Refractory manufcturing,properties

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Refractory manufcturing,properties

  1. 1. Refractory manufacturingRefractory testingandRefractory propertiesPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  2. 2. What is refractory ?Is it a material which should withstand high temperature only ?The right definition is that it should withstand high temperature,resistance tothermal and thermo chemical load, posses high volume stability, resistant toerosion and abrasion, be tough , and resistant to chemical corrosionetc. Or otherwise it should have high RUL, high PCE, low conductivity , highhot MOR, high creep resistance and optimum CCS etcOverall it is a compromise with all the above properties.Choice of refractories depend on the operating and mechanicalconditions of the kiln.There is no refractory material which posses all the aboveproperties 100 %In general any material which in service > 600 deg C is called refractoryPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  3. 3. RefractoriesShaped refractories Unshaped refractories ormonolithicsAcid refractories Basic refractories Neutral refractoriesSilica basedrefractories, fire claybricksMagnesia, MagnesiaChromium , MagnesiaAlumina , DolomiteAlumino silicatesAlumina bricks,Zirconiabased refractories,like zirconal, zircon, etcPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  4. 4. Fire Claybricksrefractory clays Kaolins extended withchamotte or non plastic argillacious matterunwetted by water Al2O3 content = 30 to 45 %High aluminabricks1)Cyanite,andalusite,and siliminite2) natural hydratedalumina(hydrargillite,bohemite,and disaporecontained in bauxite)3)Artificial calcined hydrated alumina, andnatural and electro fused alumina( Alpha -alumina orClass A =45 - 60 % Al2O3Class B = 60 - 70 % Al2O3Class C = > 75 %Al2O3Silica bricks DinasMagnesiabricksMagnesit ( MgCO3), Dolomite( MgCO3.CaCO3), Mg(OH)2,Mgo Obtained fromdolomite,saline water and sea waterSpinel bricksMgO and Al2O3 together sintered or fusedMgO from sea water and alumina fromalumina industries ,alpha alumina etc)Raw materials used for manufacturing of bricksPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  5. 5. Acidic BasicneutralRaw material userPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  6. 6. ZrO2 Cr2O3CaOSiO2ZrSZircon silicate1775 O CA3S2mullite 1840 O CImportant mineral phases in refractoriesM2SForstrite1890 O CMCrPicro chromiteC2SBredigit 2130 O CCA6Hibonite1850 O CMA-spinel2135 O CMgOAl2O32180 O CPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  7. 7. Melting point of pure refractory oxide120014001600200022002400300028002600SiO2 Al2O3 Cr2O3 CaO ZrO2 MgO170220502275260027002800Deg cPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  8. 8. Classification of refractories regarding melting point and alkalinity12345678910111213143000275025002250200017501500melting pointDeg cpH valueCaoMgOAl2O3ZrO2Cr2O3SiO2basic neutral acidicPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  9. 9. Process flow chart for manufacturingComminutionpreparationclassificationmixingshapingdryingfiringPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  10. 10. SIC crystals ( Silicon carbide)PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  11. 11. ZrSiO4Zircon crystals ,ZrSiO4PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  12. 12. Refractory manufacturing processTunnel kiln Tunnel dryerTunnel carsFinished product storageBrick pressmachinesCoarsecrusherFinescrusherBall millstorageelevatorVibrating screenStorage silosclassifierClay crusherClay millDrying tower / classifier Binder & liquidsLiquid dosagePDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  13. 13. Refractory manufacturing processSchematic diagram of refractory manufacturingRoughcrushingRawmaterialmiddlecrushing distributionfinecrushingStorage byGrain sizeMeasuringquantitymixing mouldingdryingfiringinspection packingshippingPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  14. 14. Refractory clay mineOpencast miningUnder ground miningPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  15. 15. Cone crusherPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  16. 16. Hydraulic pressPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  17. 17. Iso static press machinePDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  18. 