AFFECTED BY
WEATHER AND CLIMATE.
Water Scarcity In the Society
By The annual evaporation and precipitation of
wat...
Causes of
Water scarcity

1. Population-The population is ever
growing, so does the need of clean fresh
water.
2. Sanitati...
Water scarcity

Pollution and sanitation
Rural
home
s

NONPOINT
SOURCES

Croplan
d
Animal
feedlot

Urban
streets

Factor
y

Suburban
Developme
nt

Sources of
water...
Hypoxia

Eutrophication An

•A phenomenon that occurs in aquatic environments
as dissolved oxygen (DO; molecular oxygen
di...
Industry
Nitrogen oxides from autos
and smokestacks; toxic
chemicals, and heavy
metals in effluents flow
into bays and est...
Marine Debris
•Human-created waste that has
deliberately or accidentally become
afloat in a lake, sea, ocean or
waterway. ...
Ship
Pollution








Spills from oil tankers and
tanker
chemical
s
Ejection of sulphur dioxide,
dioxide and carbon d...
Surface Runoff

Thermal Pollution

•Surface runoff can be generated
either by rainfall or by the melting of
snow or glacie...
Urbanization and Surface Run Off
¨ Urbanization increases surface runoff,
by creating more impervious surfaces
such as pav...
Waste Water Viral Infections
Bacterial Infections
Protozoan Infections
Parasitic Infections

SANITATION
Here are some of the
most popular
actions by the
Governments
around the world…
Clean water act of 1972
Regulates the disch...
Agricultural: It is estimated that 69% of worldwide
water use is for irrigation, with 15-35% of irrigation
withdrawals bei...
Household: It is
estimated that 15% of
worldwide water use is
for household purposes.
These include drinking
water, bathin...
Saving water tips.

Brushing Teeth and Washing Dishes
• DO NOT keep water running while brushing your teeth/ doing
the dis...
Data resource
Anemé Malan, anemem@statssa.gov.za, www.statssa.gov.za. For African water profile
Weather app for windows 8 ...
Enjoy the rest of the
day!!!

THANKS
FOR YOUR
COOPERATION!!!
Global problems
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  • We already know about this things as discussed by my group mates the previous meetings… but what you might not know is that the total volume of our hydrosphere as shown in the screen…
  • Renewable means itself. It can be replenished and back to its natural state., but like the other resources they are renewed but these resources become critical and most unlikely useable because they are being polluted…
  • These are the most popular water resources that we know… but just like in the previous slide., rivers and lakes are at its lowest, we find these water resources to be only .3% of the total volume of the hydrosphere…
  • These ground waters are also divided into many segments, most of them are found far a way from the surface for reach, and also waters from the surface to reach it. It takes years and even centuries for surface water to reach he ground water to fill it….The natural outputs are the springs and underground rivers reaching the sea.
  • We really can use frozen water, but to take at least a bucket of fresh water from it, it would take more energy and money… but in some part of Alaska, they use these water from ice through the water runoff, or ice from mountains melted and brought down to the mainstreams or rivers…
  • I heard also that in some part of Saudi they really do extract fresh water from the sea, through this process, desalination… if you'd like to find out more, please do a research,.
  • Open weather app and compare weather and climate.
  • Just like what I shown you from the weather app, weather affects the daily availability of water, if there was a typhoon most likely there will be so much water, but it will be risky for drinking, dams will collect it and it will be treated first before use, while in climate, it talks abut the average and expected weather, the government then facilitate the water resource and it will be there task to manage… like el Niño, they know there will be droughts, that’s why they will control the dams to lower their outputs for future use.Water scarcity It talks about the availability and the sanitation of water.
  • Population talks about demand, or the economic scarcitySanitation is the pollution or the effects of it.Climate change is our task to conserve.
  • As you can see these are the sources of water pollution, which also affects the quality of water and its cleanliness or sanitation.
  • Read last animation for explanation
  • As you can see in the diagram the effects of point sources and non-point sources, the eutrophication and hypoxia.
  • Marine debris are seen in the usual fresh water environment, and marine pollutions and the entries of marine debris and point and non-point sources, either chemically or physical pollution, which are directed to pollute the ocean or the seas…
  • Among the pollution of water, sanitation is also considered in the governance of water towards its scarcity, of Couse when pollution occurs so does the sanitation or the water quality is affected, here are some infections…
  • To combat these pollution and sanitation issues, government do actions and…. Read on!!!As you can see, after the sewage from houses are gathered they are treated in so many processes before it can be used again… or can be usable for consumption…. Speaking of consumption, here is the safe drinking act… see, from Delaware water or treated sewage water, its treated again for drinking, before it can be distributed in to houses…
  • Uses of water not just household also includes… read on!!!
  • Off Couse, we can use water anyway we like but, to be more human… or wit care, we should also save… for the ever decreasing amount of sustainable water for the ever growing population… here are some… and remember the water restriction….. Reduce your water use..
  • Transcript of "Global problems"

