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    EMBEDDED SYSTEMS 1 EMBEDDED SYSTEMS 1 Presentation Transcript

    • Embedded System Design and Development Introduction to Embedded System
    • Embedded Systems
      • Embedded - Fix firmly in a surrounding areas
      • System - Set of connected things
    • Embedded systems Embedded System is a combination of hardware and software used to achieve a single specific task. Embedded systems are computer systems that monitor, respond to, or control an external environment. Environment connected to systems through sensors , actuators and other I/O interfaces. Embedded system must meet timing & other constraints imposed on it by environment
    • The Essence An embedded system is a microcontroller-based, software driven, reliable, real-time control system, autonomous, or human or network interactive, operating on diverse physical variables and in diverse environments, and sold into a competitive and cost conscious market.
    • What an Embedded system is not ?
        • Not a computer system that is used primarily for processing
        • Not a software system on PC or Unix
        • Not a traditional business or scientific application
    • Applications
    • Characteristics
      • In-built Intelligence.
      • Immediate control of hardware.
      • Uses dedicated software.
      • Performs a specific function.
      • Their work is subject to deadlines.
      • Respond to external events.
      • Timeliness, Robustness/Safety
      • Processing power and Memory limitations
      • Program is stored in nonvolatile memory such that it can be executed on power up.
      • Mostly interactive with I/O devices in the real world.
      • Cope with all unusual conditions without human intervention
    • Categories
    • Classification
      • Real Time Systems
      • RTS is one which has to respond to events within a specified deadline
      • – A right answer after the dead line is a wrong answer
      • RTS are classified in to three categories
        • Hard Real Time Systems
        • Soft Real Time System
        • Firm Real Time System
      • Hard Real Time Systems
      • "Hard" real-time systems have very narrow response time
      • Example: Nuclear power system , Cardiac pacemaker.
      • Soft Real Time System
      • "Soft" real-time systems have reduced constrains on "lateness" but still must operate very quickly and repeatable.
      • Example: Railway reservation system – takes a few extra seconds the data remains valid.
      • Firm Real Time System
      • Firm deadliness are a combination of both hard and soft timeliness requirements.
    • Failure
      • Safety Critical
      • The failure of the system may lead to disastrous/ damage to safety of the system/environment. Example: Control Systems in Nuclear applications, Flight Control Systems, Life Monitoring Systems, etc.
      • Mission Critical
      • The failure may lead to non-accomplishment of the mission and the time spends will be wasted .The system had to run again to complete the missions. Example: Test Equipment
      • Non-critical
      • The failure does not have much impact. Example: Washing Machines, etc.
    • How are embedded systems different than traditional software ?
      • Responding to sensors (was this button pushed?)
      • Turning on actuators ( Turn on power to the boiler)
      • Real - Time (respond to temperature change within 3 seconds)
    • Differences between ES and traditional software development
      • Not dealing with only sequential code
      • Routine can stop at completion or in response to an external event
      • Many parts of system might be running concurrently
      • Safety- critical component of many systems
    • Embedded System Requirements
      • Types of requirements imposed by embedded applications:
          • R1 Functional Requirements
          • R2 Temporal Requirements
          • R3 Dependability requirements
    • R1 Functional Requirements
      • Data Collection
        • Sensor requirements
        • Signal conditioning
        • Alarm monitoring
      • Direct Digital Control
        • Actuators
      • Man-Machine Interaction
        • informs the operator of the current state of the controlled object
        • Assists the operator in controlling the system
    • R2 Temporal Requirements
      • Tasks may have deadlines
      • Minimal latency jitter
      • Minimal error detection latency
      • Timing requirements due to tight software control loops
      • Human interface requirements
    • R3 Dependability Requirements
      • Reliability
      • Safety
      • Maintainability
      • Availability
      • Security
    • Major components
      • Data Acquisition and processing
      • Communication
      • System logic and control algorithm
      • Interface
      • Auxiliary units
        • Display
        • Storage
        • Monitoring and protection
        • test and diagnosis
    • Design and Development
      • Cost
      • Processing power
      • Memory size and Cost
      • Number of units
      • Expected life time
      • Throughput
      • Response Time
      • Testability/Debugging
      • Program Installation
    • Languages used
      • C
      • C++
      • Java
      • Linux
      • Ada
      • Assembly
    • Embedded development tools
      • Host machine
      • Target machine
      • PROM Programmers
      • Simulators
      • In Circuit Emulator
      • In Circuit Debugger
      • Millimeters
      • Cathode Ray Oscilloscope
      • Logic analyzers