18. Tunnel dryerPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  19. 19. Tunnel kilnPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  20. 20. Important refractories used incement industryMagnesia containing bricks _ mag chrome, mag spinel,dolomite,hercynite, galaxitebased,zirconia basedHigh alumina bricks - 60 - 70 % Al2O3Fire clay bricks - 30 % Al2O3Light weight insulating bricksUnshaped refractories or castables - conventional,low cement castable,ultra low cement castables,insulation castablesPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  21. 21. Raw materials for Magnesia bricks are• Natural magnesite , MgCO3 , Coarse crystalline ,fine crystalline• Synthetic magnesia,sea water magnesia , salt brine• The principal constituent determining the characteristicproperties of magnesia refractories is periclaseProperties of periclase0 Melting point = 2800 deg . C0 Thermal conductivity = 3 - 4 w / mk0 Thermal expansion = 1.4 %Refractory products for the cement kilnPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  22. 22. • Magnesia bricks, MgO, > 80 %• Magnesia spinel bricks, MgO , 80 - 90 %• Magnesia hercynite bricks, MgO, 80 - 96 %• Magnesia Zirconia bricks MgO, 85 - 96 %• Magnesia chromite MgO, 55 - 80 %• Chromite bricks Cr2 O3=25%MgO = 25 %• Forsterite MgO and SiO2• Dolomite MgO = 60 % and CaO=40 %• Magnesia, galaxite bricks Mgo=91% ,and MnO=2.6%Basic bricks used in the cement industryPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  23. 23. Mineral Formula Abbreviation Fusiontemp ,Deg CPericlase MgO M 2800 deg CForsterite 2 MgO.SiO2 M2S 1890Monticellite CaO.MgO.SiO2 CMS 1495Merwinite 3 CaO.MgO.2SiO2 C3MS2 1575Dicalcium silicate 2CaO.SiO2 C2S 2130Magnesium ferrite MgO.Fe2O3 MF 1750Dicalcium ferrite 2 CaO.Fe2O3 C2F 1435Tri calcium silicate 3CaO.SiO2 C3S 1900Brown mellarite 4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3 C4AF 1395Dolomite CaO.MgO CM 2450Andalusite Al2O3.SiO2 ASMullite 3Al2O3.2SiO2 1840Siliminite Al2O3.SiO2 AS 1545Important refractory minerals used in refractoriesPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  24. 24. Andalusite Al2O3.SiO2 ASMullite 3Al2O3.2SiO2 1840Siliminite Al2O3.SiO2 AS 1545Corundum 2050Hercynite FeO.Al2O3 FA 1760Galaxite Mno.Al2O3 mAMagnesia aluminaSpinel MgO.Al2O3 MA 2135Gehelinite 2CaO.Al2O3.SiO2 C2AS 1590Calciumaluminate CaO,Al2O3 CA 1600Anorthite CaO.Al2O3.2SiO2 CAS2 1550Dicalciumferrite 2CaO.Fe2O3 C2F 1450Myenite 12CaO.7Al2O3 C12A7 1455Gehelinite 2CaO.Al2O3.SiO2 C2AS 1590Calciumaluminate CaO,Al2O3 CA 1600Anorthite CaO.Al2O3.2SiO2 CAS2 1550Dicalciumferrite 2CaO.Fe2O3 C2F 1450Myenite 12CaO.7Al2O3 C12A7 1455Important refractory materials used in refractoriesPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  25. 25. Major refractory bricks used in cement industries70 % Alumina bricksCooling zone ,burning zone,transition zone60 % Alumina bricks transition zone,calcining zone, t.a.duct,calciner, cooler area40-50 %Alumina bricks calcining zone, t.a.duct,calciner, cooler area30 % Alumina bricks t.a.duct, ,calciner, cooler area,pre-heatercyclonesMagnesia chrome bricksDolomite bricks Burning zoneMagesia spinel brickscooling zone,burning zone ,transition zoneHercynite ,nochromeGalaxite no chrome transition zoneLocation where it is usedType of brickPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  26. 26. Refractory propertiesPhysical properties1)Bulk density g / cm32)Apparent porosity %3)Cold crushing strength N/ mm2Thermal properties1)Refractoriness under load (RUL)OCtate2) PCE ( pyrometric cone equivalent)SK (Arton cone in ASTM standard)3)Thermal expansion ,lin % (PLC)at 4000c8000c12000cPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  27. 27. 4)Thermal shock resistance (TSR)at 9500 c in airorWater quenching cycles5) Thermal conductivity at3000c7000c10000cChemical analysisMgOAl2O3Cr2O3Fe2O3CaOSiO2ZrO2MnO2 etcPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  28. 28. 1. Bulk densityDensity of all refractories is an indirect measure of theircapacity to store heat.2. Apparent porosityThe porosity of a refractory is a measure of % pores to the( summation of open and closed pores)total weight ofa brick. This property is significant to decideupon its resistance to penetration by slags and fluxes ,itspermeability to gases and its thermal conductivityPorosity is controlled by the following1) by controlling the texture of the bricks2) by controlling the size of the particles3) by method of making4) by controlling the firing temperaturePhysical propertiesPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  29. 