    1. 1. GLOBAL PROBLEMS WATER By: James Prae Liclican
    2. 2. WATER Covers 70% of the Earths surface. 97% is salt water. 3% is fresh water Water like any other Resources are Renewable. But 2% of the total Fresh water is frozen and only 1% remains sustainable and are mostly found under ground
    3. 3. WATER RESOURCES Are sources of water that are useful to humans. Water demand already exceeds supply in many parts of the world and as the world population continues to rise, so too does the water demand. The uses of water includes agricultural, industrial, household, recreational and environmental activities. all of these require fresh water. Fresh water is renewable resource just like soil and air. The world is supplied by clean and fresh water and it is decreasing. Water is one of our most critical resources, but around the world it is under threat.
    4. 4. WATER RESOURCES Surface waters can be used by Surface water Men but the usefulness of it depends on some factors  are found in rivers, lakes or fresh of the water depends Quantitywater wetlands. on the storage capacity of the lakes, wetlands and artificial reservoirs It is naturally replenished  Quality depends on the by precipitation and naturally lost permeability of the soil, through the discharge to the runoff characteristics of the the oceans, the precipitation land, the timing ofevaporation, evapotrans and local evaporation rates. piration and sub-surface seepage. All of these factors affect the usefulness of the water
    5. 5. Sub-surface water or Groundwater is fresh water located in the pore space of soil and rocks. The natural input to sub-surface water is the seepage from the surface water. The natural outputs from sub-surface water are springs and seepage to the oceans
    6. 6. Frozen Water Several schemes have been proposed to make use of icebergs as a water source, however to date this has only been done for novelty purposes. Glacier runoff is considered to be surface water.
    7. 7. Desalination Desalination is an artificial process by which saline water (generally sea water) is converted to fresh water.
    8. 8. Water Governance In Africa.  Water governance is defined by the political, social, economic and administrative systems that are in place, and which directly or indirectly affect the use, development and management of water resources and the delivery of water service delivery at different levels of society. Importantly, the water sector is a part of broader social, political and economic developments and is thus also affected by decisions outside of the water sector. Other illustrations of Water Governance
    9. 9. WATER IS AFFECTED BY WEATHER AND CLIMATE. Water Scarcity In the Society By The annual evaporation and precipitation of water water to meet the demand. Economic Scarcity is the Lack of Lack of safe access to fresh water. Quantity or Economic Scarcity and the Quality or Physical scarcity. Governance of Water in utilizing the precious amount of water resource and finding more water resource to sustain the society. Physical scarcity is the limited access of the society to clean water
    10. 10. Causes of Water scarcity 1. Population-The population is ever growing, so does the need of clean fresh water. 2. Sanitation-Pollution affects the overall cleanliness of the bodies of water. 3. Climate Change-People need to take action by making a change, by conservation!
    11. 11. Water scarcity Pollution and sanitation
    12. 12. Rural home s NONPOINT SOURCES Croplan d Animal feedlot Urban streets Factor y Suburban Developme nt Sources of water pollutions are: Agricultural Activities (non-point sources) Housing Developments (nonpoint sources) Industrial Facilities (point-sources) Waste water treatment plant Point source s WATER POLLUTION Sources of water pollution