29. Porosity affects• the strength of thebrick• porous bricks aremechanically weak• lower porosity givesbetter resistance toslag attack• thermal conductivitypcpopopopopoPo –open poresPc –closed porespopcPcPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  30. 30. 3. Cold crushing strength ( CCS )Cold crushing strength of a refractory material represents itsstrength .In other words it tells us how much load it can bearin cold conditionThe mechanical strength (CCS) of refractory brick is governedlargely by the amount and the character of the matrix materialbetween the larger grains. Good tool to provide for evaluatingthe degree of bond formation during production. It indicates theability of the brick to withstand abrasion and impact in lowtemperature application.PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  31. 31. CCS testing machinePDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  32. 32. Cold crushing equipment and CCS valuesBrick grade CCS ( N / mm2)Silica 15 -20Fire clay 12 - 70Corundum 35 - 80Magnesia 50 - 110Magnesia chromite 30 - 70Magnesia spinel > 40Insulating Brick 3 - 20PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  33. 33. Density Coefficient of thermalconductivityThermalshockresistanceCold crushingstrengthPorosityCorrelation between the physical propertiesPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  34. 34. Thermal properties1.Refractoriness( fusion temperature or softening temp)Transition of a solid material into the liquid form underthe influence of heat. A true melting point is temperatureat which the solid and liquid phase of the compositionco-exist in equilibrium.It is the ability of a refractory to remain rigid at a giventemperature. It is an indirect indication of the amountand the viscosity of any liquid which it may contain.The reference samples are called seger cones inDIN standards and Norton cones in ASTM standards.Or PCE (pyrometric cone equivalent)PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  35. 35. Test sampleStandard samples12 345PCE test(pyro-metric coneequivalent)Plaque25 mm82 O8 mmPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  36. 36. Seger cones before and after firingPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  37. 37. Seger cone and reference temperaturePDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  38. 38. Determination of the softening behaviourunder temperature and loadThe three methods evolved are• Determination of the refractoriness under load• Determination of the refractoriness load ( diifferential)• Determination of the thermal expansion under load ( creep)PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  39. 39. Determination of refractoriness under load (RUL)Characteristic temperatures are Brick grade t a / O ct a : 0.3 mm compression from the Fire clay 1300 -1550temperature the temperature of Corundum 1600 - 1750highest expansion Silica > 1660( 0.6 % compression of test sample) Magnesia chromite > 1550t e : 10 mm compression from the Magnesia-hercynite 1600temperature of highest expansion Dolomite 1700(20 % compression of test sample) Magnesia spinel > 1700t b : temperature of breaking sample: Carbon brick non-softeningPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  40. 40. Curve example of refractoriness under loadDetermination of the refractoriness under load (differential)PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  41. 41. Determination of the thermal expansion underload ( creep)Curve example of Creep under loadPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  42. 42. Creep test equipmentsPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  43. 43. Refractoriness under loadThis is a measure of the resistance of a refractory bodyto the combined effects of heats of load.This test helpsto study the behavior of a refractory product whensubjected to a constant load under conditions ofprogressively rising temperature.The ground mass / matrix helps to bond the entire mass ofa refractory brick strongly together. The amount and thestrength of the glass is fixed by the alumina - silica ratio,fluxing oxide content and the temperature of firing.It is an important parameter to decide upon the safer limitof service temperature in a given situation.Contributing factors to the increased resistance to thepressure area) More thorough distribution of liquid throughout the brickb) The growth of crystals through the influence of heatc) Crystallization of a portion of the liquid during cooling.PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  44. 44. High temperature creepIn a brick held at constant temperature and pressure,gradual solution of solid material up to the limits of itssolubility in the liquid may cause some increase in theviscosity of the liquid. This increase is dependent onthe nature of ground mass, glass content. Higherglass content will result higher deformation in thissituation. This property of refractoriness is called hightemperature creep. Lower deformation will ensurerigidity under the service condition.The creep is the measurement of deformation of arefractory product as a function of time when it issubjected to a constant load and heated at a specifiedtemperature.PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  45. 45. RUL measuring equipmentCarbon or mullite rodinsulating brick liningCorundum, magnesiteor mullite tubeSteel casingMetal electrodeCoarse amorphouscarbonTest specimenView pointPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  46. 46. RUL testing machine and creep test machinePDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  47. 47. Creep curvesPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  48. 48. Softening under load0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800Pressure/extension(%)- 2- 10123Temperature o Cmagnesia zirconiamagnesia spinelMagnesiachromatedolomitePDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  49. 49. Creep measurement of various high alumina refractoriesunder 25 psi load at 2600 O F for 0 - 100 hoursLinearsubsidence-percent543210-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-100 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100Time(hrs)60 % alumina - low alkali70 % alumina50 % alumina85 % aluminaPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  50. 50. Linear expansion (Permanent linear change)High temperature reheat test maybe used to reveal1) if a brick has been fired long enoughor at a high temperature2) whether a brick has adequaterefractoriness and volume stabilityIt is expressed as a percentage ,preferably by the ratio of the lengthof the test piece after heating andthe original value of the lengthEquipments used todetermineThermal expansionPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  51. 51. 20 deg c1000 deg c2000 deg cL= 1000 mmL= 1013 mmL = 1026 mmMagnesia : Thermal expansion = + 1.3 % at 1000 degcAlumina oxide : Thermal expansion = + 0.8 % at 1000 degcFire clay Thermal expansion = + 0.5 % at 1000 degcThermal expansion or refractory materialsPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  52. 52. Thermal expansion curvesPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  53. 53. Thermal expansion is important in service , as the effect of expansion hasto be taken into account during refractory installation and construction oflarge installations ( expansion joints). The expansion curves of most ofrefractories is more or less linear with increasing temperature or reversible.PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  54. 54. Thermal shock resistance( spalling resistance)Thermal spalling results from stresses caused byunequal rates of expansion and contraction in differentparts of brick and usually associated with rapid changesof temperature.In cement rotary kiln the brick lining needs to bespalling resistant as the lining is subjected tocontinuation variation of temperature because ofrotary motion of kiln.TSR ( thermal shock resistance ) is given in cycles.Quenching is done by air or waterPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  55. 55. Equipments for thermalshock resistance testPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  56. 