    13. 13. Hypoxia Eutrophication An •A phenomenon that occurs in aquatic environments as dissolved oxygen (DO; molecular oxygen dissolved in the water) becomes reduced in concentration to a point detrimental to aquatic organisms living in the system. •Oxygen depletion can be the result of a number of factors including natural ones, but is of most concern as a consequence of pollution and eutrophication in which plant nutrients enter a river, lake, or ocean, phytoplankton blooms are encouraged. increase in chemical nutrients — compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus — in an ecosystem, and may occur on land or in water. However, the term is often used to mean the resultant increase in the ecosystem's primary productivity (excessive plant growth and decay), and further effects including lack of oxygen and severe reductions in water quality, fish, and other animal populations. kill beneficial sea grasses, use up Eutrophication- is the increase in chemical nutrients… Too much nutrients means more food for plants to grow and in time more decay or decomposition, which will again mean to more nutrients which will not suitable a phenomena occurring in water Hypoxia- is for animal populations. SANITATI POLLUTION ON environment where oxygen is being depleted.
    14. 14. Industry Nitrogen oxides from autos and smokestacks; toxic chemicals, and heavy metals in effluents flow into bays and estuaries. Cities Toxic metals and oil from streets and parking lots pollute waters; sewage adds nitrogen and phosphorus. Urban sprawl Bacteria and viruses from sewers and septic tanks contaminate shellfish beds and close beaches; runoff of fertilization from lawns adds nitrogen and phosphorus. Closed beach Construction sites Sediments are washed into waterways, choking fish and plants, clouding waters, and blocking sunlight. Farms Run off of pesticides, manure, and fertilizers adds toxins and excess nitrogen and phosphorus. Red tides Excess nitrogen causes explosive growth of toxic microscopic algae, poisoning fish and marine mammals. Closed shellfish beds Oxygen-depleted zone Toxic sediments Chemicals and toxic metals contaminate shellfish beds, kill spawning fish, and accumulate in the tissues of bottom feeders. Healthy zone Clear, oxygen -rich waters promote growth of plankton and sea grasses, and support fish. Oxygen-depleted zone Sedimentation and algae overgrowth reduce sunlight, oxygen, and degrade habitat.
    15. 15. Marine Debris •Human-created waste that has deliberately or accidentally become afloat in a lake, sea, ocean or waterway. Oceanic debris tends to accumulate at the centre of gyres and on coastlines, frequently washing aground, when it is known as beach litter. •Plastic bags, balloons, buoys, rope, medical waste, glass bottles and plastic bottles, cigarette lighters, beverage cans, Styrofoam, lost fishing line and nets, and various wastes from cruise ships and oil rigs are among the items commonly found. Pollution Marine Pollution •Entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles, industrial, agricultural and residential waste, or the spread of invasive organisms. •Most sources of marine pollution are land based. The pollution often comes from nonpoint sources such as agricultural runoff and wind blown debris. •Many potentially toxic chemicals adhere to tiny particles which are then taken up by plankton and benthos animals, most of which are either deposit or filter feeders. •Toxins are concentrated upward (bio magnification) within ocean food chains.
    16. 16. Ship Pollution     Spills from oil tankers and tanker chemical s Ejection of sulphur dioxide, dioxide and carbon dioxide gases into nitrogen the atmosphere from exhaust fumes. Discharge of cargo residues from bulk carriers can pollute ports, waterways and oceans. Noise pollution that disturbs natural •Water from ballast tanks can spread harmful algae and other invasive species. Ocean Acidification •The ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. •Human activities such as land-use changes, the combustion of fossil fuels, and the production of cement have led to a new flux of CO2 into the atmosphere. •Dissolving CO2 in seawater also increases the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration in the ocean, and thus decreases ocean ph. Change in sea surface pH caused by anthropogenic CO2 between the 1700s and the 1990s.