56. Thermal conductivityThe coefficient of thermal conductivity is defined as the quantity ofheat that flows across unit area in unit time if the temperaturegradient across this area is unity.Thermal conductivity K is given ask ( T1 - T2 ) At Kcal / hr - m - O C or BTU / hr -sq.ft - O FQ =d Q = amount of heatT1 = hot face temperatureT2 = cold face temperatureA = area cross sectiont = timed = thicknessThermal conductivity of a refractory decreases with increase in porosity.Increase and decrease of thermal conductivity at elevated temperaturealso depends on amount of glass, liquid and crystallinity of the material.PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  57. 57. 123465789 10111213 14200 400 600 800 1000 1200 deg c246810(w/km) Thermal conductivity offired refractory bricks1. Insulating refractory bricks2. Zirconia3. Dry- pressed fire clay4. Fused silica5. Forsterite6. Chromite7.Corundum 90 %8. Magnesia- chrome9.Zircon silicate.10. Corundum 99 %11. Carbon12.Silicon carbide 40%13. Magnesia14. Silicon carbidePDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  58. 58. Thermal conductivity dependson temperature , chemicaland mineralogical,composition of the brick ,porosity, pore size and brickfiring temperatureMaterial Thermal conductivityat 1000 O C (W/(m.K)Magnesia 4.4Magnesia chromite 2.5Magnesia –spinel 2.8Magnesia hercynite 2.6Alumina 3.0Insulating brick 0.6Iron 28.0Thermal conductivityPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  59. 59. The bending strength can becalculated by means of the equationσ bending = 3.F.l / (2.b.h2)l = distance between bladesb = width of sampleh= height of sampleIn order to determine the magnitude of the rupture stress ofrefractoies , the resistance to deformation under bending loadis measured.FPressure loadTensile loadDetermination of modulus of rupturesamplePDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  60. 60. Determination of hot modulus of rupture (HMOR)Structural configuration of the refractory material as well as theamount and properties of occurring melts characterize the HMORHMOR (N /mm2)Testing temperature (deg C) 1200 1400 1500Magnesia , low iron content > 14 11 8Magnesia , high iron content > 12 5 1Magnesia – Chromite > 10 5 3High alumina > 25 18 7Zirconia > 25 > 25 > 18PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  61. 61. Modulus of ruptureMOR testThe resistance to bending stress of refractory products provideinformation on their deformation behavior at high temperature.PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  62. 62. Hot MOR TestPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  63. 63. Principle of wedge splitting testPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  64. 64. Wedge splittingmachineGroovedsplitThe specific feature ofthis method of testing is thedetermination of fracturemechanical parameters athigher temperatures , up to1200 deg CPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  65. 65. Influence of of the aggregates on the secondaryload bearing capacity of the softening behaviorPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  66. 66. Chemical compositionBy quantifying all the constituents present in refractory, it ispossible to assess the chemical properties and melting behaviorof a given refractory.As it is important to know the % Al2O3 inhigh alumina brick, % MgO in magnesite brick , and % SiO2 insilica brick etc.,the determination of minor constituents hasalso been recognized as controlling factors in the performanceof many refractories. The chemical composition is of greatimportance with respect to attack by slag , glass melts , fluedusts and vapors. In general the principle applies that a brick ismore resistant the lower the rate of chemical reaction gradientbetween the slag and brick is. Therefore, where the acid slagis expected , acid bricks are preferably used , and basic brickswhere basic slag is expected.PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  67. 67. According to the behavior during contact reaction ,the following groups of bricks can be differentiated.Acid group - fused (99% SiO2), Silicon carbide bricks,Zircon crystobalite . Zircon silicateBasic group - dolomite, magnesia, magnesia chrome,chrome magnesia ,forsteriteInert or neutral - carbon , high alumina chromitegroupPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  68. 68. Cup corrosion testAlkali test of a high alumina brickwith K2CO3Alkali test of a sic containinghigh alumina brick with K2CO3PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  69. 69. Mineralogical investigations by X-ray diffractionDetermination of the mineral phases composition of materialX-ray diffraction diagram of a used magnesia –spinel brick grade ,salt infiltratedPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  70. 70. Microscopically techniques ( micrologies)• Light micoscopy ( transmitted light and reflected lightmicroscopy• Microprobe analysis ( WDS, EDS)• Scanning electron microscopyAdvantages of these micrlogies opposite other investigationmethods• Diagnosis of mineral phases composition in raw materials ,refractory products etc and their configuration( textural/ structural criterions, pore shape and size etcPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  71. 71. Mineralogical investigationsReflected light microscopyPictures of magnesia - spinel brick grades with different rawmaterial compositionPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  72. 72. Microprobe AnalysisChemical – mineralogical composition in m mBoundary between slag and corundum brickPolished section image(reflected light microscope)Back scattered electron image(microprobe)PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  73. 73. Mineralogical investigationsScanning electron microscopy (SEM)Hydration of Magnesia .crack formation ,caused byformation ofbrucite(Mg(OH)2PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  74. 74. Minerological investigationsPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  75. 75. Cont...Refractory Bricks PropertiesChem. Comp.BulkDensityApp.porosityCCS PCEThermexp.Therm.Condct.TSR (air)(%) (gm/cm3) (%) (N/mm2)ta(°C)tb(°C)s.cat 1200OC %(W/mK)at 1000OC(cyclesat 950OC)Ankral S65-(Mgchrome)M = 77- 80Cr = 7 - 9Al = 2 - 4F= 7 - 10C= 1 - 2S= 0.4 - 13.00 < 21 35 >1650 >1700 > 42 1.04 2.1 > 150Perilex -83 (Mgchrome)M=80 - 85Cr = 3 - 5A= 1 - 3F= 7 - 9C =2.5S = 1.52.9 - 3.05 17 - 19 55 1600 >1700 42 1.7 2.8 80Bazal Zextra(Mgchrome)M = 77Cr = 8A= 3F= 9.5C =1.6S = 0.63 19 55 1720 1.6 2.4 100Rexal Sextra(Spinelbricks)M = 87Cr = 0A= 11F < 0.5C < 1S < 0.32.93 17 50 >1740 1.7 2.9 >120RULPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  76. 76. Cont...Chem. Comp.BulkDensityApp.porosityCCS PCET hermexp.Therm.Condct.TSR (air)(%) (gm/cm3) (%) (N/mm2)ta(°C)ta(°C)s.cat1200OC %(W/mK)at 1000OC(cyclesat 950OC)Al mag -85(Spinelbricks)M = 85 - 89Cr = 0A= 9 - 12F < 0.5C < 1S < 0.52.85 - 3 16 - 18 50 >1700 >1700 > 42 1.4 2.8 >100Al mag -85 SLC(magnesia fusedspinelbricks)M = 85 - 90C r = 0A= 9 - 12F < 0.5C < 1.4S < 0.90.9 17 55 >1700 >1700 42 1.4 2.7 100Ankral R -19(Spinelbricks)M = 94Cr = 0A= 5F = 0.2C = 0.9S = 0.23 16 40 >1700 >1750 42 1.5 3 >101Ankral R -17(Spinelbricks)M = 86Cr = 0A= 12F = 0.5C = 0.7S = 0.22.95 16 >40 >1700 >1750 >42 1.49 2.6 >100RULPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  77. 77. Cont...Chem. Comp.BulkDensityApp.porosityCCS PCEThermexp.Therm.Condct.TSR (air)(%) (gm/cm3) (%) (N/mm2)ta(° C)tb (° C) s.cat1200OC %(W/mK)at 1000OC(cyclesat 950OC)AS - 90(Spinelbricks)M = 91- 94Cr = 0A= 5 - 7F = 0.5C = 0.8S = 0.22.9 17 >40 1700 2.9 >100Mag Pure- 93(Spinelbricks)M = 89-93A= 5 - 8Cr= 0F = 0.5C = 2S = 12.9 16 - 18 50 >1700 >1700 >42 1.5 2.9 100Mag Pure- 95(Spinelbricks)M = 93-96A= 3 - 5Cr= 0F =0.5C = 1S < 0.72.9 17 - 18 50 >1700 >1700 >42 1.6 3 100RefraMag -85(Spinelbricks)M =84-89A= 9 -12Cr= 0F =0.8C = 1.4S =0.92.9 17 -19 45 >1700 >1700 >42 1.4 2.7 100RULPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  78. 78. Chem.Comp.BulkDensityApp.porosityCCS PCEThermexp.Therm.Condct.TSR (air)(%) (gm/cm3) (%) (N/mm2)ta(° C)tb(° C)s.cat 1200OC %(W/mK)at 1000OC(cyclesat 950OC)Ferro Mag-90(Magnesia-hercynite)(Spinelbricks)M =87 - 92A= 4- 6Cr= 0F =3-5C = 1.5S =0.52.9 18 - 20 50 1600 >1600 42 1.5 2.6 100R -63(Magnesia-hercynite)(Spinelbricks)M =86A= 2.5Cr= 0F =8.2C = 1.8S =0.93.1 17 > 50 >1600 >1700 42 1.5 2.7 > 100Ankral X2(Magnesia-galaxite)M =91A= 3.5Cr= 0F =0.7C = 0MnO =2.62.98 15 90 > 1700 2.7 > 100VRW-70A = 70 %Fe2O3 = 3.52.65 23 > 55 1460 37 2 1.9 30VRW- Lofal70A = 70 %Fe2O3 = 2.52.65 23 > 55 1500 36 2.5 1.9 30RULPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
  79. 79. Thank youfor yourKind attentionPDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

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