    17. 17. Surface Runoff Thermal Pollution •Surface runoff can be generated either by rainfall or by the melting of snow or glaciers. •It is the water flow which occurs when soil is infiltrated to full capacity and excess water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources flows over the land. This is a major component of the water cycle. •When runoff flows along the ground, it can pick up soil contaminants such as petroleum, pesticides (in particular herbicides and insecticides), or fertilizers that become discharge or nonpoint source Runoff flowing into a storm water drain. pollution. •The rise or fall in the temperature of a natural body of water caused by human influence. •A common cause is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. •Warm water typically decreases the level of dissolved oxygen in the water . The decrease in levels of DO can harm aquatic animals. •May also increase the metabolic rate of aquatic animals, as enzyme activity, resulting in these organisms consuming more food.
    18. 18. Urbanization and Surface Run Off ¨ Urbanization increases surface runoff, by creating more impervious surfaces such as pavement and buildings, that do not allow percolation of the water down through the soil to the aquifer. It is instead forced directly into streams or storm water runoff drains, where erosionndsiltationan be major a c problems, even when flooding is not. Increased runoff reduces groundwater water table recharge, thus lowering the and making droughts worse, especially for farmers and others who depend on water wells. Water Stagnation •Occurs when water stops flowing. •Malaria and dengue are among the main dangers of stagnant water, which can become a breeding ground for the mosquitoes that transmit these diseases.
    19. 19. Waste Water Viral Infections Bacterial Infections Protozoan Infections Parasitic Infections SANITATION
    20. 20. Here are some of the most popular actions by the Governments around the world… Clean water act of 1972 Regulates the discharge of Industrial facilities and farms. Regulates Sewage treatment and maintains the physical, chemical and biological integrity of water Safe Drinking act 0f 1974 Regulates Plumbing for distribution and regulated the Drinking Water treatment Process.
    21. 21. Agricultural: It is estimated that 69% of worldwide water use is for irrigation, with 15-35% of irrigation withdrawals being unsustainable. Aquaculture is a small but growing agricultural use of water. •Industrial: It is estimated that 15% of worldwide water use is industrial. The distribution of industrial water usage that is varies widely, but as a whole is lower than agricultural use. Uses of water
    22. 22. Household: It is estimated that 15% of worldwide water use is for household purposes. These include drinking water, bathing, cooking, sanitation, and gardening. Environmental: Explicit environmental water use is also a very small but growing percentage of total water use. • Recreational water: use is usually a very small but growing percentage of total water use. Recreational water use is mostly tied to reservoirs.
    23. 23. Saving water tips. Brushing Teeth and Washing Dishes • DO NOT keep water running while brushing your teeth/ doing the dishes. If Its Yellow, Let it Mellow. If Its Brown, Flush it Down • Some people are bothered by this, but it is essential. Every time you flush the toilet, you waste 10 gallons of water. Bath time! • Bath time is no longer Fun time. It wastes an unnecessary amount of water. an average shower uses 1/5 the amount of water that is needed for a bath! Using the Toilet as a Garbage Can • Do Not Do This! Throw out everything in a garbage can, even if it is tempting to just throw it in the toilet. Hot Water • Only use hot water when absolutely necessary. Hot water uses a lot more energy, and it isn’t always necessary Turn off the tap when you brush your teeth. Check your faucets and toilets for leaks. Take shorter showers.
    24. 24. Data resource Anemé Malan, anemem@statssa.gov.za, www.statssa.gov.za. For African water profile Weather app for windows 8 modern: presentation of weather and climate, world and Philippines Slideshare for powerpoint and word files used as data basis resource WWF understanding water risks pdf file used as basis and picture resource Wikipedia water problems search string http://www.africanwater.org/drought_water_scarcity.htm http://www.arlingtoninstitute.org/wbp/global-water-crisis/606 http://thewaterproject.org/water-in-crisis-india.asp http://www.unesco.org http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/water/e
    25. 25. Enjoy the rest of the day!!! THANKS FOR YOUR COOPERATION!!!
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